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CHAPTER THIRTEEN

The Dynasty of Mahārāja Nimi

This chapter describes the dynasty in which the great and learned scholar Janaka was born. This is the dynasty of Mahārāja Nimi, who is said to have been the son of Ikṣvāku.

When Mahārāja Nimi began performing great sacrifices, he appointed Vasiṣṭha to be chief priest, but Vasiṣṭha refused, for he had already agreed to be priest in performing a yajña for Lord Indra. Vasiṣṭha therefore requested Mahārāja Nimi to wait until Lord Indra’s sacrifice was finished, but Mahārāja Nimi did not wait. He thought, “Life is very short, so there is no need to wait.” He therefore appointed another priest to perform the yajña. Vasiṣṭha was very angry at King Nimi and cursed him, saying, “May your body fall down.” Cursed in that way, Mahārāja Nimi also became very angry and retaliated by saying, “May your body also fall down.” As a result of this cursing and countercursing, both of them died. After this incident, Vasiṣṭha took birth again, begotten by Mitra and Varuṇa, who were agitated by Urvaśī.

The priests who were engaged in the sacrifice for King Nimi preserved Nimi’s body in fragrant chemicals. When the sacrifice was over, the priests prayed for Nimi’s life to all the demigods who had come to the arena of yajña, but Mahārāja Nimi refused to take birth again in a material body because he considered the material body obnoxious. The great sages then churned Nimi’s body, and as a result of this churning, Janaka was born.

The son of Janaka was Udāvasu, and the son of Udāvasu was Nandivardhana. The son of Nandivardhana was Suketu, and his descendants continued as follows: Devarāta, Bṛhadratha, Mahāvīrya, Sudhṛti, Dhṛṣṭaketu, Haryaśva, Maru, Pratīpaka, Kṛtaratha, Devamīḍha, Viśruta, Mahādhṛti, Kṛtirāta, Mahāromā, Svarṇaromā, Hrasvaromā and Śīradhvaja. All these sons appeared in the dynasty one after another. From Śīradhvaja, mother Sītādevī was born. Śīradhvaja’s son was Kuśadhvaja, and the son of Kuśadhvaja was Dharmadhvaja. The sons of Dharmadhvaja were Kṛtadhvaja and Mitadhvaja. The son of Kṛtadhvaja was Keśidhvaja, and the son of Mitadhvaja was Khāṇḍikya. Keśidhvaja was a self-realized soul, and his son was Bhānumān, whose descendants were as follows: Śatadyumna, Śuci, Sanadvāja, Ūrjaketu, Aja, Purujit, Ariṣṭanemi, Śrutāyu, Supārśvaka, Citraratha, Kṣemādhi, Samaratha, Satyaratha, Upaguru, Upagupta, Vasvananta, Yuyudha, Subhāṣaṇa, Śruta, Jaya, Vijaya, Ṛta, Śunaka, Vītahavya, Dhṛti, Bahulāśva, Kṛti and Mahāvaśī. All of these sons were great self-controlled personalities. This completes the list of the entire dynasty.

Devanagari

श्रीशुक उवाच
निमिरिक्ष्वाकुतनयो वसिष्ठमवृतर्त्विजम् ।
आरभ्य सत्रं सोऽप्याह शक्रेण प्राग्वृतोऽस्मि भो: ॥ १ ॥

Text

śrī-śuka uvāca
nimir ikṣvāku-tanayo
vasiṣṭham avṛtartvijam
ārabhya satraṁ so ’py āha
śakreṇa prāg vṛto ’smi bhoḥ

Synonyms

śrī-śukaḥ uvāca — Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī said; nimiḥ — King Nimi; ikṣvāku-tanayaḥ — the son of Mahārāja Ikṣvāku; vasiṣṭham — the great sage Vasiṣṭha; avṛta — appointed; ṛtvijam — the chief priest of the sacrifice; ārabhya — beginning; satram — the sacrifice; saḥ — he, Vasiṣṭha; api — also; āha — said; śakreṇa — by Lord Indra; prāk — before; vṛtaḥ asmi — I was appointed; bhoḥ — O Mahārāja Nimi.

Translation

Śrīla Śukadeva Gosvāmī said: After beginning sacrifices, Mahārāja Nimi, the son of Ikṣvāku, requested the great sage Vasiṣṭha to take the post of chief priest. At that time, Vasiṣṭha replied, “My dear Mahārāja Nimi, I have already accepted the same post in a sacrifice begun by Lord Indra.”

Devanagari

तं निर्वर्त्यागमिष्यामि तावन्मां प्रतिपालय ।
तूष्णीमासीद् गृहपति: सोऽपीन्द्रस्याकरोन्मखम् ॥ २ ॥

Text

taṁ nirvartyāgamiṣyāmi
tāvan māṁ pratipālaya
tūṣṇīm āsīd gṛha-patiḥ
so ’pīndrasyākaron makham

Synonyms

tam — that sacrifice; nirvartya — after finishing; āgamiṣyāmi — I shall come back; tāvat — until that time; mām — me (Vasiṣṭha); pratipālaya — wait for; tūṣṇīm — silent; āsīt — remained; gṛha-patiḥ — Mahārāja Nimi; saḥ — he, Vasiṣṭha; api — also; indrasya — of Lord Indra; akarot — executed; makham — the sacrifice.

Translation

“I shall return here after finishing the yajña for Indra. Kindly wait for me until then.” Mahārāja Nimi remained silent, and Vasiṣṭha began to perform the sacrifice for Lord Indra.

Devanagari

निमिश्चलमिदं विद्वान् सत्रमारभतात्मवान् ।
ऋत्विग्भिरपरैस्तावन्नागमद् यावता गुरु: ॥ ३ ॥

Text

nimiś calam idaṁ vidvān
satram ārabhatātmavān
ṛtvigbhir aparais tāvan
nāgamad yāvatā guruḥ

Synonyms

nimiḥ — Mahārāja Nimi; calam — flickering, subject to end at any moment; idam — this (life); vidvān — being completely aware of this fact; satram — the sacrifice; ārabhata — inaugurated; ātmavān — self-realized person; ṛtvigbhiḥ — by priests; aparaiḥ — other than Vasiṣṭha; tāvat — for the time being; na — not; āgamat — returned; yāvatā — so long; guruḥ — his spiritual master (Vasiṣṭha).

Translation

Mahārāja Nimi, being a self-realized soul, considered that this life is flickering. Therefore, instead of waiting long for Vasiṣṭha, he began performing the sacrifice with other priests.

Purport

Cāṇakya Paṇḍita says, śarīraṁ kṣaṇa-vidhvāṁsi kalpānta-sthāyino guṇāḥ: “The duration of one’s life in the material world may end at any moment, but if within this life one does something worthy, that qualification is depicted in history eternally.” Here is a great personality, Mahārāja Nimi, who knew this fact. In the human form of life one should perform activities in such a way that at the end he goes back home, back to Godhead. This is self-realization.

Devanagari

शिष्यव्यतिक्रमं वीक्ष्य तं निर्वर्त्यागतो गुरु: ।
अशपत् पतताद् देहो निमे: पण्डितमानिन: ॥ ४ ॥

Text

śiṣya-vyatikramaṁ vīkṣya
taṁ nirvartyāgato guruḥ
aśapat patatād deho
nimeḥ paṇḍita-māninaḥ

Synonyms

śiṣya-vyatikramam — the disciple’s deviation from the order of the guru; vīkṣya — observing; tam — the performance of yajña by Indra; nirvartya — after finishing; āgataḥ — when he returned; guruḥ — Vasiṣṭha Muni; aśapat — he cursed Nimi Mahārāja; patatāt — may it fall down; dehaḥ — the material body; nimeḥ — of Mahārāja Nimi; paṇḍita-māninaḥ — who considers himself so learned (as to disobey the order of his spiritual master).

Translation

After completing the sacrificial performance for King Indra, the spiritual master Vasiṣṭha returned and found that his disciple Mahārāja Nimi had disobeyed his instructions. Thus Vasiṣṭha cursed him, saying, “May the material body of Nimi, who considers himself learned, immediately fall.”

Devanagari

निमि: प्रतिददौ शापं गुरवेऽधर्मवर्तिने ।
तवापि पतताद् देहो लोभाद्धर्ममजानत: ॥ ५ ॥

Text

nimiḥ pratidadau śāpaṁ
gurave ’dharma-vartine
tavāpi patatād deho
lobhād dharmam ajānataḥ

Synonyms

nimiḥ — Mahārāja Nimi; pratidadau śāpam — countercursed; gurave — unto his spiritual master, Vasiṣṭha; adharma-vartine — who was induced to irreligious principles (because he cursed his offenseless disciple); tava — of you; api — also; patatāt — let it fall; dehaḥ — the body; lobhāt — because of greed; dharmam — religious principles; ajānataḥ — not knowing.

Translation

For unnecessarily cursing him when he had committed no offense, Mahārāja Nimi countercursed his spiritual master. “For the sake of getting contributions from the King of heaven,” he said, “you have lost your religious intelligence. Therefore I pronounce this curse: your body also will fall.”

Purport

The religious principle for a brāhmaṇa is that he should not be greedy at all. In this case, however, for the sake of more lucrative remunerations from the King of heaven, Vasiṣṭha neglected Mahārāja Nimi’s request on this planet, and when Nimi performed the sacrifices with other priests, Vasiṣṭha unnecessarily cursed him. When one is infected by contaminated activities, his power, material or spiritual, reduces. Although Vasiṣṭha was the spiritual master of Mahārāja Nimi, because of his greed he became fallen.

Devanagari

इत्युत्ससर्ज स्वं देहं निमिरध्यात्मकोविद: ।
मित्रावरुणयोर्जज्ञे उर्वश्यां प्रपितामह: ॥ ६ ॥

Text

ity utsasarja svaṁ dehaṁ
nimir adhyātma-kovidaḥ
mitrā-varuṇayor jajñe
urvaśyāṁ prapitāmahaḥ

Synonyms

iti — thus; utsasarja — gave up; svam — his own; deham — body; nimiḥ — Mahārāja Nimi; adhyātma-kovidaḥ — fully conversant with spiritual knowledge; mitrā-varuṇayoḥ — from the semen of Mitra and Varuṇa (discharged from seeing the beauty of Urvaśī); jajñe — was born; urvaśyām — through Urvaśī, a prostitute of the heavenly kingdom; prapitāmahaḥ — Vasiṣṭha, who was known as the great-grandfather.

Translation

After saying this, Mahārāja Nimi, who was expert in the science of spiritual knowledge, gave up his body. Vasiṣṭha, the great-grandfather, gave up his body also, but through the semen discharged by Mitra and Varuṇa when they saw Urvaśī, he was born again.

Purport

Mitra and Varuṇa chanced to meet Urvaśī, the most beautiful prostitute of the heavenly kingdom, and they became lusty. Because they were great saints, they tried to control their lust, but they could not do so, and thus they discharged semen. This semen was kept carefully in a waterpot, and Vasiṣṭha was born from it.

Devanagari

गन्धवस्तुषु तद् देहं निधाय मुनिसत्तमा: ।
समाप्ते सत्रयागे च देवानूचु: समागतान् ॥ ७ ॥

Text

gandha-vastuṣu tad-dehaṁ
nidhāya muni-sattamāḥ
samāpte satra-yāge ca
devān ūcuḥ samāgatān

Synonyms

gandha-vastuṣu — in things very fragrant; tat-deham — the body of Mahārāja Nimi; nidhāya — having preserved; muni-sattamāḥ — all the great sages gathered there; samāpte satra-yāge — at the end of the sacrifice known by the name Satra; ca — also; devān — to all the demigods; ūcuḥ — requested or spoke; samāgatān — who were assembled there.

Translation

During the performance of the yajña, the body relinquished by Mahārāja Nimi was preserved in fragrant substances, and at the end of the Satra-yāga the great saints and brāhmaṇas made the following request to all the demigods assembled there.

Devanagari

राज्ञो जीवतु देहोऽयं प्रसन्ना: प्रभवो यदि ।
तथेत्युक्ते निमि: प्राह मा भून्मे देहबन्धनम् ॥ ८ ॥

Text

rājño jīvatu deho ’yaṁ
prasannāḥ prabhavo yadi
tathety ukte nimiḥ prāha
mā bhūn me deha-bandhanam

Synonyms

rājñaḥ — of the King; jīvatu — may again be enlivened; dehaḥ ayam — this body (now preserved); prasannāḥ — very much pleased; prabhavaḥ — all able to do it; yadi — if; tathā — let it be so; iti — thus; ukte — when it was replied (by the demigods); nimiḥ — Mahārāja Nimi; prāha — said; bhūt — do not do it; me — my; deha-bandhanam — imprisonment again in a material body.

Translation

“If you are satisfied with this sacrifice and if you are actually able to do so, kindly bring Mahārāja Nimi back to life in this body.” The demigods said yes to this request by the sages, but Mahārāja Nimi said, “Please do not imprison me again in a material body.”

Purport

The demigods are in a position many times higher than that of human beings. Therefore, although the great saints and sages were also powerful brāhmaṇas, they requested the demigods to revive Mahārāja Nimi’s body, which had been preserved in various perfumed balms. One should not think that the demigods are powerful only in enjoying the senses; they are also powerful in such deeds as bringing life back to a dead body. There are many similar instances in the Vedic literature. For example, according to the history of Sāvitrī and Satyavān, Satyavān died and was being taken away by Yamarāja, but on the request of his wife, Sāvitrī, Satyavān was revived in the same body. This is an important fact about the power of the demigods.

Devanagari

यस्य योगं न वाञ्छन्ति वियोगभयकातरा: ।
भजन्ति चरणाम्भोजं मुनयो हरिमेधस: ॥ ९ ॥

Text

yasya yogaṁ na vāñchanti
viyoga-bhaya-kātarāḥ
bhajanti caraṇāmbhojaṁ
munayo hari-medhasaḥ

Synonyms

yasya — with the body; yogam — contact; na — do not; vāñchantijñānīs desire; viyoga-bhaya-kātarāḥ — being afraid of giving up the body again; bhajanti — offer transcendental loving service; caraṇa-ambhojam — to the lotus feet of the Lord; munayaḥ — great saintly persons; hari-medhasaḥ — whose intelligence is always absorbed in thoughts of Hari, the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

Translation

Mahārāja Nimi continued: Māyāvādīs generally want freedom from accepting a material body because they fear having to give it up again. But devotees whose intelligence is always filled with the service of the Lord are unafraid. Indeed, they take advantage of the body to render transcendental loving service.

Purport

Mahārāja Nimi did not want to accept a material body, which would be a cause of bondage; because he was a devotee, he wanted a body by which he could render devotional service to the Lord. Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura sings:

janmāobi more icchā yadi tora
bhakta-gṛhe jani janma ha-u mora
kīṭa-janma ha-u yathā tuyā dāsa

“My Lord, if You want me to take birth and accept a material body again, kindly do me this favor: allow me to take birth in the home of Your servant, Your devotee. I do not mind being born there even as an insignificant creature like an insect.” Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu also said:

na dhanaṁ na janaṁ na sundarīṁ
kavitāṁ vā jagadīśa kāmaye
mama janmani janmanīśvare
bhavatād bhaktir ahaitukī tvayi

“O Lord of the universe, I do not desire material wealth, materialistic followers, a beautiful wife or fruitive activities described in flowery language. All I want, life after life, is unmotivated devotional service to You.” (Śikṣāṣṭaka 4) By saying “life after life” (janmani janmani), the Lord referred not to an ordinary birth but a birth in which to remember the lotus feet of the Lord. Such a body is desirable. A devotee does not think like yogīs and jñānīs, who want to refuse a material body and become one with the impersonal Brahman effulgence. A devotee does not like this idea. On the contrary, he will accept any body, material or spiritual, for he wants to serve the Lord. This is real liberation.

If one has a strong desire to serve the Lord, even if he accepts a material body, there is no cause of anxiety, since a devotee, even in a material body, is a liberated soul. This is confirmed by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī:

īhā yasya harer dāsye
karmaṇā manasā girā
nikhilāsv apy avasthāsu
jīvan-muktaḥ sa ucyate

“A person acting in Kṛṣṇa consciousness (or, in other words, in the service of Kṛṣṇa) with his body, mind, intelligence and words is a liberated person even within the material world, although he may be engaged in many so-called material activities.” The desire to serve the Lord establishes one as liberated in any condition of life, whether in a spiritual body or a material body. In a spiritual body the devotee becomes a direct associate of the Lord, but even though a devotee may superficially appear to be in a material body, he is always liberated and is engaged in the same duties of service to the Lord as a devotee in Vaikuṇṭhaloka. There is no distinction. It is said, sādhur jīvo vā maro vā. Whether a devotee is alive or dead, his only concern is to serve the Lord. Tyaktvā dehaṁ punar janma naiti mām eti. When he gives up his body, he goes directly to become an associate of the Lord and serve Him, although he does the same thing even in a material body in the material world.

For a devotee there is no pain, pleasure or material perfection. One may argue that at the time of death a devotee also suffers because of giving up his material body. But in this connection the example may be given that a cat carries a mouse in its mouth and also carries a kitten in its mouth. Both the mouse and the kitten are carried in the same mouth, but the perception of the mouse is different from that of the kitten. When a devotee gives up his body (tyaktvā deham), he is ready to go back home, back to Godhead. Thus his perception is certainly different from that of a person being taken away by Yamarāja for punishment. A person whose intelligence is always concentrated upon the service of the Lord is unafraid of accepting a material body, whereas a nondevotee, having no engagement in the service of the Lord, is very much afraid of accepting a material body or giving up his present one. Therefore, we should follow the instruction of Caitanya Mahāprabhu: mama janmani janmanīśvare bhavatād bhaktir ahaitukī tvayi. It doesn’t matter whether we accept a material body or a spiritual body; our only ambition should be to serve the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

Devanagari

देहं नावरुरुत्सेऽहं दु:खशोकभयावहम् ।
सर्वत्रास्य यतो मृत्युर्मत्स्यानामुदके यथा ॥ १० ॥

Text

dehaṁ nāvarurutse ’haṁ
duḥkha-śoka-bhayāvaham
sarvatrāsya yato mṛtyur
matsyānām udake yathā

Synonyms

deham — a material body; na — not; avarurutse — desire to accept; aham — I; duḥkha-śoka-bhaya-āvaham — which is the cause of all kinds of distress, lamentation and fear; sarvatra — always and everywhere within this universe; asya — of the living entities who have accepted material bodies; yataḥ — because; mṛtyuḥ — death; matsyānām — of the fish; udake — living within the water; yathā — like.

Translation

I do not wish to accept a material body, for such a body is the source of all distress, lamentation and fear, everywhere in the universe, just as it is for a fish in the water, which lives always in anxiety because of fear of death.

Purport

The material body, whether in the higher or lower planetary system, is destined to die. In the lower planetary system or lower species of life one may die soon, and in the higher planets or higher species one may live for a long, long time, but death is inevitable. This fact should be understood. In the human form of life one should take the opportunity to put an end to birth, death, old age and disease by performing tapasya. This is the aim of human civilization: to stop the repetition of birth and death, which is called mṛtyu-saṁsāra-vartmani. This can be done only when one is Kṛṣṇa conscious, or has achieved the service of the lotus feet of the Lord. Otherwise one must rot in this material world and accept a material body subject to birth, death, old age and disease.

The example given here is that water is a very nice place for a fish, but the fish is never free from anxiety about death, since big fish are always eager to eat the small fish. Phalgūni tatra mahatām: all living entities are eaten by bigger living entities. This is the way of material nature.

ahastāni sahastānām
apadāni catuṣ-padām
phalgūni tatra mahatāṁ
jīvo jīvasya jīvanam

“Those who are devoid of hands are prey for those who have hands; those devoid of legs are prey for the four-legged. The weak are the subsistence of the strong, and the general rule holds that one living being is food for another.” (Bhāg. 1.13.47) The Supreme Personality of Godhead has created the material world in such a way that one living entity is food for another. Thus there is a struggle for existence, but although we speak of survival of the fittest, no one can escape death without becoming a devotee of the Lord. Hariṁ vinā naiva sṛtiṁ taranti: one cannot escape the cycle of birth and death without becoming a devotee. This is also confirmed in Bhagavad-gītā (9.3). Aprāpya māṁ nivartante mṛtyu-saṁsāra-vartmani. One who does not attain shelter at the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa must certainly wander up and down within the cycle of birth and death.

Devanagari

देवा ऊचु:
विदेह उष्यतां कामं लोचनेषु शरीरिणाम् ।
उन्मेषणनिमेषाभ्यां लक्षितोऽध्यात्मसंस्थित: ॥ ११ ॥

Text

devā ūcuḥ
videha uṣyatāṁ kāmaṁ
locaneṣu śarīriṇām
unmeṣaṇa-nimeṣābhyāṁ
lakṣito ’dhyātma-saṁsthitaḥ

Synonyms

devāḥ ūcuḥ — the demigods said; videhaḥ — without any material body; uṣyatām — you live; kāmam — as you like; locaneṣu — in the vision; śarīriṇām — of those who have material bodies; unmeṣaṇa-nimeṣābhyām — become manifest and unmanifest as you desire; lakṣitaḥ — being seen; adhyātma-saṁsthitaḥ — situated in a spiritual body.

Translation

The demigods said: Let Mahārāja Nimi live without a material body. Let him live in a spiritual body as a personal associate of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and, according to his desire, let him be manifest or unmanifest to common materially embodied people.

Purport

The demigods wanted Mahārāja Nimi to come to life, but Mahārāja Nimi did not want to accept another material body. Under the circumstances, the demigods, having been requested by the saintly persons, gave him the benediction that he would be able to stay in his spiritual body. There are two kinds of spiritual bodies, as generally understood by common men. The term “spiritual body” is sometimes taken to refer to a ghostly body. An impious man who dies after sinful activities is sometimes condemned so that he cannot possess a gross material body of five material elements, but must live in a subtle body of mind, intelligence and ego. However, as explained in Bhagavad-gītā, devotees can give up the material body and attain a spiritual body free from all material tinges, gross and subtle (tyaktvā dehaṁ punar janma naiti mām eti so ’rjuna). Thus the demigods gave King Nimi the benediction that he would be able to stay in a purely spiritual body, free from all gross and subtle material contamination.

The Supreme Personality of Godhead can be seen or unseen according to His own transcendental desire; similarly, a devotee, being jīvan-mukta, can be seen or not, as he chooses. As stated in Bhagavad-gītā, nāhaṁ prakāśaḥ sarvasya yoga-māyā-samāvṛtaḥ: the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa, is not manifest to everyone and anyone. To the common man He is unseen. Ataḥ śrī-kṛṣṇa-nāmādi na bhaved grāhyam indriyaiḥ: Kṛṣṇa and His name, fame, qualities and paraphernalia cannot be materially understood. Unless one is advanced in spiritual life (sevonmukhe hi jihvādau), one cannot see Kṛṣṇa. Therefore the ability to see Kṛṣṇa depends on Kṛṣṇa’s mercy. The same privilege of being seen or unseen according to one’s own desire was given to Mahārāja Nimi. Thus he lived in his original, spiritual body as an associate of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

Devanagari

अराजकभयं नृणां मन्यमाना महर्षय: ।
देहं ममन्थु: स्म निमे: कुमार: समजायत ॥ १२ ॥

Text

arājaka-bhayaṁ nṝṇāṁ
manyamānā maharṣayaḥ
dehaṁ mamanthuḥ sma nimeḥ
kumāraḥ samajāyata

Synonyms

arājaka-bhayam — due to fear of the danger of an unregulated government; nṝṇām — for the people in general; manyamānāḥ — considering this situation; mahā-ṛṣayaḥ — the great sages; deham — the body; mamanthuḥ — churned; sma — in the past; nimeḥ — of Mahārāja Nimi; kumāraḥ — one son; samajāyata — was thus born.

Translation

Thereafter, to save the people from the danger of an unregulated government, the sages churned Mahārāja Nimi’s material body, from which, as a result, a son was born.

Purport

Arājaka-bhayam. If the government is unsteady and unregulated, there is danger of fear for the people. At the present moment this danger always exists because of government by the people. Here we can see that the great sages got a son from Nimi’s material body to guide the citizens properly, for such guidance is the duty of a kṣatriya king. A kṣatriya is one who saves the citizens from being injured. In the so-called people’s government there is no trained kṣatriya king; as soon as someone strong accumulates votes, he becomes the minister or president, without training from the learned brāhmaṇas expert in the śāstras. Indeed, we see that in some countries the government changes from party to party, and therefore the men in charge of the government are more eager to protect their position than to see that the citizens are happy. The Vedic civilization prefers monarchy. People liked the government of Lord Rāmacandra, the government of Mahārāja Yudhiṣṭhira and the governments of Mahārāja Parīkṣit, Mahārāja Ambarīṣa and Mahārāja Prahlāda. There are many instances of excellent government under a monarch. Gradually the democratic government is becoming unfit for the needs of the people, and therefore some parties are trying to elect a dictator. A dictatorship is the same as a monarchy, but without a trained leader. Actually people will be happy when a trained leader, whether a monarch or a dictator, takes control of the government and rules the people according to the standard regulations of the authorized scriptures.

Devanagari

जन्मना जनक: सोऽभूद् वैदेहस्तु विदेहज: ।
मिथिलो मथनाज्जातो मिथिला येन निर्मिता ॥ १३ ॥

Text

janmanā janakaḥ so ’bhūd
vaidehas tu videhajaḥ
mithilo mathanāj jāto
mithilā yena nirmitā

Synonyms

janmanā — by birth; janakaḥ — born uncommonly, not by the usual process; saḥ — he; abhūt — became; vaidehaḥ — also known as Vaideha; tu — but; videha-jaḥ — because of being born from the body of Mahārāja Nimi, who had left his material body; mithilaḥ — he also became known as Mithila; mathanāt — because of being born from the churning of his father’s body; jātaḥ — thus born; mithilā — the kingdom called Mithilā; yena — by whom (Janaka); nirmitā — was constructed.

Translation

Because he was born in an unusual way, the son was called Janaka, and because he was born from the dead body of his father, he was known as Vaideha. Because he was born from the churning of his father’s material body, he was known as Mithila, and because he constructed a city as King Mithila, the city was called Mithilā.

Devanagari

तस्मादुदावसुस्तस्य पुत्रोऽभून्नन्दिवर्धन: ।
तत: सुकेतुस्तस्यापि देवरातो महीपते ॥ १४ ॥

Text

tasmād udāvasus tasya
putro ’bhūn nandivardhanaḥ
tataḥ suketus tasyāpi
devarāto mahīpate

Synonyms

tasmāt — from Mithila; udāvasuḥ — a son named Udāvasu; tasya — of him (Udāvasu); putraḥ — son; abhūt — was born; nandivardhanaḥ — Nandivardhana; tataḥ — from him (Nandivardhana); suketuḥ — a son named Suketu; tasya — of him (Suketu); api — also; devarātaḥ — a son named Devarāta; mahīpate — O King Parīkṣit.

Translation

O King Parīkṣit, from Mithila came a son named Udāvasu; from Udāvasu, Nandivardhana; from Nandivardhana, Suketu; and from Suketu, Devarāta.

Devanagari

तस्माद् बृहद्रथस्तस्य महावीर्य: सुधृत्पिता ।
सुधृतेर्धृष्टकेतुर्वै हर्यश्वोऽथ मरुस्तत: ॥ १५ ॥

Text

tasmād bṛhadrathas tasya
mahāvīryaḥ sudhṛt-pitā
sudhṛter dhṛṣṭaketur vai
haryaśvo ’tha marus tataḥ

Synonyms

tasmāt — from Devarāta; bṛhadrathaḥ — a son named Bṛhadratha; tasya — of him (Bṛhadratha); mahāvīryaḥ — a son named Mahāvīrya; sudhṛt-pitā — he became the father of King Sudhṛti; sudhṛteḥ — from Sudhṛti; dhṛṣṭaketuḥ — a son named Dhṛṣṭaketu; vai — indeed; haryaśvaḥ — his son was Haryaśva; atha — thereafter; maruḥ — Maru; tataḥ — thereafter.

Translation

From Devarāta came a son named Bṛhadratha and from Bṛhadratha a son named Mahāvīrya, who became the father of Sudhṛti. The son of Sudhṛti was known as Dhṛṣṭaketu, and from Dhṛṣṭaketu came Haryaśva. From Haryaśva came a son named Maru.

Devanagari

मरो: प्रतीपकस्तस्माज्जात: कृतरथो यत: ।
देवमीढस्तस्य पुत्रो विश्रुतोऽथ महाधृति: ॥ १६ ॥

Text

maroḥ pratīpakas tasmāj
jātaḥ kṛtaratho yataḥ
devamīḍhas tasya putro
viśruto ’tha mahādhṛtiḥ

Synonyms

maroḥ — of Maru; pratīpakaḥ — a son named Pratīpaka; tasmāt — from Pratīpaka; jātaḥ — was born; kṛtarathaḥ — a son named Kṛtaratha; yataḥ — and from Kṛtaratha; devamīḍhaḥ — Devamīḍha; tasya — of Devamīḍha; putraḥ — a son; viśrutaḥ — Viśruta; atha — from him; mahādhṛtiḥ — a son named Mahādhṛti.

Translation

The son of Maru was Pratīpaka, and the son of Pratīpaka was Kṛtaratha. From Kṛtaratha came Devamīḍha; from Devamīḍha, Viśruta; and from Viśruta, Mahādhṛti.

Devanagari

कृतिरातस्ततस्तस्मान्महारोमा च तत्सुत: ।
स्वर्णरोमा सुतस्तस्य ह्रस्वरोमा व्यजायत ॥ १७ ॥

Text

kṛtirātas tatas tasmān
mahāromā ca tat-sutaḥ
svarṇaromā sutas tasya
hrasvaromā vyajāyata

Synonyms

kṛtirātaḥ — Kṛtirāta; tataḥ — from Mahādhṛti; tasmāt — from Kṛtirāta; mahāromā — a son named Mahāromā; ca — also; tat-sutaḥ — his son; svarṇaromā — Svarṇaromā; sutaḥ tasya — his son; hrasvaromā — Hrasvaromā; vyajāyata — were all born.

Translation

From Mahādhṛti was born a son named Kṛtirāta, from Kṛtirāta was born Mahāromā, from Mahāromā came a son named Svarṇaromā, and from Svarṇaromā came Hrasvaromā.

Devanagari

तत: शीरध्वजो जज्ञे यज्ञार्थं कर्षतो महीम् ।
सीता शीराग्रतो जाता तस्मात् शीरध्वज: स्मृत: ॥ १८ ॥

Text

tataḥ śīradhvajo jajñe
yajñārthaṁ karṣato mahīm
sītā śīrāgrato jātā
tasmāt śīradhvajaḥ smṛtaḥ

Synonyms

tataḥ — from Hrasvaromā; śīradhvajaḥ — a son named Śīradhvaja; jajñe — was born; yajña-artham — for performing sacrifices; karṣataḥ — while plowing the field; mahīm — the earth; sītā — mother Sītā, the wife of Lord Rāmacandra; śīra-agrataḥ — from the front portion of the plow; jātā — was born; tasmāt — therefore; śīradhvajaḥ — was known as Śīradhvaja; smṛtaḥ — celebrated.

Translation

From Hrasvaromā came a son named Śīradhvaja [also called Janaka]. When Śīradhvaja was plowing a field, from the front of his plow [śīra] appeared a daughter named Sītādevī, who later became the wife of Lord Rāmacandra. Thus he was known as Śīradhvaja.

Devanagari

कुशध्वजस्तस्य पुत्रस्ततो धर्मध्वजो नृप: ।
धर्मध्वजस्य द्वौ पुत्रौ कृतध्वजमितध्वजौ ॥ १९ ॥

Text

kuśadhvajas tasya putras
tato dharmadhvajo nṛpaḥ
dharmadhvajasya dvau putrau
kṛtadhvaja-mitadhvajau

Synonyms

kuśadhvajaḥ — Kuśadhvaja; tasya — of Śīradhvaja; putraḥ — son; tataḥ — from him; dharmadhvajaḥ — Dharmadhvaja; nṛpaḥ — the king; dharmadhvajasya — from this Dharmadhvaja; dvau — two; putrau — sons; kṛtadhvaja-mitadhvajau — Kṛtadhvaja and Mitadhvaja.

Translation

The son of Śīradhvaja was Kuśadhvaja, and the son of Kuśadhvaja was King Dharmadhvaja, who had two sons, namely Kṛtadhvaja and Mitadhvaja.

Devanagari

कृतध्वजात् केशिध्वज: खाण्डिक्यस्तु मितध्वजात् ।
कृतध्वजसुतो राजन्नात्मविद्याविशारद: ॥ २० ॥
खाण्डिक्य: कर्मतत्त्वज्ञो भीत: केशिध्वजाद्‍द्रुत: ।
भानुमांस्तस्य पुत्रोऽभूच्छतद्युम्नस्तु तत्सुत: ॥ २१ ॥

Text

kṛtadhvajāt keśidhvajaḥ
khāṇḍikyas tu mitadhvajāt
kṛtadhvaja-suto rājann
ātma-vidyā-viśāradaḥ
khāṇḍikyaḥ karma-tattva-jño
bhītaḥ keśidhvajād drutaḥ
bhānumāṁs tasya putro ’bhūc
chatadyumnas tu tat-sutaḥ

Synonyms

kṛtadhvajāt — from Kṛtadhvaja; keśidhvajaḥ — a son named Keśidhvaja; khāṇḍikyaḥ tu — also a son named Khāṇḍikya; mitadhvajāt — from Mitadhvaja; kṛtadhvaja-sutaḥ — the son of Kṛtadhvaja; rājan — O King; ātma-vidyā-viśāradaḥ — expert in transcendental science; khāṇḍikyaḥ — King Khāṇḍikya; karma-tattva-jñaḥ — expert in Vedic ritualistic ceremonies; bhītaḥ — fearing; keśidhvajāt — because of Keśidhvaja; drutaḥ — he fled; bhānumān — Bhānumān; tasya — of Keśidhvaja; putraḥ — son; abhūt — there was; śatadyumnaḥ — Śatadyumna; tu — but; tat-sutaḥ — the son of Bhānumān.

Translation

O Mahārāja Parīkṣit, the son of Kṛtadhvaja was Keśidhvaja, and the son of Mitadhvaja was Khāṇḍikya. The son of Kṛtadhvaja was expert in spiritual knowledge, and the son of Mitadhvaja was expert in Vedic ritualistic ceremonies. Khāṇḍikya fled in fear of Keśidhvaja. The son of Keśidhvaja was Bhānumān, and the son of Bhānumān was Śatadyumna.

Devanagari

शुचिस्तुतनयस्तस्मात् सनद्वाज: सुतोऽभवत् ।
ऊर्जकेतु: सनद्वाजादजोऽथ पुरुजित्सुत: ॥ २२ ॥

Text

śucis tu tanayas tasmāt
sanadvājaḥ suto ’bhavat
ūrjaketuḥ sanadvājād
ajo ’tha purujit sutaḥ

Synonyms

śuciḥ — Śuci; tu — but; tanayaḥ — a son; tasmāt — from him; sanadvājaḥ — Sanadvāja; sutaḥ — a son; abhavat — was born; ūrjaketuḥ — Ūrjaketu; sanadvājāt — from Sanadvāja; ajaḥ — Aja; atha — thereafter; purujit — Purujit; sutaḥ — a son.

Translation

The son of Śatadyumna was named Śuci. From Śuci, Sanadvāja was born, and from Sanadvāja came a son named Ūrjaketu. The son of Ūrjaketu was Aja, and the son of Aja was Purujit.

Devanagari

अरिष्टनेमिस्तस्यापि श्रुतायुस्तत्सुपार्श्वक: ।
ततश्चित्ररथो यस्य क्षेमाधिर्मिथिलाधिप: ॥ २३ ॥

Text

ariṣṭanemis tasyāpi
śrutāyus tat supārśvakaḥ
tataś citraratho yasya
kṣemādhir mithilādhipaḥ

Synonyms

ariṣṭanemiḥ — Ariṣṭanemi; tasya api — of Purujit also; śrutāyuḥ — a son named Śrutāyu; tat — and from him; supārśvakaḥ — Supārśvaka; tataḥ — from Supārśvaka; citrarathaḥ — Citraratha; yasya — of whom (Citraratha); kṣemādhiḥ — Kṣemādhi; mithilā-adhipaḥ — became the king of Mithilā.

Translation

The son of Purujit was Ariṣṭanemi, and his son was Śrutāyu. Śrutāyu begot a son named Supārśvaka, and Supārśvaka begot Citraratha. The son of Citraratha was Kṣemādhi, who became the king of Mithilā.

Devanagari

तस्मात् समरथस्तस्य सुत: सत्यरथस्तत: ।
आसीदुपगुरुस्तस्मादुपगुप्तोऽग्निसम्भव: ॥ २४ ॥

Text

tasmāt samarathas tasya
sutaḥ satyarathas tataḥ
āsīd upagurus tasmād
upagupto ’gni-sambhavaḥ

Synonyms

tasmāt — from Kṣemādhi; samarathaḥ — a son named Samaratha; tasya — from Samaratha; sutaḥ — son; satyarathaḥ — Satyaratha; tataḥ — from him (Satyaratha); āsīt — was born; upaguruḥ — Upaguru; tasmāt — from him; upaguptaḥ — Upagupta; agni-sambhavaḥ — a partial expansion of the demigod Agni.

Translation

The son of Kṣemādhi was Samaratha, and his son was Satyaratha. The son of Satyaratha was Upaguru, and the son of Upaguru was Upagupta, a partial expansion of the fire-god.

Devanagari

वस्वनन्तोऽथ तत्पुत्रो युयुधो यत् सुभाषण: ।
श्रुतस्ततो जयस्तस्माद् विजयोऽस्माद‍ृत: सुत: ॥ २५ ॥

Text

vasvananto ’tha tat-putro
yuyudho yat subhāṣaṇaḥ
śrutas tato jayas tasmād
vijayo ’smād ṛtaḥ sutaḥ

Synonyms

vasvanantaḥ — Vasvananta; atha — thereafter (the son of Upagupta); tat-putraḥ — his son; yuyudhaḥ — by the name Yuyudha; yat — from Yuyudha; subhāṣaṇaḥ — a son named Subhāṣaṇa; śrutaḥ tataḥ — and the son of Subhāṣaṇa was Śruta; jayaḥ tasmāt — the son of Śruta was Jaya; vijayaḥ — a son named Vijaya; asmāt — from Jaya; ṛtaḥ — Ṛta; sutaḥ — a son.

Translation

The son of Upagupta was Vasvananta, the son of Vasvananta was Yuyudha, the son of Yuyudha was Subhāṣaṇa, and the son of Subhāṣaṇa was Śruta. The son of Śruta was Jaya, from whom there came Vijaya. The son of Vijaya was Ṛta.

Devanagari

शुनकस्तत्सुतो जज्ञे वीतहव्यो धृतिस्तत: ।
बहुलाश्वो धृतेस्तस्य कृतिरस्य महावशी ॥ २६ ॥

Text

śunakas tat-suto jajñe
vītahavyo dhṛtis tataḥ
bahulāśvo dhṛtes tasya
kṛtir asya mahāvaśī

Synonyms

śunakaḥ — Śunaka; tat-sutaḥ — the son of Ṛta; jajñe — was born; vītahavyaḥ — Vītahavya; dhṛtiḥ — Dhṛti; tataḥ — the son of Vītahavya; bahulāśvaḥ — Bahulāśva; dhṛteḥ — from Dhṛti; tasya — his son; kṛtiḥ — Kṛti; asya — of Kṛti; mahāvaśī — there was a son named Mahāvaśī.

Translation

The son of Ṛta was Śunaka, the son of Śunaka was Vītahavya, the son of Vītahavya was Dhṛti, and the son of Dhṛti was Bahulāśva. The son of Bahulāśva was Kṛti, and his son was Mahāvaśī.

Devanagari

एते वै मैथिला राजन्नात्मविद्याविशारदा: ।
योगेश्वरप्रसादेन द्वन्द्वैर्मुक्ता गृहेष्वपि ॥ २७ ॥

Text

ete vai maithilā rājann
ātma-vidyā-viśāradāḥ
yogeśvara-prasādena
dvandvair muktā gṛheṣv api

Synonyms

ete — all of them; vai — indeed; maithilāḥ — the descendants of Mithila; rājan — O King; ātma-vidyā-viśāradāḥ — expert in spiritual knowledge; yogeśvara-prasādena — by the grace of Yogeśvara, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa; dvandvaiḥ muktāḥ — they were all freed from the duality of the material world; gṛheṣu api — even though staying at home.

Translation

Śukadeva Gosvāmī said: My dear King Parīkṣit, all the kings of the dynasty of Mithila were completely in knowledge of their spiritual identity. Therefore, even though staying at home, they were liberated from the duality of material existence.

Purport

This material world is called dvaita, or duality. The Caitanya-caritāmṛta (Antya 4.176) says:

‘dvaite’ bhadrābhadra-jñāna, saba — ‘manodharma’
‘ei bhāla, ei manda,’ — ei saba ‘bhrama’

In the world of duality — that is to say, in the material world — so-called goodness and badness are both the same. Therefore, in this world, to distinguish between good and bad, happiness and distress, is meaningless because they are both mental concoctions (manodharma). Because everything here is miserable and troublesome, to create an artificial situation and pretend it to be full of happiness is simply illusion. The liberated person, being above the influence of the three modes of material nature, is unaffected by such dualities in all circumstances. He remains Kṛṣṇa conscious by tolerating so-called happiness and distress. This is also confirmed in Bhagavad-gītā (2.14):

mātrā-sparśās tu kaunteya
śītoṣṇa-sukha-duḥkhadāḥ
āgamāpāyino ’nityās
tāṁs titikṣasva bhārata

“O son of Kuntī, the nonpermanent appearance of happiness and distress, and their disappearance in due course, are like the appearance and disappearance of winter and summer seasons. They arise from sense perception, O scion of Bharata, and one must learn to tolerate them without being disturbed.” Those who are liberated, being on the transcendental platform of rendering service to the Lord, do not care about so-called happiness and distress. They know that these are like changing seasons, which are perceivable by contact with the material body. Happiness and distress come and go. Therefore a paṇḍita, a learned man, is not concerned with them. As it is said, gatāsūn agatāsūṁś ca nānuśocanti paṇḍitāḥ. The body is dead from the very beginning because it is a lump of matter. It has no feelings of happiness and distress. Because the soul within the body is in the bodily concept of life, he suffers happiness and distress, but these come and go. It is understood herewith that the kings born in the dynasty of Mithila were all liberated persons, unaffected by the so-called happiness and distress of this world.

Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Ninth Canto, Thirteenth Chapter, of the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, entitled “The Dynasty of Mahārāja Nimi.”