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CHAPTER EIGHT

The Sons of Sagara Meet Lord Kapiladeva

In this Eighth Chapter the descendants of Rohita are described. In the dynasty of Rohita there was a king named Sagara, whose history is described in relation to Kapiladeva and the destruction of the sons of Sagara.

The son of Rohita was known as Harita, and the son of Harita was Campa, who constructed a township known as Campāpurī. The son of Campa was Sudeva, the son of Sudeva was Vijaya, the son of Vijaya was Bharuka, and the son of Bharuka was Vṛka. Bāhuka, the son of Vṛka, was greatly disturbed by his enemies, and therefore he left home with his wife and went to the forest. When he died there, his wife wanted to accept the principles of satī, dying with her husband, but when she was about to die a sage named Aurva found that she was pregnant and forbade her to do so. The co-wives of this wife of Bāhuka gave her poison with her food, but still her son was born with the poison. The son was therefore named Sagara (sa means “with,” and gara means “poison”). Following the instructions of the great sage Aurva, King Sagara reformed many clans, including the Yavanas, Śakas, Haihayas and Barbaras. The king did not kill them, but reformed them. Then, again following the instructions of Aurva, King Sagara performed aśvamedha sacrifices, but the horse needed for such a sacrifice was stolen by Indra, the King of heaven. King Sagara had two wives, named Sumati and Keśinī. While searching for the horse, the sons of Sumati extensively dug up the surface of the earth and in this way dug a trench, which later became known as the Sāgara Ocean. In the course of this search, they came upon the great personality Kapiladeva and thought Him to have stolen the horse. With this offensive understanding, they attacked Him and were all burned to ashes. Keśinī, the second wife of King Sagara, had a son named Asamañjasa, whose son Aṁśumān later searched for the horse and delivered his uncles. Upon approaching Kapiladeva, Aṁśumān saw both the horse meant for sacrifice and a pile of ashes. Aṁśumān offered prayers to Kapiladeva, who was very pleased by his prayers and who returned the horse. After getting back the horse, however, Aṁśumān still stood before Kapiladeva, and Kapiladeva could understand that Aṁśumān was praying for the deliverance of his forefathers. Thus Kapiladeva offered the instruction that they could be delivered by water from the Ganges. Aṁśumān then offered respectful obeisances to Kapiladeva, circumambulated Him, and left that place with the horse for sacrifice. When King Sagara finished his yajña, he handed over the kingdom to Aṁśumān and, following the advice of Aurva, attained salvation.

Devanagari

श्रीशुक उवाच
हरितो रोहितसुतश्चम्पस्तस्माद् विनिर्मिता ।
चम्पापुरी सुदेवोऽतो विजयो यस्य चात्मज: ॥ १ ॥

Text

śrī-śuka uvāca
harito rohita-sutaś
campas tasmād vinirmitā
campāpurī sudevo ’to
vijayo yasya cātmajaḥ

Synonyms

śrī-śukaḥ uvāca — Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī said; haritaḥ — the king named Harita; rohita-sutaḥ — the son of King Rohita; campaḥ — by the name Campa; tasmāt — from Harita; vinirmitā — was constructed; campā-purī — the township known as Campāpurī; sudevaḥ — by the name Sudeva; ataḥ — thereafter (from Campa); vijayaḥ — by the name Vijaya; yasya — of whom (Sudeva); ca — also; ātma-jaḥ — the son.

Translation

Śukadeva Gosvāmī continued: The son of Rohita was Harita, and Harita’s son was Campa, who constructed the town of Campāpurī. The son of Campa was Sudeva, and his son was Vijaya.

Devanagari

भरुकस्तत्सुतस्तस्माद् वृकस्तस्यापि बाहुक: ।
सोऽरिभिर्हृतभू राजा सभार्यो वनमाविशत् ॥ २ ॥

Text

bharukas tat-sutas tasmād
vṛkas tasyāpi bāhukaḥ
so ’ribhir hṛta-bhū rājā
sabhāryo vanam āviśat

Synonyms

bharukaḥ — by the name Bharuka; tat-sutaḥ — the son of Vijaya; tasmāt — from him (Bharuka); vṛkaḥ — by the name Vṛka; tasya — his; api — also; bāhukaḥ — by the name Bāhuka; saḥ — he, the King; aribhiḥ — by his enemies; hṛta-bhūḥ — his land having been taken away; rājā — the King (Bāhuka); sa-bhāryaḥ — with his wife; vanam — the forest; āviśat — entered.

Translation

The son of Vijaya was Bharuka, Bharuka’s son was Vṛka, and Vṛka’s son was Bāhuka. The enemies of King Bāhuka took away all his possessions, and therefore the King entered the order of vānaprastha and went to the forest with his wife.

Devanagari

वृद्धं तं पञ्चतां प्राप्तं महिष्यनुमरिष्यती ।
और्वेण जानतात्मानं प्रजावन्तं निवारिता ॥ ३ ॥

Text

vṛddhaṁ taṁ pañcatāṁ prāptaṁ
mahiṣy anumariṣyatī
aurveṇa jānatātmānaṁ
prajāvantaṁ nivāritā

Synonyms

vṛddham — when he was old; tam — him; pañcatām — death; prāptam — who had obtained; mahiṣī — the queen; anumariṣyatī — who wanted to die with him and become satī; aurveṇa — by the great sage Aurva; jānatā — understanding that; ātmānam — the body of the queen; prajā-vantam — bore a son within the womb; nivāritā — was forbidden.

Translation

Bāhuka died when he was old, and one of his wives wanted to die with him, following the satī rite. At that time, however, Aurva Muni, knowing her to be pregnant, forbade her to die.

Devanagari

आज्ञायास्यै सपत्नीभिर्गरो दत्तोऽन्धसा सह ।
सह तेनैव सञ्जात: सगराख्यो महायशा: ।
सगरश्चक्रवर्त्यासीत् सागरो यत्सुतै: कृत: ॥ ४ ॥

Text

ājñāyāsyai sapatnībhir
garo datto ’ndhasā saha
saha tenaiva sañjātaḥ
sagarākhyo mahā-yaśāḥ
sagaraś cakravarty āsīt
sāgaro yat-sutaiḥ kṛtaḥ

Synonyms

ājñāya — knowing (this); asyai — unto that pregnant queen; sapatnībhiḥ — by the co-wives of the wife of Bāhuka; garaḥ — poison; dattaḥ — was given; andhasā saha — with her food; saha tena — with that poison; eva — also; sañjātaḥ — was born; sagara-ākhyaḥ — by the name Sagara; mahā-yaśāḥ — having a great reputation; sagaraḥ — King Sagara; cakravartī — the emperor; āsīt — became; sāgaraḥ — the place known as Gaṅgāsāgara; yat-sutaiḥ — by the sons of whom; kṛtaḥ — was excavated.

Translation

Knowing that she was pregnant, the co-wives of the wife of Bāhuka conspired to give her poison with her food, but it did not act. Instead, the son was born along with the poison. Therefore he became famous as Sagara [“one who is born with poison”]. Sagara later became the emperor. The place known as Gaṅgāsāgara was excavated by his sons.

Devanagari

यस्तालजङ्घान् यवनाञ्छकान् हैहयबर्बरान् ।
नावधीद् गुरुवाक्येन चक्रे विकृतवेषिण: ॥ ५ ॥
मुण्डाञ्छ्मश्रुधरान् कांश्चिन्मुक्तकेशार्धमुण्डितान् ।
अनन्तर्वासस: कांश्चिदबहिर्वाससोऽपरान् ॥ ६ ॥

Text

yas tālajaṅghān yavanāñ
chakān haihaya-barbarān
nāvadhīd guru-vākyena
cakre vikṛta-veṣiṇaḥ
muṇḍāñ chmaśru-dharān kāṁścin
mukta-keśārdha-muṇḍitān
anantar-vāsasaḥ kāṁścid
abahir-vāsaso ’parān

Synonyms

yaḥ — Mahārāja Sagara who; tālajaṅghān — the uncivilized clan named Tālajaṅgha; yavanān — persons averse to the Vedic literature; śakān — another class of atheist; haihaya — the uncivilized; barbarān — and the Barbaras; na — not; avadhīt — did kill; guru-vākyena — by the order of his spiritual master; cakre — made them; vikṛta-veṣiṇaḥ — dressed awkwardly; muṇḍān — shaved clean; śmaśru-dharān — wearing mustaches; kāṁścit — some of them; mukta-keśa — loose hair; ardha-muṇḍitān — half-shaven; anantaḥ-vāsasaḥ — without underwear; kāṁścit — some of them; abahiḥ-vāsasaḥ — without covering garments; aparān — others.

Translation

Sagara Mahārāja, following the order of his spiritual master, Aurva, did not kill the uncivilized men like the Tālajaṅghas, Yavanas, Śakas, Haihayas and Barbaras. Instead, some of them he made dress awkwardly, some of them he shaved clean but allowed to wear mustaches, some of them he left wearing loose hair, some he half shaved, some he left without underwear, and some without external garments. Thus these different clans were made to dress differently, but King Sagara did not kill them.

Devanagari

सोऽश्वमेधैरयजत सर्ववेदसुरात्मकम् ।
और्वोपदिष्टयोगेन हरिमात्मानमीश्वरम् ।
तस्योत्सृष्टं पशुं यज्ञे जहाराश्वं पुरन्दर: ॥ ७ ॥

Text

so ’śvamedhair ayajata
sarva-veda-surātmakam
aurvopadiṣṭa-yogena
harim ātmānam īśvaram
tasyotsṛṣṭaṁ paśuṁ yajñe
jahārāśvaṁ purandaraḥ

Synonyms

saḥ — he, Mahārāja Sagara; aśvamedhaiḥ — by performing aśvamedha-yajñas; ayajata — worshiped; sarva-veda — of all Vedic knowledge; sura — and of all learned sages; ātmakam — the Supersoul; aurva-upadiṣṭa-yogena — by the mystic yoga practice advised by Aurva; harim — unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead; ātmānam — unto the Supersoul; īśvaram — unto the supreme controller; tasya — of him (Sagara Mahārāja); utsṛṣṭam — which was meant for offering; paśum — the sacrificial animal; yajñe — in the sacrifice; jahāra — stole; aśvam — the horse; purandaraḥ — the King of heaven, Indra.

Translation

Following the instructions of the great sage Aurva, Sagara Mahārāja performed aśvamedha sacrifices and thus satisfied the Supreme Lord, who is the supreme controller, the Supersoul of all learned scholars, and the knower of all Vedic knowledge, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. But Indra, the King of heaven, stole the horse meant to be offered at the sacrifice.

Devanagari

सुमत्यास्तनया द‍ृप्ता: पितुरादेशकारिण: ।
हयमन्वेषमाणास्ते समन्तान्न्यखनन् महीम् ॥ ८ ॥

Text

sumatyās tanayā dṛptāḥ
pitur ādeśa-kāriṇaḥ
hayam anveṣamāṇās te
samantān nyakhanan mahīm

Synonyms

sumatyāḥ tanayāḥ — the sons born of Queen Sumati; dṛptāḥ — very proud of their prowess and influence; pituḥ — of their father (Mahārāja Sagara); ādeśa-kāriṇaḥ — following the order; hayam — the horse (stolen by Indra); anveṣamāṇāḥ — while seeking; te — all of them; samantāt — everywhere; nyakhanan — dug; mahīm — the earth.

Translation

[King Sagara had two wives, Sumati and Keśinī.] The sons of Sumati, who were very proud of their prowess and influence, following the order of their father, searched for the lost horse. While doing so, they dug into the earth very extensively.

Devanagari

प्रागुदीच्यां दिशि हयं दद‍ृशु: कपिलान्तिके ।
एष वाजिहरश्चौर आस्ते मीलितलोचन: ॥ ९ ॥
हन्यतां हन्यतां पाप इति षष्टिसहस्रिण: ।
उदायुधा अभिययुरुन्मिमेष तदा मुनि: ॥ १० ॥

Text

prāg-udīcyāṁ diśi hayaṁ
dadṛśuḥ kapilāntike
eṣa vāji-haraś caura
āste mīlita-locanaḥ
hanyatāṁ hanyatāṁ pāpa
iti ṣaṣṭi-sahasriṇaḥ
udāyudhā abhiyayur
unmimeṣa tadā muniḥ

Synonyms

prāk-udīcyām — in the northeastern; diśi — direction; hayam — the horse; dadṛśuḥ — they saw; kapila-antike — near the āśrama of Kapila; eṣaḥ — here is; vāji-haraḥ — the horse thief; cauraḥ — the thief; āste — existing; mīlita-locanaḥ — with closed eyes; hanyatām hanyatām — kill him, kill him; pāpaḥ — a most sinful person; iti — in this way; ṣaṣṭi-sahasriṇaḥ — the sixty thousand sons of Sagara; udāyudhāḥ — raising their respective weapons; abhiyayuḥ — they approached; unmimeṣa — opened His eyes; tadā — at that time; muniḥ — Kapila Muni.

Translation

Thereafter, in the northeastern direction, they saw the horse near the āśrama of Kapila Muni. “Here is the man who has stolen the horse,” they said. “He is staying there with closed eyes. Certainly he is very sinful. Kill him! Kill him!” Shouting like this, the sons of Sagara, sixty thousand all together, raised their weapons. When they approached the sage, the sage opened His eyes.

Devanagari

स्वशरीराग्निना तावन्महेन्द्रहृतचेतस: ।
महद्‌व्य‌तिक्रमहता भस्मसादभवन् क्षणात् ॥ ११ ॥

Text

sva-śarīrāgninā tāvan
mahendra-hṛta-cetasaḥ
mahad-vyatikrama-hatā
bhasmasād abhavan kṣaṇāt

Synonyms

sva-śarīra-agninā — by the fire emanating from their own bodies; tāvat — immediately; mahendra — by the tricks of Indra, the King of heaven; hṛta-cetasaḥ — their consciousness having been taken away; mahat — a great personality; vyatikrama-hatāḥ — defeated by the fault of insulting; bhasmasāt — turned to ashes; abhavan — became; kṣaṇāt — immediately.

Translation

By the influence of Indra, the King of heaven, the sons of Sagara had lost their intelligence and disrespected a great personality. Consequently, fire emanated from their own bodies, and they were immediately burned to ashes.

Purport

The material body is a combination of earth, water, fire, air and ether. There is already fire within the body, and our practical experience is that the heat of this fire sometimes increases and sometimes decreases. The fire within the bodies of the sons of Sagara Mahārāja became so much hotter that all of them burned to ashes. The fire’s increased heat was due to their misbehavior toward a great personality. Such misbehavior is called mahad-vyatikrama. They were killed by the fire of their own bodies because of insulting a great personality.

Devanagari

न साधुवादो मुनिकोपभर्जिता
नृपेन्द्रपुत्रा इति सत्त्वधामनि ।
कथं तमो रोषमयं विभाव्यते
जगत्पवित्रात्मनि खे रजो भुव: ॥ १२ ॥

Text

na sādhu-vādo muni-kopa-bharjitā
nṛpendra-putrā iti sattva-dhāmani
kathaṁ tamo roṣamayaṁ vibhāvyate
jagat-pavitrātmani khe rajo bhuvaḥ

Synonyms

na — not; sādhu-vādaḥ — the opinion of learned persons; muni-kopa — by the anger of Kapila Muni; bharjitāḥ — were burned to ashes; nṛpendra-putrāḥ — all the sons of Sagara Mahārāja; iti — thus; sattva-dhāmani — in Kapila Muni, in whom the mode of goodness was predominant; katham — how; tamaḥ — the mode of ignorance; roṣa-mayam — manifested in the form of anger; vibhāvyate — can be manifested; jagat-pavitra-ātmani — in He whose body can purify the whole world; khe — in the sky; rajaḥ — dust; bhuvaḥ — earthly.

Translation

It is sometimes argued that the sons of King Sagara were burned to ashes by the fire emanating from the eyes of Kapila Muni. This statement, however, is not approved by great learned persons, for Kapila Muni’s body is completely in the mode of goodness and therefore cannot manifest the mode of ignorance in the form of anger, just as the pure sky cannot be polluted by the dust of the earth.

Devanagari

यस्येरिता साङ्ख्यमयी द‍ृढेह नौ-
र्यया मुमुक्षुस्तरते दुरत्ययम् ।
भवार्णवं मृत्युपथं विपश्चित:
परात्मभूतस्य कथं पृथङ्‌मति: ॥ १३ ॥

Text

yasyeritā sāṅkhyamayī dṛḍheha naur
yayā mumukṣus tarate duratyayam
bhavārṇavaṁ mṛtyu-pathaṁ vipaścitaḥ
parātma-bhūtasya kathaṁ pṛthaṅ-matiḥ

Synonyms

yasya — by whom; īritā — had been explained; sāṅkhya-mayī — having the form of the philosophy analyzing the material world (Sāṅkhya philosophy); dṛḍhā — very strong (to deliver people from this material world); iha — in this material world; nauḥ — a boat; yayā — by which; mumukṣuḥ — a person desiring to be liberated; tarate — can cross over; duratyayam — very difficult to cross; bhava-arṇavam — the ocean of nescience; mṛtyu-patham — a material life of repeated birth and death; vipaścitaḥ — of a learned person; parātma-bhūtasya — who has been elevated to the transcendental platform; katham — how; pṛthak-matiḥ — a sense of distinction (between enemy and friend).

Translation

Kapila Muni enunciated in this material world the Sāṅkhya philosophy, which is a strong boat with which to cross over the ocean of nescience. Indeed, a person eager to cross the ocean of the material world may take shelter of this philosophy. In such a greatly learned person, situated on the elevated platform of transcendence, how can there be any distinction between enemy and friend?

Purport

One who is promoted to the transcendental position (brahma-bhūta) is always jubilant (prasannātmā). He is unaffected by the false distinctions between good and bad in the material world. Therefore, such an exalted person is samaḥ sarveṣu bhūteṣu; that is to say, he is equal toward everyone, not distinguishing between friend and enemy. Because he is on the absolute platform, free from material contamination, he is called parātma-bhūta or brahma-bhūta. Kapila Muni, therefore, was not at all angry at the sons of Sagara Mahārāja; rather, they were burnt to ashes by the heat of their own bodies.

Devanagari

योऽसमञ्जस इत्युक्त: स केशिन्या नृपात्मज: ।
तस्य पुत्रोशुमान् नाम पितामहहिते रत: ॥ १४ ॥

Text

yo ’samañjasa ity uktaḥ
sa keśinyā nṛpātmajaḥ
tasya putro ’ṁśumān nāma
pitāmaha-hite rataḥ

Synonyms

yaḥ — one of the sons of Sagara Mahārāja; asamañjasaḥ — whose name was Asamañjasa; iti — as such; uktaḥ — known; saḥ — he; keśinyāḥ — in the womb of Keśinī, the other queen of Sagara Mahārāja; nṛpa-ātmajaḥ — the son of the King; tasya — of him (Asamañjasa); putraḥ — the son; aṁśumān nāma — was known as Aṁśumān; pitāmaha-hite — in doing good for his grandfather, Sagara Mahārāja; rataḥ — always engaged.

Translation

Among the sons of Sagara Mahārāja was one named Asamañjasa, who was born from the King’s second wife, Keśinī. The son of Asamañjasa was known as Aṁśumān, and he was always engaged in working for the good of Sagara Mahārāja, his grandfather.

Devanagari

असमञ्जस आत्मानं दर्शयन्नसमञ्जसम् ।
जातिस्मर: पुरा सङ्गाद् योगी योगाद् विचालित: ॥ १५ ॥
आचरन् गर्हितं लोके ज्ञातीनां कर्म विप्रियम् ।
सरय्वां क्रीडतो बालान्प्रास्यदुद्वेजयञ्जनम् ॥ १६ ॥

Text

asamañjasa ātmānaṁ
darśayann asamañjasam
jāti-smaraḥ purā saṅgād
yogī yogād vicālitaḥ
ācaran garhitaṁ loke
jñātīnāṁ karma vipriyam
sarayvāṁ krīḍato bālān
prāsyad udvejayañ janam

Synonyms

asamañjasaḥ — the son of Sagara Mahārāja; ātmānam — personally; darśayan — exhibiting; asamañjasam — very disturbing; jāti-smaraḥ — able to remember his past life; purā — formerly; saṅgāt — from bad association; yogī — although he was a great mystic yogī; yogāt — from the path of executing mystic yoga; vicālitaḥ — fell down; ācaran — behaving; garhitam — very badly; loke — in the society; jñātīnām — of his relatives; karma — activities; vipriyam — not very favorable; sarayvām — in the river Sarayū; krīḍataḥ — while engaged in sports; bālān — all the boys; prāsyat — would throw; udvejayan — giving trouble; janam — to people in general.

Translation

Formerly, in his previous birth, Asamañjasa had been a great mystic yogī, but by bad association he had fallen from his exalted position. Now, in this life, he was born in a royal family and was a jāti-smara; that is, he had the special advantage of being able to remember his past birth. Nonetheless, he wanted to display himself as a miscreant, and therefore he would do things that were abominable in the eyes of the public and unfavorable to his relatives. He would disturb the boys sporting in the river Sarayū by throwing them into the depths of the water.

Devanagari

एवं वृत्त: परित्यक्त: पित्रा स्‍नेहमपोह्य वै ।
योगैश्वर्येण बालांस्तान् दर्शयित्वा ततो ययौ ॥ १७ ॥

Text

evaṁ vṛttaḥ parityaktaḥ
pitrā sneham apohya vai
yogaiśvaryeṇa bālāṁs tān
darśayitvā tato yayau

Synonyms

evam vṛttaḥ — thus engaged (in abominable activities); parityaktaḥ — condemned; pitrā — by his father; sneham — affection; apohya — giving up; vai — indeed; yoga-aiśvaryeṇa — by mystic power; bālān tān — all those boys (thrown in the water and killed); darśayitvā — after again showing them all to their parents; tataḥ yayau — he left that place.

Translation

Because Asamañjasa engaged in such abominable activities, his father gave up affection for him and had him exiled. Then Asamañjasa exhibited his mystic power by reviving the boys and showing them to the King and their parents. After this, Asamañjasa left Ayodhyā.

Purport

Asamañjasa was a jāti-smara; because of his mystic power, he did not forget his previous consciousness. Thus he could give life to the dead. By exhibiting wonderful activities in relation to the dead children, he certainly attracted the attention of the King and the people in general. Then he left that place immediately.

Devanagari

अयोध्यावासिन: सर्वे बालकान् पुनरागतान् ।
द‍ृष्ट्वा विसिस्मिरे राजन् राजा चाप्यन्वतप्यत ॥ १८ ॥

Text

ayodhyā-vāsinaḥ sarve
bālakān punar āgatān
dṛṣṭvā visismire rājan
rājā cāpy anvatapyata

Synonyms

ayodhyā-vāsinaḥ — the inhabitants of Ayodhyā; sarve — all of them; bālakān — their sons; punaḥ — again; āgatān — having come back to life; dṛṣṭvā — after seeing this; visismire — became astounded; rājan — O King Parīkṣit; rājā — King Sagara; ca — also; api — indeed; anvatapyata — very much lamented (the absence of his son).

Translation

O King Parīkṣit, when all the inhabitants of Ayodhyā saw that their boys had come back to life, they were astounded, and King Sagara greatly lamented the absence of his son.

Devanagari

अंशुमांश्चोदितो राज्ञा तुरगान्वेषणे ययौ ।
पितृव्यखातानुपथं भस्मान्ति दद‍ृशे हयम् ॥ १९ ॥

Text

aṁśumāṁś codito rājñā
turagānveṣaṇe yayau
pitṛvya-khātānupathaṁ
bhasmānti dadṛśe hayam

Synonyms

aṁśumān — the son of Asamañjasa; coditaḥ — being ordered; rājñā — by the King; turaga — the horse; anveṣaṇe — to search for; yayau — went out; pitṛvya-khāta — as described by his father’s brothers; anupatham — following that path; bhasma-anti — near the stack of ashes; dadṛśe — he saw; hayam — the horse.

Translation

Thereafter, Aṁśumān, the grandson of Mahārāja Sagara, was ordered by the King to search for the horse. Following the same path traversed by his uncles, Aṁśumān gradually reached the stack of ashes and found the horse nearby.

Devanagari

तत्रासीनं मुनिं वीक्ष्य कपिलाख्यमधोक्षजम् ।
अस्तौत् समाहितमना: प्राञ्जलि: प्रणतो महान् ॥ २० ॥

Text

tatrāsīnaṁ muniṁ vīkṣya
kapilākhyam adhokṣajam
astaut samāhita-manāḥ
prāñjaliḥ praṇato mahān

Synonyms

tatra — there; āsīnam — seated; munim — the great sage; vīkṣya — seeing; kapila-ākhyam — known as Kapila Muni; adhokṣajam — the incarnation of Viṣṇu; astaut — offered prayers; samāhita-manāḥ — with great attention; prāñjaliḥ — with folded hands; praṇataḥ — falling down, offered obeisances; mahān — Aṁśumān, the great personality.

Translation

The great Aṁśumān saw the sage named Kapila, the saint who is an incarnation of Viṣṇu, sitting there by the horse. Aṁśumān offered Him respectful obeisances, folded his hands and offered Him prayers with great attention.

Devanagari

अंशुमानुवाच
न पश्यति त्वां परमात्मनोऽजनो
न बुध्यतेऽद्यापि समाधियुक्तिभि: ।
कुतोऽपरे तस्य मन:शरीरधी-
विसर्गसृष्टा वयमप्रकाशा: ॥ २१ ॥

Text

aṁśumān uvāca
na paśyati tvāṁ param ātmano ’jano
na budhyate ’dyāpi samādhi-yuktibhiḥ
kuto ’pare tasya manaḥ-śarīra-dhī-
visarga-sṛṣṭā vayam aprakāśāḥ

Synonyms

aṁśumān uvāca — Aṁśumān said; na — not; paśyati — can see; tvām — Your Lordship; param — transcendental; ātmanaḥ — of us living beings; ajanaḥ — Lord Brahmā; na — not; budhyate — can understand; adya api — even today; samādhi — by meditation; yuktibhiḥ — or by mental speculation; kutaḥ — how; apare — others; tasya — his; manaḥ-śarīra-dhī — who consider the body or mind to be the self; visarga-sṛṣṭāḥ — created beings within the material world; vayam — we; aprakāśāḥ — without transcendental knowledge.

Translation

Aṁśumān said: My Lord, even Lord Brahmā is to this very day unable to understand Your position, which is far beyond himself, either by meditation or by mental speculation. So what to speak of others like us, who have been created by Brahmā in various forms as demigods, animals, human beings, birds and beasts? We are completely in ignorance. Therefore, how can we know You, who are the Transcendence?

Purport

icchā-dveṣa-samutthena
dvandva-mohena bhārata
sarva-bhūtāni sammohaṁ
sarge yānti parantapa

“O scion of Bharata [Arjuna], O conqueror of the foe, all living entities are born into delusion, overcome by the dualities of desire and hate.” (Bg. 7.27) All living beings in the material world are influenced by the three modes of material nature. Even Lord Brahmā is in the mode of goodness. Similarly, the demigods are generally in the mode of passion, and living entities lower than the demigods, such as human beings and animals, are in the mode of ignorance, or in mixed goodness, passion and ignorance. Therefore Aṁśumān wanted to explain that because his uncles, who had burnt to ashes, were under the modes of material nature, they could not understand Lord Kapiladeva. “Because You are beyond even the direct and indirect intelligence of Lord Brahmā,” he prayed, “unless we are enlightened by Your Lordship it will not be possible for us to understand You.”

athāpi te deva padāmbuja-dvaya-
prasāda-leśānugṛhīta eva hi
jānāti tattvaṁ bhagavan-mahimno
na cānya eko ’pi ciraṁ vicinvan

“My Lord, if one is favored by even a slight trace of the mercy of Your lotus feet, he can understand the greatness of Your personality. But those who speculate to understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead are unable to know You, even though they continue to study the Vedas for many years.” (Bhāg. 10.14.29) The Lord, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, can be understood by one who is favored by the Lord; the Lord cannot be understood by others.

Devanagari

ये देहभाजस्त्रिगुणप्रधाना
गुणान् विपश्यन्त्युत वा तमश्च ।
यन्मायया मोहितचेतसस्त्वां
विदु: स्वसंस्थं न बहि:प्रकाशा: ॥ २२ ॥

Text

ye deha-bhājas tri-guṇa-pradhānā
guṇān vipaśyanty uta vā tamaś ca
yan-māyayā mohita-cetasas tvāṁ
viduḥ sva-saṁsthaṁ na bahiḥ-prakāśāḥ

Synonyms

ye — those persons who; deha-bhājaḥ — have accepted the material body; tri-guṇa-pradhānāḥ — influenced by the three modes of material nature; guṇān — the manifestation of the three modes of material nature; vipaśyanti — can see only; uta — it is so said; — either; tamaḥ — the mode of ignorance; ca — and; yat-māyayā — by the illusory energy of whom; mohita — has been bewildered; cetasaḥ — the core of whose heart; tvām — Your Lordship; viduḥ — know; sva-saṁstham — situated in one’s own body; na — not; bahiḥ-prakāśāḥ — those who can see only the products of external energy.

Translation

My Lord, You are fully situated in everyone’s heart, but the living entities, covered by the material body, cannot see You, for they are influenced by the external energy, conducted by the three modes of material nature. Their intelligence being covered by sattva-guṇa, rajo-guṇa and tamo-guṇa, they can see only the actions and reactions of these three modes of material nature. Because of the actions and reactions of the mode of ignorance, whether the living entities are awake or sleeping, they can see only the workings of material nature; they cannot see Your Lordship.

Purport

Unless one is situated in the transcendental loving service of the Lord, one is unable to understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The Lord is situated in everyone’s heart. However, because the conditioned souls are influenced by material nature, they can see only the actions and reactions of material nature, but not the Supreme Personality of Godhead. One therefore must purify himself internally and externally:

apavitraḥ pavitro vā
sarvāvasthāṁ gato ’pi vā
yaḥ smaret puṇḍarīkākṣaṁ
sa bāhyābhyantaraḥ śuciḥ

To keep ourselves externally clean we should bathe three times daily, and for internal cleanliness we must cleanse the heart by chanting the Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra. The members of the Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement must always follow this principle (bāhyābhyantaraḥ śuciḥ). Then it will one day be possible to see the Supreme Personality of Godhead face to face.

Devanagari

तं त्वामहं ज्ञानघनं स्वभाव-
प्रध्वस्तमायागुणभेदमोहै: ।
सनन्दनाद्यैर्मुनिभिर्विभाव्यं
कथं विमूढ: परिभावयामि ॥ २३ ॥

Text

taṁ tvāṁ ahaṁ jñāna-ghanaṁ svabhāva-
pradhvasta-māyā-guṇa-bheda-mohaiḥ
sanandanādyair munibhir vibhāvyaṁ
kathaṁ vimūḍhaḥ paribhāvayāmi

Synonyms

tam — that personality; tvām — unto You; aham — I; jñāna-ghanam — Your Lordship, who are concentrated knowledge; svabhāva — by spiritual nature; pradhvasta — free from contamination; māyā-guṇa — caused by the three modes of material nature; bheda-mohaiḥ — by exhibition of the bewilderment of differentiation; sanandana-ādyaiḥ — by such personalities as the four Kumāras (Sanat-kumāra, Sanaka, Sanandana and Sanātana); munibhiḥ — by such great sages; vibhāvyam — worshipable; katham — how; vimūḍhaḥ — being fooled by the material nature; paribhāvayāmi — can I think of You.

Translation

O my Lord, sages freed from the influence of the three modes of material nature — sages such as the four Kumāras [Sanat, Sanaka, Sanandana and Sanātana] — are able to think of You, who are concentrated knowledge. But how can an ignorant person like me think of You?

Purport

The word svabhāva refers to one’s own spiritual nature or original constitutional position. When situated in this original position, the living entity is unaffected by the modes of material nature. Sa guṇān samatītyaitān brahma-bhūyāya kalpate (Bg. 14.26). As soon as one is freed from the influence of the three modes of material nature, he is situated on the Brahman platform. Vivid examples of personalities thus situated are the four Kumāras and Nārada. Such authorities can by nature understand the position of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but a conditioned soul not freed from the influence of material nature is unable to realize the Supreme. In Bhagavad-gītā (2.45), therefore, Kṛṣṇa advises Arjuna, traiguṇya-viṣayā vedā nistraiguṇyo bhavārjuna: one must rise above the influence of the three modes of material nature. One who stays within the influence of the three material modes is unable to understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

Devanagari

प्रशान्त मायागुणकर्मलिङ्ग-
मनामरूपं सदसद्विमुक्तम् ।
ज्ञानोपदेशाय गृहीतदेहं
नमामहे त्वां पुरुषं पुराणम् ॥ २४ ॥

Text

praśānta māyā-guṇa-karma-liṅgam
anāma-rūpaṁ sad-asad-vimuktam
jñānopadeśāya gṛhīta-dehaṁ
namāmahe tvāṁ puruṣaṁ purāṇam

Synonyms

praśānta — O completely peaceful one; māyā-guṇa — the modes of material nature; karma-liṅgam — symptomized by fruitive activities; anāma-rūpam — one who has no material name or form; sat-asat-vimuktam — transcendental to the manifested and nonmanifested modes of material nature; jñāna-upadeśāya — for distributing transcendental knowledge (as in Bhagavad-gītā); gṛhīta-deham — has assumed a form like a material body; namāmahe — I offer my respectful obeisances; tvām — unto You; puruṣam — the Supreme Person; purāṇam — the original.

Translation

O completely peaceful Lord, although material nature, fruitive activities and their consequent material names and forms are Your creation, You are unaffected by them. Therefore, Your transcendental name is different from material names, and Your form is different from material forms. You assume a form resembling a material body just to give us instructions like those of Bhagavad-gītā, but actually You are the supreme original person. I therefore offer my respectful obeisances unto You.

Purport

Śrīla Yāmunācārya has recited this verse in his Stotra-ratna (43):

bhavantam evānucaran nirantaraḥ
praśānta-niḥśeṣa-manorathāntaraḥ
kadāham aikāntika-nitya-kiṅkaraḥ
praharṣayiṣyāmi sanātha-jīvitam

“By serving You constantly, one is freed from all material desires and is completely pacified. When shall I engage as Your permanent eternal servant and always feel joyful to have such a fitting master?”

Manorathenāsati dhāvato bahiḥ: one who acts on the mental platform must descend to material activities. Material contamination, however, is completely absent from the Supreme Personality of Godhead and His pure devotee. Therefore the Lord is addressed as praśānta, completely peaceful, free from the disturbances of material existence. The Supreme Lord has no material name or form; only the foolish think that the Lord’s name and form are material (avajānanti māṁ mūḍhā mānuṣīṁ tanum āśritam). The identity of the Supreme Lord is that He is the original person. Nonetheless, those who have but a poor fund of knowledge think that the Lord is formless. The Lord is formless in the material sense, but He has His transcendental form (sac-cid-ānanda-vigraha).

Devanagari

त्वन्मायारचिते लोके वस्तुबुद्ध्या गृहादिषु ।
भ्रमन्ति कामलोभेर्ष्यामोहविभ्रान्तचेतस: ॥ २५ ॥

Text

tvan-māyā-racite loke
vastu-buddhyā gṛhādiṣu
bhramanti kāma-lobherṣyā-
moha-vibhrānta-cetasaḥ

Synonyms

tvat-māyā — through Your material energy; racite — which is manufactured; loke — in this world; vastu-buddhyā — accepting as factual; gṛha-ādiṣu — in hearth and home, etc.; bhramanti — wander; kāma — by lusty desires; lobha — by greed; īrṣyā — by envy; moha — and by illusion; vibhrānta — is bewildered; cetasaḥ — the cores of whose hearts.

Translation

O my Lord, those whose hearts are bewildered by the influence of lust, greed, envy and illusion are interested only in false hearth and home in this world created by Your māyā. Attached to home, wife and children, they wander in this material world perpetually.

Devanagari

अद्य न: सर्वभूतात्मन् कामकर्मेन्द्रियाशय: ।
मोहपाशो द‍ृढश्छिन्नो भगवंस्तव दर्शनात् ॥ २६ ॥

Text

adya naḥ sarva-bhūtātman
kāma-karmendriyāśayaḥ
moha-pāśo dṛḍhaś chinno
bhagavaṁs tava darśanāt

Synonyms

adya — today; naḥ — our; sarva-bhūta-ātman — O You, who are the Supersoul; kāma-karma-indriya-āśayaḥ — being under the influence of lusty desires and fruitive activities; moha-pāśaḥ — this hard knot of illusion; dṛḍhaḥ — very strong; chinnaḥ — broken; bhagavan — O my Lord; tava darśanāt — simply by seeing You.

Translation

O Supersoul of all living entities, O Personality of Godhead, simply by seeing You I have now been freed from all lusty desires, which are the root cause of insurmountable illusion and bondage in the material world.

Devanagari

श्रीशुक उवाच
इत्थंगीतानुभावस्तं भगवान्कपिलो मुनि: ।
अंशुमन्तमुवाचेदमनुग्राह्य धिया नृप ॥ २७ ॥

Text

śrī-śuka uvāca
itthaṁ gītānubhāvas taṁ
bhagavān kapilo muniḥ
aṁśumantam uvācedam
anugrāhya dhiyā nṛpa

Synonyms

śrī-śukaḥ uvāca — Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī said; ittham — in this way; gīta-anubhāvaḥ — whose glories are described; tam — unto Him; bhagavān — the Personality of Godhead; kapilaḥ — named Kapila Muni; muniḥ — the great sage; aṁśumantam — unto Aṁśumān; uvāca — said; idam — this; anugrāhya — being very merciful; dhiyā — with the path of knowledge; nṛpa — O King Parīkṣit.

Translation

O King Parīkṣit, when Aṁśumān had glorified the Lord in this way, the great sage Kapila, the powerful incarnation of Viṣṇu, being very merciful to him, explained to him the path of knowledge.

Devanagari

श्रीभगवानुवाच
अश्वोऽयं नीयतां वत्स पितामहपशुस्तव ।
इमे च पितरो दग्धा गङ्गाम्भोऽर्हन्ति नेतरत् ॥ २८ ॥

Text

śrī-bhagavān uvāca
aśvo ’yaṁ nīyatāṁ vatsa
pitāmaha-paśus tava
ime ca pitaro dagdhā
gaṅgāmbho ’rhanti netarat

Synonyms

śrī-bhagavān uvāca — the great personality Kapila Muni said; aśvaḥ — horse; ayam — this; nīyatām — take; vatsa — O My son; pitāmaha — of your grandfather; paśuḥ — this animal; tava — your; ime — all these; ca — also; pitaraḥ — bodies of forefathers; dagdhāḥ — burnt to ashes; gaṅgā-ambhaḥ — the water of the Ganges; arhanti — can be saved; na — not; itarat — any other means.

Translation

The Personality of Godhead said: My dear Aṁśumān, here is the animal sought by your grandfather for sacrifice. Please take it. As for your forefathers, who have been burnt to ashes, they can be delivered only by Ganges water, and not by any other means.

Devanagari

तं परिक्रम्य शिरसा प्रसाद्य हयमानयत् ।
सगरस्तेन पशुना यज्ञशेषं समापयत् ॥ २९ ॥

Text

taṁ parikramya śirasā
prasādya hayam ānayat
sagaras tena paśunā
yajña-śeṣaṁ samāpayat

Synonyms

tam — that great sage; parikramya — after circumambulating; śirasā — (by bowing down) with his head; prasādya — making Him fully satisfied; hayam — the horse; ānayat — brought back; sagaraḥ — King Sagara; tena — by that; paśunā — animal; yajña-śeṣam — the last ritualistic ceremony of the sacrifice; samāpayat — executed.

Translation

Thereafter, Aṁśumān circumambulated Kapila Muni and offered Him respectful obeisances, bowing his head. After fully satisfying Him in this way, Aṁśumān brought back the horse meant for sacrifice, and with this horse Mahārāja Sagara performed the remaining ritualistic ceremonies.

Devanagari

राज्यमंशुमते न्यस्य नि:स्पृहो मुक्तबन्धन: ।
और्वोपदिष्टमार्गेण लेभे गतिमनुत्तमाम् ॥ ३० ॥

Text

rājyam aṁśumate nyasya
niḥspṛho mukta-bandhanaḥ
aurvopadiṣṭa-mārgeṇa
lebhe gatim anuttamām

Synonyms

rājyam — his kingdom; aṁśumate — unto Aṁśumān; nyasya — after delivering; niḥspṛhaḥ — without further material desires; mukta-bandhanaḥ — completely freed from material bondage; aurva-upadiṣṭa — instructed by the great sage Aurva; mārgeṇa — by following that path; lebhe — achieved; gatim — destination; anuttamām — supreme.

Translation

After delivering charge of his kingdom to Aṁśumān and thus being freed from all material anxiety and bondage, Sagara Mahārāja, following the means instructed by Aurva Muni, achieved the supreme destination.

Purport

Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Ninth Canto, Eighth Chapter, of the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, entitled “The Sons of Sagara Meet Lord Kapiladeva.”