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The Confidential Reasons for the Appearance of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu

In this chapter of the epic Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī has stressed that Lord Caitanya appeared for three principal purposes of His own. The first purpose was to relish the position of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, who is the prime reciprocator of transcendental love of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Lord Kṛṣṇa is the reservoir of transcendental loving transactions with Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. The subject of those loving transactions is the Lord Himself, and Rādhārāṇī is the object. Thus the subject, the Lord, wanted to relish the loving mellow in the position of the object, Rādhārāṇī.

The second reason for His appearance was to understand the transcendental mellow of Himself. Lord Kṛṣṇa is all sweetness. Rādhārāṇī’s attraction for Kṛṣṇa is sublime, and to experience that attraction and understand the transcendental sweetness of Himself, He accepted the mentality of Rādhārāṇī.

The third reason that Lord Caitanya appeared was to enjoy the bliss tasted by Rādhārāṇī. The Lord thought that undoubtedly Rādhārāṇī enjoyed His company and He enjoyed the company of Rādhārāṇī, but the exchange of transcendental mellow between the spiritual couple was more pleasing to Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī than to Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Rādhārāṇī felt more transcendental pleasure in the company of Kṛṣṇa than He could understand without taking Her position, but for Śrī Kṛṣṇa to enjoy in the position of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī was impossible because that position was completely foreign to Him. Kṛṣṇa is the transcendental male, and Rādhārāṇī is the transcendental female. Therefore, to know the transcendental pleasure of loving Kṛṣṇa, Lord Kṛṣṇa Himself appeared as Lord Caitanya, accepting the emotions and bodily luster of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.

Lord Caitanya appeared in order to fulfill these confidential desires, and also to preach the special significance of chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Hare Hare/ Hare Rāma, Hare Rāma, Rāma Rāma, Hare Hare and to answer the call of Advaita Prabhu. These were secondary reasons.

Śrī Svarūpa Dāmodara Gosvāmī was the principal figure among Lord Caitanya’s confidential devotees. The records of his diary have revealed these confidential purposes of the Lord. These revelations have been confirmed by the statements of Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī in his various prayers and poems.

This chapter also specifically describes the difference between lust and love. The transactions of Kṛṣṇa and Rādhā are completely different from material lust. Therefore the author has very clearly distinguished between them.

Text 1:
By the mercy of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu, even a foolish child can fully describe the real nature of Lord Kṛṣṇa, the enjoyer of the pastimes of Vraja, according to the vision of the revealed scriptures.
Text 2:
All glory to Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu! All glory to Lord Nityānanda! All glory to Śrī Advaita Ācārya! And all glory to all the devotees of Lord Caitanya!
Text 3:
I have described the meaning of the fourth verse. Now, O devotees, kindly hear the explanation of the fifth verse.
Text 4:
Just to explain the original verse, I shall first suggest its meaning.
Text 5:
I have given the essential meaning of the fourth verse: this incarnation [Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu] descends to propagate the chanting of the holy name and spread love of God.
Text 6:
Although this is true, this is but the external reason for the Lord’s incarnation. Please hear one other reason — the confidential reason — for the Lord’s appearance.
Text 7:
The scriptures proclaim that Lord Kṛṣṇa previously descended to take away the burden of the earth.
Text 8:
To take away this burden, however, is not the work of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The maintainer, Lord Viṣṇu, is the one who protects the universe.
Text 9:
But the time to lift the burden of the world mixed with the time for Lord Kṛṣṇa’s incarnation.
Text 10:
When the complete Supreme Personality of Godhead descends, all other incarnations of the Lord meet together within Him.
Texts 11-12:
Lord Nārāyaṇa, the four primary expansions [Vāsudeva, Saṅkarṣaṇa, Pradyumna and Aniruddha], Matsya and the other līlā incarnations, the yuga-avatāras, the manv-antara incarnations and as many other incarnations as there are — all descend in the body of Lord Kṛṣṇa. In this way the complete Supreme Godhead, Lord Kṛṣṇa Himself, appears.
Text 13:
At that time, therefore, Lord Viṣṇu is present in the body of Lord Kṛṣṇa, and Lord Kṛṣṇa kills the demons through Him.
Text 14:
Thus the killing of the demons is but secondary work. I shall now speak of the main reason for the Lord’s incarnation.
Texts 15-16:
The Lord’s desire to appear was born from two reasons: the Lord wanted to taste the sweet essence of the mellows of love of God, and He wanted to propagate devotional service in the world on the platform of spontaneous attraction. Thus He is known as supremely jubilant and as the most merciful of all.
Text 17:
[Lord Kṛṣṇa thought:] “All the universe is filled with the conception of My majesty, but love weakened by that sense of majesty does not satisfy Me.
Text 18:
“If one regards Me as the Supreme Lord and himself as a subordinate, I do not become subservient to his love, nor can it control Me.
Text 19:
“In whatever transcendental mellow My devotee worships Me, I reciprocate with him. That is My natural behavior.
Text 20:
“ ‘In whatever way My devotees surrender unto Me, I reward them accordingly. Everyone follows My path in all respects, O son of Pṛthā.’
Texts 21-22:
“If one cherishes pure loving devotion to Me, thinking of Me as his son, his friend or his beloved, regarding himself as great and considering Me his equal or inferior, I become subordinate to him.
Text 23:
“ ‘Devotional service rendered to Me by the living beings revives their eternal life. O My dear damsels of Vraja, your affection for Me is your good fortune, for it is the only means by which you have obtained My favor.’
Text 24:
“Mother sometimes binds Me as her son. She nourishes and protects Me, thinking Me utterly helpless.
Text 25:
“My friends climb on My shoulders in pure friendship, saying, ‘What kind of big man are You? You and I are equal.’
Text 26:
“If My beloved consort reproaches Me in a sulky mood, that steals My mind from the reverent hymns of the Vedas.
Texts 27-28:
“Taking these pure devotees with Me, I shall descend and sport in various wonderful ways, unknown even in Vaikuṇṭha. I shall broadcast such pastimes by which even I am amazed.
Text 29:
“The influence of yogamāyā will inspire the gopīs with the sentiment that I am their paramour.
Text 30:
“Neither the gopīs nor I shall notice this, for our minds will always be entranced by one another’s beauty and qualities.
Text 31:
“Pure attachment will unite us even at the expense of moral and religious duties [dharma]. Destiny will sometimes bring us together and sometimes separate us.
Text 32:
“I shall taste the essence of all these rasas, and in this way I shall favor all the devotees.
Text 33:
“Then, by hearing about the pure love of the residents of Vraja, devotees will worship Me on the path of spontaneous love, abandoning all rituals of religiosity and fruitive activity.”
Text 34:
“Kṛṣṇa manifests His eternal humanlike form and performs His pastimes to show mercy to the devotees. Having heard such pastimes, one should engage in service to Him.”
Text 35:
Here the use of the verb “bhavet,” which is in the imperative mood, tells us that this certainly must be done. Noncompliance would be abandonment of duty.
Texts 36-37:
Just as these desires are the fundamental reason for Kṛṣṇa’s appearance whereas destroying the demons is only an incidental necessity, so for Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, promulgating the dharma of the age is incidental.
Text 38:
When the Lord desired to appear for another reason, the time for promulgating the religion of the age also arose.
Text 39:
Thus with two intentions the Lord appeared with His devotees and tasted the nectar of prema with the congregational chanting of the holy name.
Text 40:
Thus He spread kīrtana even among the untouchables. He wove a wreath of the holy name and prema, with which He garlanded the entire material world.
Text 41:
In this way, assuming the sentiment of a devotee, He preached devotional service while practicing it Himself.
Text 42:
Four kinds of devotees are the receptacles of the four kinds of mellows in love of God, namely servitude, friendship, parental affection and conjugal love.
Text 43:
Each kind of devotee feels that his sentiment is the most excellent, and thus in that mood he tastes great happiness with Lord Kṛṣṇa.
Text 44:
But if we compare the sentiments in an impartial mood, we find that the conjugal sentiment is superior to all others in sweetness.
Text 45:
“Increasing love is experienced in various tastes, one above another. But that love which has the highest taste in the gradual succession of desire manifests itself in the form of conjugal love.”
Text 46:
Therefore I call it madhura-rasa. It has two further divisions, namely wedded and unwedded love.
Text 47:
There is a great increase of mellow in the unwedded conjugal mood. Such love is found nowhere but in Vraja.
Text 48:
This mood is unbounded in the damsels of Vraja, but among them it finds its perfection in Śrī Rādhā.
Text 49:
Her pure, mature love surpasses that of all others. Her love is the cause of Lord Kṛṣṇa’s tasting the sweetness of the conjugal relationship.
Text 50:
Therefore Lord Gaurāṅga, who is Śrī Hari Himself, accepted the sentiments of Rādhā and thus fulfilled His own desires.
Text 51:
“Lord Caitanya is the shelter of the demigods, the goal of the Upaniṣads, the be-all and end-all of the great sages, the beautiful shelter of His devotees, and the essence of the love of the lotus-eyed gopīs. Will He again be the object of my vision?”
Text 52:
“Lord Kṛṣṇa desired to taste the limitless nectarean mellows of the love of one of His multitude of loving damsels [Śrī Rādhā], and so He has assumed the form of Lord Caitanya. He has tasted that love while hiding His own dark complexion with Her effulgent yellow color. May that Lord Caitanya confer upon us His grace.”
Text 53:
To accept ecstatic love is the main reason He appeared and reestablished the religious system for this age. I shall now explain that reason. Everyone please listen.
Text 54:
Having first given hints about the verse describing the principal reason why the Lord appeared, now I shall manifest its full meaning.
Text 55:
“The loving affairs of Śrī Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa are transcendental manifestations of the Lord’s internal pleasure-giving potency. Although Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa are one in Their identity, They separated Themselves eternally. Now these two transcendental identities have again united, in the form of Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya. I bow down to Him, who has manifested Himself with the sentiment and complexion of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī although He is Kṛṣṇa Himself.”
Text 56:
Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa are one and the same, but They have assumed two bodies. Thus They enjoy each other, tasting the mellows of love.
Text 57:
Now, to enjoy rasa, They have appeared in one body as Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
Text 58:
Therefore I shall first delineate the position of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. From that description the glory of Lord Caitanya will be known.
Text 59:
Śrīmatī Rādhikā is the transformation of Kṛṣṇa’s love. She is His internal energy called hlādinī.
Text 60:
That hlādinī energy gives Kṛṣṇa pleasure and nourishes His devotees.
Text 61:
Lord Kṛṣṇa’s body is eternal [sat], full of knowledge [cit] and full of bliss [ānanda]. His one spiritual energy manifests three forms.
Text 62:
Hlādinī is His aspect of bliss; sandhinī, of eternal existence; and samvit, of cognizance, which is also accepted as knowledge.
Text 63:
“O Lord, You are the support of everything. The three attributes hlādinī, sandhinī and samvit exist in You as one spiritual energy. But the material modes, which cause happiness, misery and mixtures of the two, do not exist in You, for You have no material qualities.”
Text 64:
The essential portion of the sandhinī potency is śuddha-sattva. Lord Kṛṣṇa’s existence rests upon it.
Text 65:
Kṛṣṇa’s mother, father, abode, house, bedding, seats and so on are all transformations of śuddha-sattva.
Text 66:
“The condition of pure goodness [śuddha-sattva], in which the Supreme Personality of Godhead is revealed without any covering, is called vasudeva. In that pure state the Supreme Godhead, who is beyond the material senses and who is known as Vāsudeva, is perceived by my mind.”
Text 67:
The essence of the samvit potency is knowledge that the Supreme Personality of Godhead is Lord Kṛṣṇa. All other kinds of knowledge, such as the knowledge of Brahman, are its components.
Text 68:
The essence of the hlādinī potency is love of God, the essence of love of God is emotion [bhāva], and the ultimate development of emotion is mahābhāva.
Text 69:
Śrī Rādhā Ṭhākurāṇī is the embodiment of mahābhāva. She is the repository of all good qualities and the crest jewel among all the lovely consorts of Lord Kṛṣṇa.
Text 70:
“Of these two gopīs [Rādhārāṇī and Candrāvalī], Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is superior in all respects. She is the embodiment of mahābhāva, and She surpasses all in good qualities.”
Text 71:
Her mind, senses and body are steeped in love for Kṛṣṇa. She is Kṛṣṇa’s own energy, and She helps Him in His pastimes.
Text 72:
“I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, who resides in His own realm, Goloka, with Rādhā, who resembles His own spiritual figure and who embodies the ecstatic potency [hlādinī]. Their companions are Her confidantes, who embody extensions of Her bodily form and who are imbued and permeated with ever-blissful spiritual rasa.”
Text 73:
Now please listen to how Lord Kṛṣṇa’s consorts help Him taste rasa and how they help in His pastimes.
Texts 74-75:
The beloved consorts of Lord Kṛṣṇa are of three kinds: the goddesses of fortune, the queens, and the milkmaids of Vraja, who are the foremost of all. These consorts all proceed from Rādhikā.
Text 76:
Just as the fountainhead, Lord Kṛṣṇa, is the cause of all incarnations, so Śrī Rādhā is the cause of all these consorts.
Text 77:
The goddesses of fortune are partial manifestations of Śrīmatī Rādhikā, and the queens are reflections of Her image.
Text 78:
The goddesses of fortune are Her plenary portions, and they display the forms of vaibhava-vilāsa. The queens are of the nature of Her vaibhava-prakāśa.
Text 79:
The Vraja-devīs have diverse bodily features. They are Her expansions and are the instruments for expanding rasa.
Text 80:
Without many consorts, there is not such exultation in rasa. Therefore there are many manifestations of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī to assist in the Lord’s pastimes.
Text 81:
Among them are various groups of consorts in Vraja who have varieties of sentiments and mellows. They help Lord Kṛṣṇa taste all the sweetness of the rāsa dance and other pastimes.
Text 82:
Rādhā is the one who gives pleasure to Govinda, and She is also the enchantress of Govinda. She is the be-all and end-all of Govinda, and the crest jewel of all His consorts.
Text 83:
“The transcendental goddess Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is the direct counterpart of Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa. She is the central figure for all the goddesses of fortune. She possesses all the attractiveness to attract the all-attractive Personality of Godhead. She is the primeval internal potency of the Lord.”
Text 84:
“Devī” means “resplendent and most beautiful.” Or else it means “the lovely abode of the worship and love sports of Lord Kṛṣṇa.”
Text 85:
“Kṛṣṇa-mayī” means “one whose within and without are Lord Kṛṣṇa.” She sees Lord Kṛṣṇa wherever She casts Her glance.
Text 86:
Or “kṛṣṇa-mayī” means that She is identical with Lord Kṛṣṇa, for She embodies the mellows of love. The energy of Lord Kṛṣṇa is identical with Him.
Text 87:
Her worship [ārādhana] consists of fulfilling the desires of Lord Kṛṣṇa. Therefore the Purāṇas call Her Rādhikā.
Text 88:
“Truly the Personality of Godhead has been worshiped by Her. Therefore Lord Govinda, being pleased, has brought Her to a lonely spot, leaving us all behind.”
Text 89:
Therefore Rādhā is parama-devatā, the supreme goddess, and She is worshipable for everyone. She is the protectress of all, and She is the mother of the entire universe.
Text 90:
I have already explained the meaning of “sarva-lakṣmī.” Rādhā is the original source of all the goddesses of fortune.
Text 91:
Or “sarva-lakṣmī” indicates that She fully represents the six opulences of Kṛṣṇa. Therefore She is the supreme energy of Lord Kṛṣṇa.
Text 92:
The word “sarva-kānti” indicates that all beauty and luster rest in Her body. All the lakṣmīs derive their beauty from Her.
Text 93:
“Kānti” may also mean “all the desires of Lord Kṛṣṇa.” All the desires of Lord Kṛṣṇa rest in Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.
Text 94:
Śrīmatī Rādhikā fulfills all the desires of Lord Kṛṣṇa. This is the meaning of “sarva-kānti.”
Text 95:
Lord Kṛṣṇa enchants the world, but Śrī Rādhā enchants even Him. Therefore She is the supreme goddess of all.
Text 96:
Śrī Rādhā is the full power, and Lord Kṛṣṇa is the possessor of full power. The two are not different, as evidenced by the revealed scriptures.
Text 97:
They are indeed the same, just as musk and its scent are inseparable, or as fire and its heat are nondifferent.
Text 98:
Thus Rādhā and Lord Kṛṣṇa are one, yet They have taken two forms to enjoy the mellows of pastimes.
Texts 99-100:
To promulgate prema-bhakti [devotional service in love of Godhead], Kṛṣṇa appeared as Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya with the mood and complexion of Śrī Rādhā. Thus I have explained the meaning of the fifth verse.
Text 101:
To explain the sixth verse, I shall first give a hint of its meaning.
Text 102:
The Lord came to propagate saṅkīrtana. That is an external purpose, as I have already indicated.
Text 103:
There is a principal cause for Lord Kṛṣṇa’s appearance. It grows from His own engagements as the foremost enjoyer of loving exchanges.
Text 104:
That most confidential cause is threefold. Svarūpa Dāmodara has revealed it.
Text 105:
Svarūpa Gosāñi is the most intimate associate of the Lord. He therefore knows all these topics well.
Text 106:
The heart of Lord Caitanya is the image of Śrī Rādhikā’s emotions. Thus feelings of pleasure and pain arise constantly therein.
Text 107:
In the final portion of His pastimes, Lord Caitanya was obsessed with the madness of separation from Lord Kṛṣṇa. He acted in erroneous ways and talked deliriously.
Text 108:
Just as Rādhikā went mad at the sight of Uddhava, so Lord Caitanya was obsessed day and night with the madness of separation.
Text 109:
At night He talked incoherently in grief with His arms around Svarūpa Dāmodara’s neck. He spoke out His heart in ecstatic inspiration.
Text 110:
Whenever a particular sentiment arose in His heart, Svarūpa Dāmodara satisfied Him by singing songs or reciting verses of the same nature.
Text 111:
To analyze these pastimes is not necessary now. Later I shall describe them in detail.
Text 112:
Formerly in Vraja Lord Kṛṣṇa displayed three ages, namely childhood, boyhood and adolescence. His adolescence is especially significant.
Text 113:
Parental affection made His childhood fruitful. His boyhood was successful with His friends.
Text 114:
In youth He tasted the essence of rasa, fulfilling His desires in pastimes like the rāsa dance with Śrīmatī Rādhikā and the other gopīs.
Text 115:
In His youth Lord Kṛṣṇa made all three of His ages, and the entire universe, successful by His pastimes of amorous love like the rāsa dance.
Text 116:
“Lord Madhusūdana enjoyed His youth with pastimes on autumn nights in the midst of the jewellike milkmaids. Thus He dispelled all the misfortunes of the world.”
Text 117:
“Lord Kṛṣṇa made Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī close Her eyes in shame before Her friends by His words relating Their amorous activities on the previous night. Then He showed the highest limit of cleverness in drawing pictures of dolphins in various playful sports on Her breasts. In this way Lord Hari made His youth successful by performing pastimes in the bushes with Śrī Rādhā and Her friends.”
Text 118:
“O Paurṇamāsī, if Lord Hari had not descended in Mathurā with Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, this entire creation — and especially Cupid, the demigod of love — would have been useless.”
Texts 119-120:
Even though Lord Kṛṣṇa, the abode of all mellows, had previously in this way chewed the essence of the mellows of love, still He was unable to fulfill three desires, although He made efforts to taste them.
Text 121:
I shall explain His first desire. Kṛṣṇa says, “I am the primary cause of all rasas.
Text 122:
“I am the full spiritual truth and am made of full joy, but the love of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī drives Me mad.
Text 123:
“I do not know the strength of Rādhā’s love, with which She always overwhelms Me.
Text 124:
“The love of Rādhikā is My teacher, and I am Her dancing pupil. Her prema makes Me dance various novel dances.”
Text 125:
“O my beloved friend Vṛndā, where are you coming from?”
Text 126:
“Whatever pleasure I get from tasting My love for Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, She tastes ten million times more than Me by Her love.
Text 127:
“Just as I am the abode of all mutually contradictory characteristics, so Rādhā’s love is always full of similar contradictions.
Text 128:
“Rādhā’s love is all-pervading, leaving no room for expansion. But still it is expanding constantly.
Text 129:
“There is certainly nothing greater than Her love. But Her love is devoid of pride. That is the sign of its greatness.
Text 130:
“Nothing is purer than Her love. But its behavior is always perverse and crooked.”
Text 131:
“All glories to Rādhā’s love for Kṛṣṇa, the enemy of the demon Mura! Although it is all-pervading, it tends to increase at every moment. Although it is important, it is devoid of pride. And although it is pure, it is always beset with duplicity.”
Text 132:
“Śrī Rādhikā is the highest abode of that love, and I am its only object.
Text 133:
“I taste the bliss to which the object of love is entitled. But the pleasure of Rādhā, the abode of that love, is ten million times greater.
Text 134:
“My mind races to taste the pleasure experienced by the abode, but I cannot taste it, even by My best efforts. How may I taste it?
Text 135:
“If sometime I can be the abode of that love, only then may I taste its joy.”
Text 136:
Thinking in this way, Lord Kṛṣṇa was curious to taste that love. His eager desire for that love increasingly blazed in His heart.
Text 137:
That is one desire. Now please hear of another. Seeing His own beauty, Lord Kṛṣṇa began to consider.
Text 138:
“My sweetness is wonderful, infinite and full. No one in the three worlds can find its limit.
Text 139:
“Only Rādhikā, by the strength of Her love, tastes all the nectar of My sweetness.
Text 140:
“Although Rādhā’s love is pure like a mirror, its purity increases at every moment.
Text 141:
“My sweetness also has no room for expansion, yet it shines before that mirror in newer and newer beauty.
Text 142:
“There is constant competition between My sweetness and the mirror of Rādhā’s love. They both go on increasing, but neither knows defeat.
Text 143:
“My sweetness is always newer and newer. Devotees taste it according to their own respective love.
Text 144:
“If I see My sweetness in a mirror, I am tempted to taste it, but nevertheless I cannot.
Text 145:
“If I deliberate on a way to taste it, I find that I hanker for the position of Rādhikā.”
Text 146:
“Who manifests an abundance of sweetness greater than Mine, which has never been experienced before and which causes wonder to all? Alas, I Myself, My mind bewildered upon seeing this beauty, impetuously desire to enjoy it like Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.”
Text 147:
The beauty of Kṛṣṇa has one natural strength: it thrills the hearts of all men and women, beginning with Lord Kṛṣṇa Himself.
Text 148:
All minds are attracted by hearing His sweet voice and flute, or by seeing His beauty. Even Lord Kṛṣṇa Himself makes efforts to taste that sweetness.
Text 149:
The thirst of one who always drinks the nectar of that sweetness is never satisfied. Rather, that thirst increases constantly.
Text 150:
Such a person, being unsatisfied, begins to blaspheme Lord Brahmā, saying that he does not know the art of creating well and is simply inexperienced.
Text 151:
He has not given millions of eyes to see the beauty of Kṛṣṇa. He has given only two eyes, and even those eyes blink. How then shall I see the lovely face of Kṛṣṇa?
Text 152:
[The gopīs said:] “O Kṛṣṇa, when You go to the forest during the day and we do not see Your sweet face, which is surrounded by beautiful curling hair, half a second becomes as long as an entire age for us. And we consider the creator, who has put eyelids on the eyes we use for seeing You, to be simply a fool.”
Text 153:
“The gopīs saw their beloved Kṛṣṇa at Kurukṣetra after a long separation. They secured and embraced Him in their hearts through their eyes, and they attained a joy so intense that not even perfect yogīs can attain it. The gopīs cursed the creator for creating eyelids that interfered with their vision.”
Text 154:
There is no consummation for the eyes other than the sight of Kṛṣṇa. Whoever sees Him is most fortunate indeed.
Text 155:
[The gopīs said:] “O friends, those eyes that see the beautiful faces of the sons of Mahārāja Nanda are certainly fortunate. As these two sons enter the forest, surrounded by Their friends, driving the cows before Them, They hold Their flutes to Their mouths and glance lovingly upon the residents of Vṛndāvana. For those who have eyes, we think there is no greater object of vision.”
Text 156:
[The women of Mathurā said:] “What austerities must the gopīs have performed? With their eyes they always drink the nectar of the form of Lord Kṛṣṇa, which is the essence of loveliness and is not to be equaled or surpassed. That loveliness is the only abode of beauty, fame and opulence. It is self-perfect, ever fresh and extremely rare.”
Text 157:
The sweetness of Lord Kṛṣṇa is unprecedented, and its strength is also unprecedented. Simply by one’s hearing of such beauty, the mind becomes unsteady.
Text 158:
Lord Kṛṣṇa’s own beauty attracts Lord Kṛṣṇa Himself. But because He cannot fully enjoy it, His mind remains full of sorrow.
Text 159:
This is a description of His second desire. Now please listen as I describe the third.
Text 160:
This conclusion of rasa is extremely deep. Only Svarūpa Dāmodara knows much about it.
Text 161:
Anyone else who claims to know it must have heard it from him, for he was the most intimate companion of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
Text 162:
The love of the gopīs is called rūḍha-bhāva. It is pure and spotless. It is not at any time lust.
Text 163:
“The pure love of the gopīs has become celebrated by the name ‘lust.’ The dear devotees of the Lord, headed by Śrī Uddhava, desire to taste that love.”
Text 164:
Lust and love have different characteristics, just as iron and gold have different natures.
Text 165:
The desire to gratify one’s own senses is kāma [lust], but the desire to please the senses of Lord Kṛṣṇa is prema [love].
Text 166:
The object of lust is only the enjoyment of one’s own senses. But love caters to the enjoyment of Lord Kṛṣṇa, and thus it is very powerful.
Texts 167-169:
Social customs, scriptural injunctions, bodily demands, fruitive action, shyness, patience, bodily pleasures, self-gratification and the path of varṇāśrama-dharma, which is difficult to give up — the gopīs have forsaken all these, as well as their own relatives and their punishment and scolding, for the sake of serving Lord Kṛṣṇa. They render loving service to Him for the sake of His enjoyment.
Text 170:
That is called firm attachment to Lord Kṛṣṇa. It is spotlessly pure, like a clean cloth that has no stain.
Text 171:
Therefore lust and love are quite different. Lust is like dense darkness, but love is like the bright sun.
Text 172:
Thus there is not the slightest taint of lust in the gopīs’ love. Their relationship with Kṛṣṇa is only for the sake of His enjoyment.
Text 173:
“O dearly beloved! Your lotus feet are so soft that we place them gently on our breasts, fearing that Your feet will be hurt. Our life rests only in You. Our minds, therefore, are filled with anxiety that Your tender feet might be wounded by pebbles as You roam about on the forest path.”
Text 174:
The gopīs do not care for their own pleasures or pains. All their physical and mental activities are directed toward offering enjoyment to Lord Kṛṣṇa.
Text 175:
They renounced everything for Kṛṣṇa. They have pure attachment to giving Kṛṣṇa pleasure.
Text 176:
“O My beloved gopīs, you have renounced social customs, scriptural injunctions and your relatives for My sake. I disappeared behind you only to increase your concentration upon Me. Since I disappeared for your benefit, you should not be displeased with Me.”
Text 177:
Lord Kṛṣṇa has a promise from before to reciprocate with His devotees according to the way they worship Him.
Text 178:
“In whatever way My devotees surrender unto Me, I reward them accordingly. Everyone follows My path in all respects, O son of Pṛthā.”
Text 179:
That promise has been broken by the worship of the gopīs, as Lord Kṛṣṇa Himself admits.
Text 180:
“O gopīs, I am not able to repay My debt for your spotless service, even within a lifetime of Brahmā. Your connection with Me is beyond reproach. You have worshiped Me, cutting off all domestic ties, which are difficult to break. Therefore please let your own glorious deeds be your compensation.”
Text 181:
Now, whatever affection we see the gopīs show for their own bodies, know it for certain to be only for the sake of Lord Kṛṣṇa.
Text 182:
[The gopīs think:] “I have offered this body to Lord Kṛṣṇa. He is its owner, and it brings Him enjoyment.
Text 183:
“Kṛṣṇa finds joy in seeing and touching this body.” It is for this reason that they cleanse and decorate their bodies.
Text 184:
“O Arjuna, there are no greater receptacles of deep love for Me than the gopīs, who cleanse and decorate their bodies because they consider them Mine.”
Text 185:
There is another wonderful feature of the emotion of the gopīs. Its power is beyond the comprehension of the intelligence.
Text 186:
When the gopīs see Lord Kṛṣṇa, they derive unbounded bliss, although they have no desire for such pleasure.
Text 187:
The gopīs taste a pleasure ten million times greater than the pleasure Lord Kṛṣṇa derives from seeing them.
Text 188:
The gopīs have no inclination for their own enjoyment, and yet their joy increases. That is indeed a contradiction.
Text 189:
For this contradiction I see only one solution: the joy of the gopīs lies in the joy of their beloved Kṛṣṇa.
Text 190:
When Lord Kṛṣṇa sees the gopīs, His joy increases, and His unparalleled sweetness increases also.
Text 191:
[The gopīs think:] “Kṛṣṇa has obtained so much pleasure by seeing me.” That thought increases the fullness and beauty of their faces and bodies.
Text 192:
The beauty of Lord Kṛṣṇa increases at the sight of the beauty of the gopīs. And the more the gopīs see Lord Kṛṣṇa’s beauty, the more their beauty increases.
Text 193:
In this way a competition takes place between them in which no one acknowledges defeat.
Text 194:
Kṛṣṇa, however, derives pleasure from the beauty and good qualities of the gopīs. And when the gopīs see His pleasure, the joy of the gopīs increases.
Text 195:
Therefore we find that the joy of the gopīs nourishes the joy of Lord Kṛṣṇa. For that reason the fault of lust is not present in their love.
Text 196:
“I worship Lord Keśava. Coming back from the forest of Vraja, He is worshiped by the gopīs, who mount the roofs of their palaces and meet Him on the path with a hundred manners of dancing glances and gentle smiles. The corners of His eyes wander, like large black bees, around the gopīs’ breasts.”
Text 197:
There is another natural symptom of the gopīs’ love that shows it to be without a trace of lust.
Text 198:
The love of the gopīs nourishes the sweetness of Lord Kṛṣṇa. That sweetness in turn increases their love, for they are greatly satisfied.
Text 199:
The happiness of the abode of love is in the happiness of the object of that love. This is not a relationship of desire for personal gratification.
Texts 200-201:
Whenever there is unselfish love, that is its style. The reservoir of love derives pleasure when the lovable object is pleased. When the pleasure of love interferes with the service of Lord Kṛṣṇa, the devotee becomes angry toward such ecstasy.
Text 202:
“Śrī Dāruka did not relish his ecstatic feelings of love, for they caused his limbs to become stunned and thus obstructed his service of fanning Lord Kṛṣṇa.”
Text 203:
“The lotus-eyed Rādhārāṇī powerfully condemned the ecstatic love that caused a flow of tears that hindered Her sight of Govinda.”
Text 204:
Furthermore, pure devotees never forsake the loving service of Lord Kṛṣṇa to aspire for their own personal pleasure through the five kinds of liberation.
Text 205:
“Just as the celestial waters of the Ganges flow unobstructed into the ocean, so when My devotees simply hear of Me, their minds come to Me, who reside in the hearts of all.
Text 206:
“These are the characteristics of transcendental loving service to Puruṣottama, the Supreme Personality of Godhead: it is causeless, and it cannot be obstructed in any way.
Text 207:
“My devotees do not accept sālokya, sārṣṭi, sārūpya, sāmīpya or oneness with Me — even if I offer these liberations — in preference to serving Me.”
Text 208:
“My devotees, having fulfilled their desires by serving Me, do not accept the four kinds of salvation that are easily earned by such service. Why then should they accept any pleasures that are lost in the course of time?”
Text 209:
The natural love of the gopīs is devoid of any trace of lust. It is faultless, bright and pure, like molten gold.
Text 210:
The gopīs are the helpers, teachers, friends, wives, dear disciples, confidantes and serving maids of Lord Kṛṣṇa.
Text 211:
“O Pārtha, I speak to you the truth. The gopīs are My helpers, teachers, disciples, servants, friends and consorts. I do not know what they are not to Me.”
Text 212:
The gopīs know Kṛṣṇa’s desires, and they know how to render perfect loving service for His enjoyment. They perform their service expertly for the satisfaction of their beloved.
Text 213:
“O Pārtha, the gopīs know My greatness, My loving service, respect for Me, and My mentality. Others cannot really know these.”
Text 214:
Among the gopīs, Śrīmatī Rādhikā is the foremost. She surpasses all in beauty, in good qualities, in good fortune and, above all, in love.
Text 215:
“Just as Rādhā is dear to Lord Kṛsṇa, so Her bathing place [Rādhā-kuṇḍa] is dear to Him. She alone is His most beloved of all the gopīs.”
Text 216:
“O Pārtha, in all the three planetary systems, this earth is especially fortunate, for on earth is the town of Vṛndāvana. And there the gopīs are especially glorious because among them is My Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.”
Text 217:
All the other gopīs help increase the joy of Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes with Rādhārāṇī. The gopīs act as the instruments of Their mutual enjoyment.
Text 218:
Rādhā is the beloved consort of Kṛṣṇa, and She is the wealth of His life. Without Her, the gopīs cannot give Him pleasure.
Text 219:
“Lord Kṛṣṇa, the enemy of Kaṁsa, left aside the other gopīs during the rāsa dance and took Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī to His heart, for She is the helper of the Lord in realizing the essence of His desires.”
Text 220:
Lord Caitanya appeared with the sentiment of Rādhā. He preached the dharma of this age — the chanting of the holy name and pure love of God.
Text 221:
In the mood of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, He also fulfilled His own desires. This is the principal reason for His appearance.
Text 222:
Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya is Kṛṣṇa [Vrajendra-kumāra], the embodiment of rasas. He is amorous love personified.
Text 223:
He made His appearance to taste that conjugal mellow and incidentally to broadcast all the rasas.
Text 224:
“My dear friends, just see how Śrī Kṛṣṇa is enjoying the season of spring! With the gopīs embracing each of His limbs, He is like amorous love personified. With His transcendental pastimes, He enlivens all the gopīs and the entire creation. With His soft bluish-black arms and legs, which resemble blue lotus flowers, He has created a festival for Cupid.”
Text 225:
Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya is the abode of rasa. He Himself tasted the sweetness of rasa in endless ways.
Text 226:
Thus He initiated the dharma for the Age of Kali. The devotees of Lord Caitanya know all these truths.
Texts 227-228:
Advaita Ācārya, Lord Nityānanda, Śrīvāsa Paṇḍita, Gadādhara Paṇḍita, Svarūpa Dāmodara, Murāri Gupta, Haridāsa Ṭhākura and all the other devotees of Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya — bowing down with devotion, I hold their lotus feet on my head.
Text 229:
I have given a hint of the sixth verse. Now please hear as I reveal the meaning of that original verse.
Text 230:
“Desiring to understand the glory of Rādhārāṇī’s love, the wonderful qualities in Him that She alone relishes through Her love, and the happiness She feels when She realizes the sweetness of His love, the Supreme Lord Hari, richly endowed with Her emotions, appeared from the womb of Śrīmatī Śacī-devī, as the moon appeared from the ocean.”
Text 231:
All these conclusions are unfit to disclose in public. But if they are not disclosed, no one will understand them.
Text 232:
Therefore I shall mention them, revealing only their essence, so that loving devotees will understand them but fools will not.
Text 233:
Anyone who has captured Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu and Lord Nityānanda Prabhu in his heart will become blissful by hearing all these transcendental conclusions.
Text 234:
All these conclusions are like the newly grown twigs of a mango tree; they are always pleasing to the devotees, who in this way resemble cuckoo birds.
Text 235:
The camellike nondevotees cannot enter into these topics. Therefore there is special jubilation in my heart.
Text 236:
For fear of them I do not wish to speak, but if they do not understand, then what can be happier in all the three worlds?
Text 237:
Therefore after offering obeisances to the devotees, for their satisfaction I shall speak without hesitating.
Text 238:
Once Lord Kṛṣṇa considered within His heart, “Everyone says that I am complete bliss, full of all rasas.
Text 239:
“All the world derives pleasure from Me. Is there anyone who can give Me pleasure?
Text 240:
“One who has a hundred times more qualities than Me could give pleasure to My mind.
Text 241:
“One more qualified than Me is impossible to find in the world. But in Rādhā alone I feel the presence of one who can give Me pleasure.
Texts 242-243:
“Although My beauty defeats the beauty of ten million Cupids, although it is unequaled and unsurpassed, and although it gives pleasure to the three worlds, seeing Rādhārāṇī gives pleasure to My eyes.
Text 244:
“The vibration of My transcendental flute attracts the three worlds, but My ears are enchanted by the sweet words of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.
Text 245:
“Although My body lends fragrance to the entire creation, the scent of Rādhārāṇī’s limbs captivates My mind and heart.
Text 246:
“Although the entire creation is full of different tastes because of Me, I am charmed by the nectarean taste of the lips of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.
Text 247:
“And although My touch is cooler than ten million moons, I am refreshed by the touch of Śrīmatī Rādhikā.
Text 248:
“Thus although I am the source of happiness for the entire world, the beauty and attributes of Śrī Rādhikā are My life and soul.
Text 249:
“In this way My affectionate feelings for Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī may be understood, but on analysis I find them contradictory.
Text 250:
“My eyes are fully satisfied when I look upon Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, but by looking upon Me, She becomes even more advanced in satisfaction.
Text 251:
“The flutelike murmur of the bamboos rubbing against one another steals Rādhārāṇī’s consciousness, for She thinks it to be the sound of My flute. And She embraces a tamāla tree, mistaking it for Me.
Text 252:
“ ‘I have gotten the embrace of Śrī Kṛṣṇa,’ She thinks, ‘so now My life is fulfilled.’ Thus She remains immersed in pleasing Kṛṣṇa, taking the tree in Her arms.
Text 253:
“When a favorable breeze carries to Her the fragrance of My body, She is blinded by love and tries to fly into that breeze.
Text 254:
“When She tastes the betel chewed by Me, She merges in an ocean of joy and forgets everything else.
Text 255:
“Even with hundreds of mouths I could not express the transcendental pleasure She derives from My association.
Text 256:
“Seeing the luster of Her complexion after Our pastimes together, I forget My own identity in happiness.
Text 257:
“The sage Bharata has said that the mellows of lover and beloved are equal. But he does not know the mellows of My Vṛndāvana.
Text 258:
“The happiness I feel when meeting Rādhārāṇī is a hundred times greater than the happiness I get from meeting others.
Text 259:
“ ‘My dear auspicious Rādhārāṇī, Your body is the source of all beauty. Your red lips are softer than the sense of immortal sweetness, Your face bears the aroma of a lotus flower, Your sweet words defeat the vibrations of the cuckoo, and Your limbs are cooler than the pulp of sandalwood. All My transcendental senses are overwhelmed in ecstatic pleasure by tasting You, who are completely decorated by beautiful qualities.’
Text 260:
“ ‘Her eyes are enchanted by the beauty of Lord Kṛṣṇa, the enemy of Kaṁsa. Her body thrills in pleasure at His touch. Her ears are always attracted to His sweet voice, Her nostrils are enchanted by His fragrance, and Her tongue hankers for the nectar of His soft lips. She hangs down her lotuslike face, exercising self-control only by pretense, but She cannot help showing the external signs of Her spontaneous love for Lord Kṛṣṇa.’
Text 261:
“Considering this, I can understand that some unknown mellow in Me controls the entire existence of My captivator, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.
Text 262:
“I am always eager to taste the joy that Rādhārāṇī derives from Me.
Text 263:
“In spite of various efforts, I have not been able to taste it. But My desire to relish that pleasure increases as I smell its sweetness.
Text 264:
“Formerly I appeared in the world to taste mellows, and I tasted the mellows of pure love in various ways.
Text 265:
“I taught devotional service that springs from the devotees’ spontaneous love by demonstrating it with My pastimes.
Text 266:
“But these three desires of Mine were not satisfied, for one cannot enjoy them in a contrary position.
Text 267:
“Unless I accept the luster of the ecstatic love of Śrī Rādhikā, these three desires cannot be fulfilled.
Text 268:
“Therefore, assuming Rādhārāṇī’s sentiments and bodily complexion, I shall descend to fulfill these three desires.”
Text 269:
In this way Lord Kṛṣṇa came to a decision. Simultaneously, the time came for the incarnation of the age.
Text 270:
At that time Śrī Advaita was earnestly worshiping Him. Advaita attracted Him with His loud calls.
Texts 271-272:
First Lord Kṛṣṇa made His parents and elders appear. Then Kṛṣṇa Himself, with the sentiments and complexion of Rādhikā, appeared in Navadvīpa, like the full moon, from the womb of mother Śacī, which is like an ocean of pure milk.
Text 273:
Meditating on the lotus feet of Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī, I have thus explained the sixth verse.
Text 274:
I can support the explanation of these two verses [verses 5 and 6 of the first chapter] with a verse by Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī.
Text 275:
“Lord Kṛṣṇa desired to taste the limitless nectarean mellows of the love possessed by one of His multitude of loving damsels [Śrī Rādhā], and so He has assumed the form of Lord Caitanya. He has tasted that love while hiding His own dark complexion with Her effulgent yellow color. May that Lord Caitanya confer upon us His grace.”
Text 276:
Thus the auspicious invocation, the essential nature of the truth of Lord Caitanya, and the need for His appearance have been set forth in six verses.
Text 277:
Praying at the lotus feet of Śrī Rūpa and Śrī Raghunātha, always desiring their mercy, I, Kṛṣṇadāsa, narrate Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta, following in their footsteps.