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CHAPTER SIX

Mahārāja Parīkṣit Passes Away

This chapter describes Mahārāja Parīkṣit’s attainment of liberation, Mahārāja Janamejaya’s performance of sacrifice for killing all snakes, the origin of the Vedas, and Śrīla Vedavyāsa’s dividing of the Vedic literature.

After hearing the words of Śrī Śukadeva, Mahārāja Parīkṣit stated that by having listened to the Bhāgavatam, which is the compendium of the Purāṇas and which is full of the nectarean pastimes of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Uttamaḥśloka, Parīkṣit had attained the transcendental position of fearlessness and oneness with the Supreme. His ignorance had been dispelled, and by the mercy of Śrī Śukadeva he had gained sight of the supremely auspicious personal form of God, namely the Personality of Godhead, Śrī Hari. As a result, he had cast aside all fear of death. Śrī Parīkṣit Mahārāja then begged Śukadeva Gosvāmī to permit him to fix his heart upon the lotus feet of Lord Hari and give up his life. Granting this permission, Śrī Śukadeva rose and departed. Subsequently Mahārāja Parīkṣit, free of all doubts, sat down in yogic posture and merged himself in meditation upon the Supersoul. Then the snake-bird Takṣaka, arriving in the disguise of a brāhmaṇa, bit him, and the body of the saintly king immediately burned to ashes.

Janamejaya, the son of Parīkṣit, became very angry when he received news of his father’s death, and he began a sacrificial performance for the purpose of destroying all the snakes. Even though Takṣaka received protection from Indra, he nevertheless became attracted by the mantras and was about to fall into the fire. Seeing this, Bṛhaspati, the son of Aṅgirā Ṛṣi, came and advised Mahārāja Janamejaya that Takṣaka could not be killed because he had drunk the nectar of the demigods. Furthermore, Bṛhaspati said that all living entities must enjoy the fruits of their past activities. Therefore the king should give up this sacrifice. Janamejaya was thus convinced by the words of Bṛhaspati and stopped his sacrifice.

Thereafter Sūta Gosvāmī, in response to questions from Śrī Śaunaka, described the divisions of the Vedas. From the heart of the topmost demigod, Brahmā, came the subtle transcendental vibration, and from this subtle sound vibration arose the syllable om, greatly potent and self-luminous. Using this oṁkāra, Lord Brahmā created the original Vedas and taught them to his sons, Marīci and others, who were all saintly leaders of the brāhmaṇa community. This body of Vedic knowledge was handed down through the disciplic succession of spiritual masters until the end of Dvāpara-yuga, when Lord Vyāsadeva divided it into four parts and instructed various schools of sages in these four saṁhitās. When the sage Yājñavalkya was rejected by his spiritual master, he had to give up all the Vedic mantras he had received from him. To obtain new mantras of the Yajur Veda, Yājñavalkya worshiped the Supreme Lord in the form of the sun-god. Śrī Sūryadeva subsequently fulfilled his prayer.

Devanagari

सूत उवाच
एतन्निशम्य मुनिनाभिहितं परीक्षिद्
व्यासात्मजेन निखिलात्मद‍ृशा समेन ।
तत्पादमूलमुपसृत्य नतेन मूर्ध्ना
बद्धाञ्जलिस्तमिदमाह स विष्णुरात: ॥ १ ॥

Text

sūta uvāca
etan niśamya muninābhihitaṁ parīkṣid
vyāsātmajena nikhilātma-dṛśā samena
tat-pāda-mūlam upasṛtya natena mūrdhnā
baddhāñjalis tam idam āha sa viṣṇurātaḥ

Synonyms

sūtaḥ uvāca — Sūta Gosvāmī said; etat — this; niśamya — hearing; muninā — by the sage (Śukadeva); abhihitam — narrated; parīkṣit — Mahārāja Parīkṣit; vyāsa-ātma-jena — by the son of Vyāsadeva; nikhila — of all living beings; ātma — the Supreme Lord; dṛśā — who sees; samena — who is perfectly equipoised; tat — of him (Śukadeva); pāda-mūlam — to the lotus feet; upasṛtya — going up; natena — bowed down; mūrdhnā — with his head; baddha-añjaliḥ — his arms folded in supplication; tam — to him; idam — this; āha — said; saḥ — he; viṣṇu-rātaḥ — Parīkṣit, who while still in the womb had been protected by Lord Kṛṣṇa Himself.

Translation

Sūta Gosvāmī said: After hearing all that was narrated to him by the self-realized and equipoised Śukadeva, the son of Vyāsadeva, Mahārāja Parīkṣit humbly approached his lotus feet. Bowing his head down upon the sage’s feet, the King, who had lived his entire life under the protection of Lord Viṣṇu, folded his hands in supplication and spoke as follows.

Purport

According to Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura, some of the sages present while Śukadeva was instructing King Parīkṣit were impersonalist philosophers. Thus the word samena indicates that in the previous chapter Śukadeva Gosvāmī had spoken the philosophy of self-realization in a way pleasing to such intellectual yogīs.

Devanagari

राजोवाच
सिद्धोऽस्म्यनुगृहीतोऽस्मि भवता करुणात्मना ।
श्रावितो यच्च मे साक्षादनादिनिधनो हरि: ॥ २ ॥

Text

rājovāca
siddho ’smy anugṛhīto ’smi
bhavatā karuṇātmanā
śrāvito yac ca me sākṣād
anādi-nidhano hariḥ

Synonyms

rājā uvāca — King Parīkṣit said; siddhaḥ — fully successful; asmi — I am; anugṛhītaḥ — shown great mercy; asmi — I am; bhavatā — by your good self; karuṇā-ātmanā — who are full of mercy; śrāvitaḥ — has been described aurally; yat — because; ca — and; me — to me; sākṣāt — directly; anādi — who has no beginning; nidhanaḥ — or end; hariḥ — the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

Translation

Mahārāja Parīkṣit said: I have now achieved the purpose of my life, because a great and merciful soul like you has shown such kindness to me. You have personally spoken to me this narration of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Hari, who is without beginning or end.

Devanagari

नात्यद्भ‍ुतमहं मन्ये महतामच्युतात्मनाम् ।
अज्ञेषु तापतप्तेषु भूतेषु यदनुग्रह: ॥ ३ ॥

Text

nāty-adbhutam ahaṁ manye
mahatām acyutātmanām
ajñeṣu tāpa-tapteṣu
bhūteṣu yad anugrahaḥ

Synonyms

na — not; ati-adbhutam — very surprising; aham — I; manye — think; mahatām — for the great souls; acyuta-ātmanām — whose minds are always absorbed in Lord Kṛṣṇa; ajñeṣu — upon the ignorant; tāpa — by the distresses of material life; tapteṣu — tormented; bhūteṣu — upon the conditioned souls; yat — which; anugrahaḥ — mercy.

Translation

I do not consider it at all amazing that great souls such as yourself, whose minds are always absorbed in the infallible Personality of Godhead, show mercy to the foolish conditioned souls, tormented as we are by the problems of material life.

Devanagari

पुराणसंहितामेतामश्रौष्म भवतो वयम् ।
यस्यां खलूत्तम:श्लोको भगवाननुवर्ण्यते ॥ ४ ॥

Text

purāṇa-saṁhitām etām
aśrauṣma bhavato vayam
yasyāṁ khalūttamaḥ-śloko
bhagavān anuvarṇyate

Synonyms

purāṇa-saṁhitām — essential summary of all the Purāṇas; etām — this; aśrauṣma — have heard; bhavataḥ — from you; vayam — we; yasyām — in which; khalu — indeed; uttamaḥ-ślokaḥ — who is always described in choice poetry; bhagavān — the Personality of Godhead; anuvarṇyate — is fittingly described.

Translation

I have heard from you this Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, which is the perfect summary of all the Purāṇas and which perfectly describes the Supreme Lord, Uttamaḥśloka.

Devanagari

भगवंस्तक्षकादिभ्यो मृत्युभ्यो न बिभेम्यहम् ।
प्रविष्टो ब्रह्म निर्वाणमभयं दर्शितं त्वया ॥ ५ ॥

Text

bhagavaṁs takṣakādibhyo
mṛtyubhyo na bibhemy aham
praviṣṭo brahma nirvāṇam
abhayaṁ darśitaṁ tvayā

Synonyms

bhagavan — my lord; takṣaka — from the snake-bird Takṣaka; ādibhyaḥ — or other living entities; mṛtyubhyaḥ — from repeated deaths; na bibhemi — do not fear; aham — I; praviṣṭaḥ — having entered; brahma — the Absolute Truth; nirvāṇam — exclusive of everything material; abhayam — fearlessness; darśitam — shown; tvayā — by you.

Translation

My lord, I now have no fear of Takṣaka or any other living being, or even of repeated deaths, because I have absorbed myself in that purely spiritual Absolute Truth, which you have revealed and which destroys all fear.

Devanagari

अनुजानीहि मां ब्रह्मन् वाचं यच्छाम्यधोक्षजे ।
मुक्तकामाशयं चेत: प्रवेश्य विसृजाम्यसून् ॥ ६ ॥

Text

anujānīhi māṁ brahman
vācaṁ yacchāmy adhokṣaje
mukta-kāmāśayaṁ cetaḥ
praveśya visṛjāmy asūn

Synonyms

anujānīhi — please give your permission; mām — to me; brahman — O great brāhmaṇa; vācam — my speech (and all other sensory functions); yacchāmi — I shall place; adhokṣaje — within the Supreme Personality of Godhead; mukta — having given up; kāma-āśayam — all lusty desires; cetaḥ — my mind; praveśya — absorbing; visṛjāmi — I shall give up; asūn — my life air.

Translation

O brāhmaṇa, please give me permission to resign my speech and the functions of all my senses unto Lord Adhokṣaja. Allow me to absorb my mind, purified of lusty desires, within Him and to thus give up my life.

Purport

Śukadeva Gosvāmī asked King Parīkṣit, “What more do you wish to hear?” Now the King replies that he has perfectly understood the message of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam and that he is ready, without further discussion, to go back home, back to Godhead.

Devanagari

अज्ञानं च निरस्तं मे ज्ञानविज्ञाननिष्ठया ।
भवता दर्शितं क्षेमं परं भगवत: पदम् ॥ ७ ॥

Text

ajñānaṁ ca nirastaṁ me
jñāna-vijñāna-niṣṭhayā
bhavatā darśitaṁ kṣemaṁ
paraṁ bhagavataḥ padam

Synonyms

ajñānam — ignorance; ca — also; nirastam — eradicated; me — my; jñāna — in knowledge of the Supreme Lord; vijñāna — and direct realization of His opulence and sweetness; niṣṭhayā — by becoming fixed; bhavatā — by you; darśitam — has been shown; kṣemam — all-auspicious; param — supreme; bhagavataḥ — of the Lord; padam — the Personality.

Translation

You have revealed to me that which is most auspicious, the supreme personal feature of the Lord. I am now fixed in knowledge and self-realization, and my ignorance has been eradicated.

Devanagari

सूत उवाच
इत्युक्तस्तमनुज्ञाप्य भगवान् बादरायणि: ।
जगाम भिक्षुभि: साकं नरदेवेन पूजित: ॥ ८ ॥

Text

sūta uvāca
ity uktas tam anujñāpya
bhagavān bādarāyaṇiḥ
jagāma bhikṣubhiḥ sākaṁ
nara-devena pūjitaḥ

Synonyms

sūtaḥ uvāca — Śrī Sūta Gosvāmī said; iti — thus; uktaḥ — spoken to; tam — him; anujñāpya — giving permission; bhagavān — the powerful saint; bādarāyaṇiḥ — Śukadeva, the son of Bādarāyaṇa Vedavyāsa; jagāma — went away; bhikṣubhiḥ — the renounced sages; sākam — along with; nara-devena — by the King; pūjitaḥ — worshiped.

Translation

Sūta Gosvāmī said: Thus requested, the saintly son of Śrīla Vyāsadeva gave his permission to King Parīkṣit. Then, after being worshiped by the King and all the sages present, Śukadeva departed from that place.

Devanagari

परीक्षिदपि राजर्षिरात्मन्यात्मानमात्मना ।
समाधाय परं दध्यावस्पन्दासुर्यथा तरु: ॥ ९ ॥
प्राक्कूले बर्हिष्यासीनो गङ्गाकूल उदङ्‍मुख: ।
ब्रह्मभूतो महायोगी नि:सङ्गश्छिन्नसंशय: ॥ १० ॥

Text

parīkṣid api rājarṣir
ātmany ātmānam ātmanā
samādhāya paraṁ dadhyāv
aspandāsur yathā taruḥ
prāk-kūle barhiṣy āsīno
gaṅgā-kūla udaṅ-mukhaḥ
brahma-bhūto mahā-yogī
niḥsaṅgaś chinna-saṁśayaḥ

Synonyms

parīkṣit — Mahārāja Parīkṣit; api — furthermore; rāja-ṛṣiḥ — the great saintly King; ātmani — within his own spiritual identity; ātmānam — his mind; ātmanā — by his intelligence; samādhāya — placing; param — upon the Supreme; dadhyau — he meditated; aspanda — motionless; asuḥ — his living air; yathā — just as; taruḥ — a tree; prāk-kūle — with the tips of its stalks facing east; barhiṣi — upon darbha grass; āsīnaḥ — sitting; gaṅgā-kūle — on the bank of the Gaṅgā; udak-mukhaḥ — facing north; brahma-bhūtaḥ — in perfect realization of his true identity; mahā-yogī — the exalted mystic; niḥsaṅgaḥ — free of all material attachment; chinna — broken off; saṁśayaḥ — all doubts.

Translation

Mahārāja Parīkṣit then sat down on the bank of the Ganges, upon a seat made of darbha grass with the tips of its stalks facing east, and turned himself toward the north. Having attained the perfection of yoga, he experienced full self-realization and was free of material attachment and doubt. The saintly King settled his mind within his spiritual self by pure intelligence and proceeded to meditate upon the Supreme Absolute Truth. His life air ceased to move, and he became as stationary as a tree.

Devanagari

तक्षक: प्रहितो विप्रा: क्रुद्धेन द्विजसूनुना ।
हन्तुकामो नृपं गच्छन् ददर्श पथि कश्यपम् ॥ ११ ॥

Text

takṣakaḥ prahito viprāḥ
kruddhena dvija-sūnunā
hantu-kāmo nṛpaṁ gacchan
dadarśa pathi kaśyapam

Synonyms

takṣakaḥ — the snake-bird Takṣaka; prahitaḥ — sent; viprāḥ — O learned brāhmaṇas; kruddhena — who had been angered; dvija — of the sage Śamīka; sūnunā — by the son; hantu-kāmaḥ — desirous of killing; nṛpam — the King; gacchan — while going; dadarśa — he saw; pathi — upon the road; kaśyapam — Kaśyapa Muni.

Translation

O learned brāhmaṇas, the snake-bird Takṣaka, who had been sent by the angry son of a brāhmaṇa, was going toward the King to kill him when he saw Kaśyapa Muni on the path.

Devanagari

तं तर्पयित्वा द्रविणैर्निवर्त्य विषहारिणम् ।
द्विजरूपप्रतिच्छन्न: कामरूपोऽदशन्नृपम् ॥ १२ ॥

Text

taṁ tarpayitvā draviṇair
nivartya viṣa-hāriṇam
dvija-rūpa-praticchannaḥ
kāma-rūpo ’daśan nṛpam

Synonyms

tam — him (Kaśyapa); tarpayitvā — gratifying; draviṇaiḥ — with valuable offerings; nivartya — stopping; viṣa-hāriṇam — an expert in counteracting poison; dvija-rūpa — in the form of a brāhmaṇa; praticchannaḥ — disguising himself; kāma-rūpaḥ — Takṣaka, who could assume any form he wished; adaśat — bit; nṛpam — King Parīkṣit.

Translation

Takṣaka flattered Kaśyapa by presenting him with valuable offerings and thereby stopped the sage, who was expert in counteracting poison, from protecting Mahārāja Parīkṣit. Then the snake-bird, who could assume any form he wished, disguised himself as a brāhmaṇa, approached the King and bit him.

Purport

Kaśyapa could counteract the poison of Takṣaka and demonstrated this power by bringing a palm tree back to life after Takṣaka had burned it to ashes by biting it with his fangs. According to the arrangement of destiny, Kaśyapa was diverted by Takṣaka, and the inevitable took place.

Devanagari

ब्रह्मभूतस्य राजर्षेर्देहोऽहिगरलाग्निना ।
बभूव भस्मसात् सद्य: पश्यतां सर्वदेहिनाम् ॥ १३ ॥

Text

brahma-bhūtasya rājarṣer
deho ’hi-garalāgninā
babhūva bhasmasāt sadyaḥ
paśyatāṁ sarva-dehinām

Synonyms

brahma-bhūtasya — of the fully self-realized; rāja-ṛṣeḥ — the saint among kings; dehaḥ — the body; ahi — of the snake; garala — from the poison; agninā — by the fire; babhūva — turned; bhasma-sāt — to ashes; sadyaḥ — immediately; paśyatām — while they were watching; sarva-dehinām — all embodied living beings.

Translation

While living beings all over the universe looked on, the body of the great self-realized saint among kings was immediately burned to ashes by the fire of the snake’s poison.

Devanagari

हाहाकारो महानासीद् भुवि खे दिक्षु सर्वत: ।
विस्मिता ह्यभवन् सर्वे देवासुरनरादय: ॥ १४ ॥

Text

hāhā-kāro mahān āsīd
bhuvi khe dikṣu sarvataḥ
vismitā hy abhavan sarve
devāsura-narādayaḥ

Synonyms

hāhā-kāraḥ — a cry of lamentation; mahān — great; āsīt — there was; bhuvi — on the earth; khe — in the sky; dikṣu — in the directions; sarvataḥ — all about; vismitāḥ — amazed; hi — indeed; abhavan — they became; sarve — all; deva — the demigods; asura — demons; nara — human beings; ādayaḥ — and other creatures.

Translation

There arose a terrible cry of lamentation in all directions on the earth and in the heavens, and all the demigods, demons, human beings and other creatures were astonished.

Devanagari

देवदुन्दुभयो नेदुर्गन्धर्वाप्सरसो जगु: ।
ववृषु: पुष्पवर्षाणि विबुधा: साधुवादिन: ॥ १५ ॥

Text

deva-dundubhayo nedur
gandharvāpsaraso jaguḥ
vavṛṣuḥ puṣpa-varṣāṇi
vibudhāḥ sādhu-vādinaḥ

Synonyms

deva — of the demigods; dundubhayaḥ — the kettledrums; neduḥ — resounded; gandharva-apsarasaḥ — the Gandharvas and Apsarās; jaguḥ — sang; vavṛṣuḥ — they showered down; puṣpa-varṣāṇi — rains of flowers; vibudhāḥ — the demigods; sādhu-vādinaḥ — speaking praise.

Translation

Kettledrums sounded in the regions of the demigods, and the celestial Gandharvas and Apsarās sang. The demigods showered flowers and spoke words of praise.

Purport

Although lamenting at first, all learned persons, including the demigods, soon realized that a great soul had gone back home, back to Godhead. This was certainly a cause for celebration.

Devanagari

जन्मेजय: स्वपितरं श्रुत्वा तक्षकभक्षितम् ।
यथा जुहाव सङ्‌क्रुद्धो नागान् सत्रे सह द्विजै: ॥ १६ ॥

Text

janmejayaḥ sva-pitaraṁ
śrutvā takṣaka-bhakṣitam
yathājuhāva saṅkruddho
nāgān satre saha dvijaiḥ

Synonyms

janmejayaḥ — King Janamejaya, the son of Parīkṣit; sva-pitaram — his own father; śrutvā — hearing; takṣaka — by Takṣaka, the snake-bird; bhakṣitam — bitten; yathā — properly; ājuhāva — offered as oblations; saṅkruddhaḥ — extremely angry; nāgān — the snakes; satre — in a great sacrifice; saha — along with; dvijaiḥbrāhmaṇas.

Translation

Hearing that his father had been fatally bitten by the snake-bird, Mahārāja Janamejaya became extremely angry and had brāhmaṇas perform a mighty sacrifice in which he offered all the snakes in the world into the sacrificial fire.

Devanagari

सर्पसत्रे समिद्धाग्नौ दह्यमानान् महोरगान् ।
द‍ृष्ट्वेन्द्रं भयसंविग्नस्तक्षक: शरणं ययौ ॥ १७ ॥

Text

sarpa-satre samiddhāgnau
dahyamānān mahoragān
dṛṣṭvendraṁ bhaya-saṁvignas
takṣakaḥ śaraṇaṁ yayau

Synonyms

sarpa-satre — in the snake sacrifice; samiddha — blazing; agnau — in the fire; dahyamānān — being burned; mahā-uragān — the great serpents; dṛṣṭvā — seeing; indram — to Indra; bhaya — with fear; saṁvignaḥ — very disturbed; takṣakaḥ — Takṣaka; śaraṇam — for shelter; yayau — went.

Translation

When Takṣaka saw even the most powerful serpents being burned in the blazing fire of that snake sacrifice, he was overwhelmed with fear and approached Lord Indra for shelter.

Devanagari

अपश्यंस्तक्षकं तत्र राजा पारीक्षितो द्विजान् ।
उवाच तक्षक: कस्मान्न दह्येतोरगाधम: ॥ १८ ॥

Text

apaśyaṁs takṣakaṁ tatra
rājā pārīkṣito dvijān
uvāca takṣakaḥ kasmān
na dahyetoragādhamaḥ

Synonyms

apaśyan — not seeing; takṣakam — Takṣaka; tatra — there; rājā — the King; pārīkṣitaḥ — Janamejaya; dvijān — to the brāhmaṇas; uvāca — said; takṣakaḥ — Takṣaka; kasmāt — why; na dahyeta — has not been burned; uraga — of all the serpents; adhamaḥ — the lowest.

Translation

When King Janamejaya did not see Takṣaka entering his sacrificial fire, he said to the brāhmaṇas: Why is not Takṣaka, the lowest of all serpents, burning in this fire?

Devanagari

तं गोपायति राजेन्द्र शक्र: शरणमागतम् ।
तेन संस्तम्भित: सर्पस्तस्मान्नाग्नौ पतत्यसौ ॥ १९ ॥

Text

taṁ gopāyati rājendra
śakraḥ śaraṇam āgatam
tena saṁstambhitaḥ sarpas
tasmān nāgnau pataty asau

Synonyms

tam — him (Takṣaka); gopāyati — is hiding; rāja-indra — O best of kings; śakraḥ — Lord Indra; śaraṇam — for shelter; āgatam — who has approached; tena — by that Indra; saṁstambhitaḥ — kept; sarpaḥ — the snake; tasmāt — thus; na — not; agnau — into the fire; patati — does fall; asau — he.

Translation

The brāhmaṇas replied: O best of kings, the snake Takṣaka has not fallen into the fire because he is being protected by Indra, whom he has approached for shelter. Indra is holding him back from the fire.

Devanagari

पारीक्षित इति श्रुत्वा प्राहर्त्विज उदारधी: ।
सहेन्द्रस्तक्षको विप्रा नाग्नौ किमिति पात्यते ॥ २० ॥

Text

pārīkṣita iti śrutvā
prāhartvija udāra-dhīḥ
sahendras takṣako viprā
nāgnau kim iti pātyate

Synonyms

pārīkṣitaḥ — King Janamejaya; iti — these words; śrutvā — hearing; prāha — replied; ṛtvijaḥ — to the priests; udāra — broad; dhīḥ — whose intelligence; saha — along with; indraḥ — Indra; takṣakaḥ — Takṣaka; viprāḥ — O brāhmaṇas; na — not; agnau — into the fire; kim — why; iti — indeed; pātyate — is made to fall.

Translation

The intelligent King Janamejaya, hearing these words, replied to the priests: Then, my dear brāhmaṇas, why not make Takṣaka fall into the fire, along with his protector, Indra?

Devanagari

तच्छ्रुत्वाजुहुवुर्विप्रा: सहेन्द्रं तक्षकं मखे ।
तक्षकाशु पतस्वेह सहेन्द्रेण मरुत्वता ॥ २१ ॥

Text

tac chrutvājuhuvur viprāḥ
sahendraṁ takṣakaṁ makhe
takṣakāśu patasveha
sahendreṇa marutvatā

Synonyms

tat — that; śrutvā — hearing; ājuhuvuḥ — they performed the ritual of offering oblation; viprāḥ — the brāhmaṇa priests; saha — along with; indram — King Indra; takṣakam — the snake-bird Takṣaka; makhe — into the sacrificial fire; takṣaka — O Takṣaka; āśu — quickly; patasva — you should fall; iha — here; saha indreṇa — together with Indra; marut-vatā — who is accompanied by all the demigods.

Translation

Hearing this, the priests then chanted this mantra for offering Takṣaka together with Indra as an oblation into the sacrificial fire: O Takṣaka, fall immediately into this fire, together with Indra and his entire host of demigods!

Devanagari

इति ब्रह्मोदिताक्षेपै: स्थानादिन्द्र: प्रचालित: ।
बभूव सम्भ्रान्तमति: सविमान: सतक्षक: ॥ २२ ॥

Text

iti brahmoditākṣepaiḥ
sthānād indraḥ pracālitaḥ
babhūva sambhrānta-matiḥ
sa-vimānaḥ sa-takṣakaḥ

Synonyms

iti — thus; brahma — by the brāhmaṇas; udita — spoken; ākṣepaiḥ — by the insulting words; sthānāt — from his place; indraḥ — Lord Indra; pracālitaḥ — thrown; babhūva — became; sambhrānta — disturbed; matiḥ — in his mind; sa-vimānaḥ — along with his heavenly airplane; sa-takṣakaḥ — along with Takṣaka.

Translation

When Lord Indra, along with his airplane and Takṣaka, was suddenly thrown from his position by these insulting words of the brāhmaṇas, he became very disturbed.

Devanagari

तं पतन्तं विमानेन सहतक्षकमम्बरात् ।
विलोक्याङ्गिरस: प्राह राजानं तं बृहस्पति: ॥ २३ ॥

Text

taṁ patantaṁ vimānena
saha-takṣakam ambarāt
vilokyāṅgirasaḥ prāha
rājānaṁ taṁ bṛhaspatiḥ

Synonyms

tam — him; patantam — falling; vimānena — in his airplane; saha-takṣakam — with Takṣaka; ambarāt — from the sky; vilokya — observing; āṅgirasaḥ — the son of Aṅgirā; prāha — spoke; rājānam — to the King (Janamejaya); tam — to him; bṛhaspatiḥ — Bṛhaspati.

Translation

Bṛhaspati, the son of Aṅgirā Muni, seeing Indra falling from the sky in his airplane along with Takṣaka, approached King Janamejaya and spoke to him as follows.

Devanagari

नैष त्वया मनुष्येन्द्र वधमर्हति सर्पराट् ।
अनेन पीतममृतमथ वा अजरामर: ॥ २४ ॥

Text

naiṣa tvayā manuṣyendra
vadham arhati sarpa-rāṭ
anena pītam amṛtam
atha vā ajarāmaraḥ

Synonyms

na — not; eṣaḥ — this snake-bird; tvayā — by you; manuṣya-indra — O great ruler of men; vadham — murder; arhati — deserves; sarpa-rāṭ — the king of snakes; anena — by him; pītam — has been drunk; amṛtam — the nectar of the demigods; atha — therefore; vai — certainly; ajara — free from the effects of old age; amaraḥ — virtually immortal.

Translation

O King among men, it is not fitting that this king of snakes meet death at your hands, for he has drunk the nectar of the immortal demigods. Consequently he is not subject to the ordinary symptoms of old age and death.

Devanagari

जीवितं मरणं जन्तोर्गति: स्वेनैव कर्मणा ।
राजंस्ततोऽन्यो नास्त्यस्य प्रदाता सुखदु:खयो: ॥ २५ ॥

Text

jīvitaṁ maraṇaṁ jantor
gatiḥ svenaiva karmaṇā
rājaṁs tato ’nyo nāsty asya
pradātā sukha-duḥkhayoḥ

Synonyms

jīvitam — the living; maraṇam — the dying; jantoḥ — of a living being; gatiḥ — the destination in his next life; svena — by his own; eva — only; karmaṇā — work; rājan — O King; tataḥ — than that; anyaḥ — another; na asti — there is not; asya — for him; pradātā — bestower; sukha-duḥkhayoḥ — of happiness and distress.

Translation

The life and death of an embodied soul and his destination in the next life are all caused by himself through his own activity. Therefore, O King, no other agent is actually responsible for creating one’s happiness and distress.

Purport

Although King Parīkṣit apparently died by the bite of Takṣaka, it was Lord Kṛṣṇa Himself who brought the King back to the kingdom of God. Bṛhaspati wanted young King Janamejaya to see things from the spiritual point of view.

Devanagari

सर्पचौराग्निविद्युद्‌भ्य: क्षुत्तृड्‌व्याध्यादिभिर्नृप ।
पञ्चत्वमृच्छते जन्तुर्भुङ्क्त आरब्धकर्म तत् ॥ २६ ॥

Text

sarpa-caurāgni-vidyudbhyaḥ
kṣut-tṛd-vyādhy-ādibhir nṛpa
pañcatvam ṛcchate jantur
bhuṅkta ārabdha-karma tat

Synonyms

sarpa — from snakes; caura — thieves; agni — fire; vidyudbhyaḥ — and lightning; kṣut — from hunger; tṛṭ — thirst; vyādhi — disease; ādibhiḥ — and other agents; nṛpa — O King; pañcatvam — death; ṛcchate — obtains; jantuḥ — the conditioned living entity; bhuṅkte — he enjoys; ārabdha — already created by his past work; karma — the fruitive reaction; tat — that.

Translation

When a conditioned soul is killed by snakes, thieves, fire, lightning, hunger, disease or anything else, he is experiencing the reaction to his own past work.

Purport

According to Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura, King Parīkṣit obviously was not suffering the reaction of past karma. As a great devotee he was personally brought back home, back to Godhead, by the Lord.

Devanagari

तस्मात् सत्रमिदं राजन् संस्थीयेताभिचारिकम् ।
सर्पा अनागसो दग्धा जनैर्दिष्टं हि भुज्यते ॥ २७ ॥

Text

tasmāt satram idaṁ rājan
saṁsthīyetābhicārikam
sarpā anāgaso dagdhā
janair diṣṭaṁ hi bhujyate

Synonyms

tasmāt — therefore; satram — sacrifice; idam — this; rājan — O King; saṁsthīyeta — should be stopped; ābhicārikam — done with intent to harm; sarpāḥ — the serpents; anāgasaḥ — innocent; dagdhāḥ — burned; janaiḥ — by persons; diṣṭam — fate; hi — indeed; bhujyate — is suffered.

Translation

Therefore, my dear King, please stop this sacrificial performance, which was initiated with the intent of doing harm to others. Many innocent snakes have already been burned to death. Indeed, all persons must suffer the unforeseen consequences of their past activities.

Purport

Bṛhaspati here admits that although the snakes appeared to be innocent, by the Lord’s arrangement they were also being punished for previous vicious activities.

Devanagari

सूत उवाच
इत्युक्त: स तथेत्याह महर्षेर्मानयन् वच: ।
सर्पसत्रादुपरत: पूजयामास वाक्पतिम् ॥ २८ ॥

Text

sūta uvāca
ity uktaḥ sa tathety āha
maharṣer mānayan vacaḥ
sarpa-satrād uparataḥ
pūjayām āsa vāk-patim

Synonyms

sūtaḥ uvāca — Sūta Gosvāmī said; iti — thus; uktaḥ — addressed; saḥ — he (Janamejaya); tathā iti — so be it; āha — he said; mahā-ṛṣeḥ — of the great sage; mānayan — honoring; vacaḥ — the words; sarpa-satrāt — from the snake sacrifice; uparataḥ — ceasing; pūjayām āsa — he worshiped; vāk-patim — Bṛhaspati, the master of eloquence.

Translation

Sūta Gosvāmī continued: Advised in this manner, Mahārāja Janamejaya replied, “So be it.” Honoring the words of the great sage, he desisted from performing the snake sacrifice and worshiped Bṛhaspati, the most eloquent of sages.

Devanagari

सैषा विष्णोर्महामायाबाध्ययालक्षणा यया ।
मुह्यन्त्यस्यैवात्मभूता भूतेषु गुणवृत्तिभि: ॥ २९ ॥

Text

saiṣā viṣṇor mahā-māyā-
bādhyayālakṣaṇā yayā
muhyanty asyaivātma-bhūtā
bhūteṣu guṇa-vṛttibhiḥ

Synonyms

eṣā — this very; viṣṇoḥ — of the Supreme Lord, Viṣṇu; mahā-māyā — the illusory material energy; abādhyayā — by her who cannot be checked; alakṣaṇā — indiscernible; yayā — by whom; muhyanti — become bewildered; asya — of the Lord; eva — indeed; ātma-bhūtāḥ — the part-and-parcel spirit souls; bhūteṣu — within their material bodies; guṇa — of the modes of nature; vṛttibhiḥ — by the functions.

Translation

This is indeed the Supreme Lord Viṣṇu’s illusory energy, which is unstoppable and difficult to perceive. Although the individual spirit souls are part and parcel of the Lord, through the influence of this illusory energy they are bewildered by their identification with various material bodies.

Purport

The illusory energy of Lord Viṣṇu is so powerful that even the illustrious son of King Parīkṣit was temporarily misdirected. Because he was a devotee of Lord Kṛṣṇa, however, his bewilderment was quickly rectified. On the other hand, an ordinary, materialistic person without the special protection of the Lord plummets to the depths of material ignorance. Factually, materialistic persons are not interested in the protection of Lord Viṣṇu. Therefore their complete ruination is inevitable.

Devanagari

न यत्र दम्भीत्यभया विराजिता
मायात्मवादेऽसकृदात्मवादिभि: ।
न यद्विवादो विविधस्तदाश्रयो
मनश्च सङ्कल्पविकल्पवृत्ति यत् ॥ ३० ॥
न यत्र सृज्यं सृजतोभयो: परं
श्रेयश्च जीवस्त्रिभिरन्वितस्त्वहम् ।
तदेतदुत्सादितबाध्यबाधकं
निषिध्य चोर्मीन् विरमेत तन्मुनि: ॥ ३१ ॥

Text

na yatra dambhīty abhayā virājitā
māyātma-vāde ’sakṛd ātma-vādibhiḥ
na yad vivādo vividhas tad-āśrayo
manaś ca saṅkalpa-vikalpa-vṛtti yat
na yatra sṛjyaṁ sṛjatobhayoḥ paraṁ
śreyaś ca jīvas tribhir anvitas tv aham
tad etad utsādita-bādhya-bādhakaṁ
niṣidhya cormīn virameta tan muniḥ

Synonyms

na — not; yatra — in which; dambhī — he is a hypocrite; iti — thinking thus; abhayā — fearless; virājitā — visible; māyā — the illusory energy; ātma-vāde — when spiritual inquiry is being conducted; asakṛt — constantly; ātma-vādibhiḥ — by those who describe spiritual science; na — not; yat — in which; vivādaḥ — materialistic argument; vividhaḥ — taking many different forms; tat-āśrayaḥ — founded upon that illusory energy; manaḥ — the mind; ca — and; saṅkalpa — decision; vikalpa — and doubt; vṛtti — whose functions; yat — in which; na — not; yatra — in which; sṛjyam — the created products of the material world; sṛjatā — along with their causes; ubhayoḥ — by both; param — achieved; śreyaḥ — the benefits; ca — and; jīvaḥ — the living entity; tribhiḥ — with the three (modes of nature); anvitaḥ — joined; tu — indeed; aham — (conditioned by) false ego; tat etat — that indeed; utsādita — excluding; bādhya — the obstructed (conditioned living beings); bādhakam — and the obstructing (modes of material nature); niṣidhya — warding off; ca — and; ūrmīn — the waves (of false ego and so on); virameta — should take special pleasure; tat — in that; muniḥ — a sage.

Translation

But there exists a supreme reality, in which the illusory energy cannot fearlessly dominate, thinking, “I can control this person because he is deceitful.” In that highest reality there are no illusory argumentative philosophies. Rather, there the true students of spiritual science constantly engage in authorized spiritual investigation. In that supreme reality there is no manifestation of the material mind, which functions in terms of alternating decision and doubt. Created material products, their subtle causes and the goals of enjoyment attained by their utilization do not exist there. Furthermore, in that supreme reality there is no conditioned spirit, covered by false ego and the three modes of nature. That reality excludes everything limited or limiting. One who is wise should therefore stop the waves of material life and enjoy within that Supreme Truth.

Purport

The illusory energy of the Lord, Māyā, can freely exert her influence over those who are hypocritical, deceitful and disobedient to the laws of God. Since the Personality of Godhead is free of all material qualities, Māyā herself becomes fearful in His presence. As stated by Lord Brahmā (vilajjamānayā yasya sthātum īkṣa-pate ’muyā): “Māyā herself is ashamed to stand face to face with the Supreme Lord.”

In the supreme spiritual reality, useless academic wrangling is completely absent. As stated in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (6.4.31):

yac-chaktayo vadatāṁ vādināṁ vai
vivāda-saṁvāda-bhuvo bhavanti
kurvanti caiṣāṁ muhur ātma-mohaṁ
tasmai namo ’nanta-guṇāya bhūmne

“Let me offer my respectful obeisances unto the all-pervading Supreme Personality of Godhead, who possesses unlimited transcendental qualities. Acting from within the cores of the hearts of all philosophers, who propagate various views, He causes them to forget their own souls while sometimes agreeing and sometimes disagreeing among themselves. Thus He creates within this material world a situation in which they are unable to come to a conclusion. I offer my obeisances unto Him.”

Devanagari

परं पदं वैष्णवमामनन्ति तद्
यन्नेति नेतीत्यतदुत्सिसृक्षव: ।
विसृज्य दौरात्म्यमनन्यसौहृदा
हृदोपगुह्यावसितं समाहितै: ॥ ३२ ॥

Text

paraṁ padaṁ vaiṣṇavam āmananti tad
yan neti netīty atad-utsisṛkṣavaḥ
visṛjya daurātmyam ananya-sauhṛdā
hṛdopaguhyāvasitaṁ samāhitaiḥ

Synonyms

param — the supreme; padam — situation; vaiṣṇavam — of Lord Viṣṇu; āmananti — they designate; tat — that; yat — which; na iti na iti — “not this, not this”; iti — thus analyzing; atat — everything extraneous; utsisṛkṣavaḥ — those who are desirous of giving up; visṛjya — rejecting; daurātmyam — petty materialism; ananya — placing nowhere else; sauhṛdāḥ — their affection; hṛdā — within their hearts; upaguhya — embracing Him; avasitam — who is captured; samāhitaiḥ — by those who meditate upon Him in trance.

Translation

Those who desire to give up all that is not essentially real move systematically, by negative discrimination of the extraneous, to the supreme position of Lord Viṣṇu. Giving up petty materialism, they offer their love exclusively to the Absolute Truth within their hearts and embrace that highest truth in fixed meditation.

Purport

The words yan neti netīty atad-utsisṛkṣavaḥ indicate the process of negative discrimination, by which one engaged in the search for essential and absolute truth systematically rejects all that is superfluous, superficial and relative. Throughout the world people have gradually rejected the ultimate validity of political, social and even religious truths, but because they lack Kṛṣṇa consciousness they remain bewildered and cynical. However, as clearly stated here, paraṁ padaṁ vaiṣṇavam āmananti tat. Those who actually desire perfect knowledge must not only reject the nonessential but must also ultimately understand the essential spiritual reality called paraṁ padaṁ vaiṣṇavam: the supreme destination, the abode of Lord Viṣṇu. Padam indicates both the status and the abode of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, which can be understood only by those who give up petty materialism and adopt the position of ananya-sauhṛdam, exclusive love for the Lord. Such exclusive love is not narrow-minded or sectarian, because all living entities, being within the Lord, are automatically served when one directly serves the supreme entity. This process of rendering the highest service to the Lord and to all living entities constitutes the science of Kṛṣṇa consciousness, which is taught throughout Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.

Devanagari

त एतदधिगच्छन्ति विष्णोर्यत् परमं पदम् ।
अहं ममेति दौर्जन्यं न येषां देहगेहजम् ॥ ३३ ॥

Text

ta etad adhigacchanti
viṣṇor yat paramaṁ padam
ahaṁ mameti daurjanyaṁ
na yeṣāṁ deha-geha-jam

Synonyms

te — they; etat — this; adhigacchanti — come to know; viṣṇoḥ — of Lord Viṣṇu; yat — which; paramam — the supreme; padam — personal situation; aham — I; mama — my; iti — thus; daurjanyam — the depravity; na — is not; yeṣām — for whom; deha — the body; geha — and home; jam — based upon.

Translation

Such devotees come to understand the supreme transcendental situation of the Personality of Godhead, Lord Viṣṇu, because they are no longer polluted by the concepts of “I” and “my,” which are based on body and home.

Devanagari

अतिवादांस्तितिक्षेत नावमन्येत कञ्चन ।
न चेमं देहमाश्रित्य वैरं कुर्वीत केनचित् ॥ ३४ ॥

Text

ativādāṁs titikṣeta
nāvamanyeta kañcana
na cemaṁ deham āśritya
vairaṁ kurvīta kenacit

Synonyms

ati-vādān — insulting words; titikṣeta — one should tolerate; na — never; avamanyeta — one should disrespect; kañcana — anyone; na ca — nor; imam — this; deham — material body; āśritya — identifying with; vairam — enmity; kurvīta — one should have; kenacit — with anyone.

Translation

One should tolerate all insults and never fail to show proper respect to any person. Avoiding identification with the material body, one should not create enmity with anyone.

Devanagari

नमो भगवते तस्मै कृष्णायाकुण्ठमेधसे ।
यत्पादाम्बुरुहध्यानात् संहितामध्यगामिमाम् ॥ ३५ ॥

Text

namo bhagavate tasmai
kṛṣṇāyākuṇṭha-medhase
yat-pādāmburuha-dhyānāt
saṁhitām adhyagām imām

Synonyms

namaḥ — obeisances; bhagavate — to the Supreme Personality of Godhead; tasmai — to Him; kṛṣṇāya — Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa; akuṇṭha-medhase — whose power is never impeded; yat — whose; pāda-ambu-ruha — upon the lotus feet; dhyānāt — by meditation; saṁhitām — the scripture; adhyagām — I have assimilated; imām — this.

Translation

I offer my obeisances to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the invincible Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Simply by meditating upon His lotus feet I have been able to study and appreciate this great literature.

Devanagari

श्रीशौनक उवाच
पैलादिभिर्व्यासशिष्यैर्वेदाचार्यैर्महात्मभि: ।
वेदाश्च कथिता व्यस्ता एतत् सौम्याभिधेहि न: ॥ ३६ ॥

Text

śrī-śaunaka uvāca
pailādibhir vyāsa-śiṣyair
vedācāryair mahātmabhiḥ
vedāś ca kathitā vyastā
etat saumyābhidhehi naḥ

Synonyms

śrī-śaunakaḥ uvāca — Śrī Śaunaka Ṛṣi said; paila-ādibhiḥ — by Paila and others; vyāsa-śiṣyaiḥ — the disciples of Śrīla Vyāsadeva; veda-ācāryaiḥ — the standard authorities of the Vedas; mahā-ātmabhiḥ — whose intelligence was very great; vedāḥ — the Vedas; ca — and; kathitāḥ — spoken; vyastāḥ — divided; etat — this; saumya — O gentle Sūta; abhidhehi — please narrate; naḥ — to us.

Translation

Śaunaka Ṛṣi said: O gentle Sūta, please narrate to us how Paila and the other greatly intelligent disciples of Śrīla Vyāsadeva, who are known as the standard authorities of Vedic wisdom, spoke and edited the Vedas.

Devanagari

सूत उवाच
समाहितात्मनो ब्रह्मन् ब्रह्मण: परमेष्ठिन: ।
हृद्याकाशादभून्नादो वृत्तिरोधाद् विभाव्यते ॥ ३७ ॥

Text

sūta uvāca
samāhitātmano brahman
brahmaṇaḥ parameṣṭhinaḥ
hṛdy ākāśād abhūn nādo
vṛtti-rodhād vibhāvyate

Synonyms

sūtaḥ uvāca — Sūta Gosvāmī said; samāhita-ātmanaḥ — whose mind was perfectly fixed; brahman — O brāhmaṇa (Śaunaka); brahmaṇaḥ — of Lord Brahmā; parame-sthinaḥ — the most elevated of living beings; hṛdi — within the heart; ākāśāt — from out of the sky; abhūt — arose; nādaḥ — the transcendental subtle sound; vṛtti-rodhāt — by stopping the functioning (of the ears); vibhāvyate — is perceived.

Translation

Sūta Gosvāmī said: O brāhmaṇa, first the subtle vibration of transcendental sound appeared from the sky of the heart of the most elevated Lord Brahmā, whose mind was perfectly fixed in spiritual realization. One can perceive this subtle vibration when one stops all external hearing.

Purport

Because Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam is the supreme Vedic literature, the sages headed by Śaunaka desired to trace out its source.

Devanagari

यदुपासनया ब्रह्मन् योगिनो मलमात्मन: ।
द्रव्यक्रियाकारकाख्यं धूत्वा यान्त्यपुनर्भवम् ॥ ३८ ॥

Text

yad-upāsanayā brahman
yogino malam ātmanaḥ
dravya-kriyā-kārakākhyaṁ
dhūtvā yānty apunar-bhavam

Synonyms

yat — of which (subtle form of the Vedas); upāsanayā — by the worship; brahman — O brāhmaṇa; yoginaḥ — mystic sages; malam — the contamination; ātmanaḥ — of the heart; dravya — substance; kriyā — activity; kāraka — and performer; ākhyam — designated as such; dhūtvā — cleansing away; yānti — they achieve; apunaḥ-bhavam — freedom from rebirth.

Translation

By worship of this subtle form of the Vedas, O brāhmaṇa, mystic sages cleanse their hearts of all contamination caused by impurity of substance, activity and doer, and thus they attain freedom from repeated birth and death.

Devanagari

ततोऽभूत्‍त्रिवृदोंकारो योऽव्यक्तप्रभव: स्वराट् ।
यत्तल्ल‍िङ्गं भगवतो ब्रह्मण: परमात्मन: ॥ ३९ ॥

Text

tato ’bhūt tri-vṛd oṁkāro
yo ’vyakta-prabhavaḥ sva-rāṭ
yat tal liṅgaṁ bhagavato
brahmaṇaḥ paramātmanaḥ

Synonyms

tataḥ — from that; abhūt — came into being; tri-vṛt — threefold; oṁkāraḥ — the syllable om; yaḥ — which; avyakta — not apparent; prabhavaḥ — its influence; sva-rāṭ — self-manifesting; yat — which; tat — that; liṅgam — the representation; bhagavataḥ — of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; brahmaṇaḥ — of the Absolute Truth in His impersonal aspect; parama-ātmanaḥ — and of the Supersoul.

Translation

From that transcendental subtle vibration arose the oṁkāra composed of three sounds. The oṁkāra has unseen potencies and manifests automatically within a purified heart. It is the representation of the Absolute Truth in all three of His phases — the Supreme Personality, the Supreme Soul and the supreme impersonal truth.

Devanagari

श‍ृणोति य इमं स्फोटं सुप्तश्रोत्रे च शून्यद‍ृक् ।
येन वाग् व्यज्यते यस्य व्यक्तिराकाश आत्मन: ॥ ४० ॥
स्वधाम्नो ब्राह्मण: साक्षाद् वाचक: परमात्मन: ।
स सर्वमन्त्रोपनिषद्वेदबीजं सनातनम् ॥ ४१ ॥

Text

śṛṇoti ya imaṁ sphoṭaṁ
supta-śrotre ca śūnya-dṛk
yena vāg vyajyate yasya
vyaktir ākāśa ātmanaḥ
sva-dhāmno brahmaṇaḥ sākṣād
vācakaḥ paramātmanaḥ
sa sarva-mantropaniṣad
veda-bījaṁ sanātanam

Synonyms

śṛṇoti — hears; yaḥ — who; imam — this; sphoṭam — unmanifest and eternal subtle sound; supta-śrotre — when the sense of hearing is asleep; ca — and; śūnya-dṛk — devoid of material sight and other sensory functions; yena — by which; vāk — the expanse of Vedic sound; vyajyate — is elaborated; yasya — of which; vyaktiḥ — the manifestation; ākāśe — in the sky (of the heart); ātmanaḥ — from the soul; sva-dhāmnaḥ — who is His own origin; brahmaṇaḥ — of the Absolute Truth; sākṣāt — directly; vācakaḥ — the designating term; parama-ātmanaḥ — of the Supersoul; saḥ — that; sarva — of all; mantra — Vedic hymns; upaniṣat — the secret; veda — of the Vedas; bījam — the seed; sanātanam — eternal.

Translation

This oṁkāra, ultimately nonmaterial and imperceptible, is heard by the Supersoul without His possessing material ears or any other material senses. The entire expanse of Vedic sound is elaborated from oṁkāra, which appears from the soul, within the sky of the heart. It is the direct designation of the self-originating Absolute Truth, the Supersoul, and is the secret essence and eternal seed of all Vedic hymns.

Purport

The senses of a sleeping person do not function until he has awakened. Therefore, when a sleeping person is awakened by a noise, one may ask, “Who heard the noise?” The words supta-śrotre in this verse indicate that the Supreme Lord within the heart hears the sound and awakens the sleeping living entities. The Lord’s sensory activities always function on a superior level. Ultimately, all sounds vibrate within the sky, and in the internal region of the heart there is a type of sky meant for the vibration of Vedic sounds. The seed, or source, of all Vedic sounds is the oṁkāra. This is confirmed by the Vedic statement om ity etad brahmaṇo nediṣṭhaṁ nāma. The full elaboration of the Vedic seed sound is Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, the greatest Vedic literature.

Devanagari

तस्य ह्यासंस्त्रयो वर्णा अकाराद्या भृगूद्वह ।
धार्यन्ते यैस्त्रयो भावा गुणनामार्थवृत्तय: ॥ ४२ ॥

Text

tasya hy āsaṁs trayo varṇā
a-kārādyā bhṛgūdvaha
dhāryante yais trayo bhāvā
guṇa-nāmārtha-vṛttayaḥ

Synonyms

tasya — of that oṁkāra; hi — indeed; āsan — came into being; trayaḥ — three; varṇāḥ — sounds of the alphabet; a-kāra-ādyāḥ — beginning with the letter a; bhṛgu-udvaha — O most eminent of the descendants of Bhṛgu; dhāryante — are sustained; yaiḥ — by which three sounds; trayaḥ — the threefold; bhāvāḥ — states of existence; guṇa — the qualities of nature; nāma — names; artha — goals; vṛttayaḥ — and states of consciousness.

Translation

Oṁkāra exhibited the three original sounds of the alphabet — A, U and M. These three, O most eminent descendant of Bhṛgu, sustain all the different threefold aspects of material existence, including the three modes of nature, the names of the Ṛg, Yajur and Sāma Vedas, the goals known as the Bhūr, Bhuvar and Svar planetary systems, and the three functional platforms called waking consciousness, sleep and deep sleep.

Devanagari

ततोऽक्षरसमाम्नायमसृजद् भगवानज: ।
अन्तस्थोष्मस्वरस्पर्शह्रस्वदीर्घादिलक्षणम् ॥ ४३ ॥

Text

tato ’kṣara-samāmnāyam
asṛjad bhagavān ajaḥ
antasthoṣma-svara-sparśa-
hrasva-dīrghādi-lakṣaṇam

Synonyms

tataḥ — from that oṁkāra; akṣara — of the different sounds; samāmnāyam — the total collection; asṛjat — created; bhagavān — the powerful demigod; ajaḥ — unborn Brahmā; anta-stha — as the semivowels; uṣma — sibilants; svara — vowels; sparśa — and consonant stops; hrasva-dīrgha — in short and long forms; ādi — and so on; lakṣaṇam — characterized.

Translation

From that oṁkāra Lord Brahmā created all the sounds of the alphabet — the vowels, consonants, semivowels, sibilants and others — distinguished by such features as long and short measure.

Devanagari

तेनासौ चतुरो वेदांश्चतुर्भिर्वदनैर्विभु: ।
सव्याहृतिकान् सोंकारांश्चातुर्होत्रविवक्षया ॥ ४४ ॥

Text

tenāsau caturo vedāṁś
caturbhir vadanair vibhuḥ
sa-vyāhṛtikān soṁkārāṁś
cātur-hotra-vivakṣayā

Synonyms

tena — with that body of sounds; asau — he; caturaḥ — the four; vedānVedas; caturbhiḥ — from his four; vadanaiḥ — faces; vibhuḥ — the all-powerful; sa-vyāhṛtikān — along with the vyāhṛtis (the invocations of the names of the seven planetary systems: bhūḥ, bhuvaḥ, svaḥ, mahaḥ, janaḥ, tapaḥ and satya); sa-oṁkārān — along with the seed, om; cātuḥ-hotra — the four aspects of ritual sacrifice performed by the priests of each of the four Vedas; vivakṣayā — with the desire of describing.

Translation

All-powerful Brahmā made use of this collection of sounds to produce from his four faces the four Vedas, which appeared together with the sacred oṁkāra and the seven vyāhṛti invocations. His intention was to propagate the process of Vedic sacrifice according to the different functions performed by the priests of each of the four Vedas.

Devanagari

पुत्रानध्यापयत्तांस्तु ब्रह्मर्षीन् ब्रह्मकोविदान् ।
ते तु धर्मोपदेष्टार: स्वपुत्रेभ्य: समादिशन् ॥ ४५ ॥

Text

putrān adhyāpayat tāṁs tu
brahmarṣīn brahma-kovidān
te tu dharmopadeṣṭāraḥ
sva-putrebhyaḥ samādiśan

Synonyms

putrān — to his sons; adhyāpayat — he taught; tān — those Vedas; tu — and; brahma-ṛṣīn — to the great sages among the brāhmaṇas; brahma — in the art of Vedic recitation; kovidān — who were very expert; te — they; tu — moreover; dharma — in religious rituals; upadeṣṭāraḥ — instructors; sva-putrebhyaḥ — to their own sons; samādiśan — imparted.

Translation

Brahmā taught these Vedas to his sons, who were great sages among the brāhmaṇas and experts in the art of Vedic recitation. They in turn took the role of ācāryas and imparted the Vedas to their own sons.

Devanagari

ते परम्परया प्राप्तास्तत्तच्छिष्यैर्धृतव्रतै: ।
चतुर्युगेष्वथ व्यस्ता द्वापरादौ महर्षिभि: ॥ ४६ ॥

Text

te paramparayā prāptās
tat-tac-chiṣyair dhṛta-vrataiḥ
catur-yugeṣv atha vyastā
dvāparādau maharṣibhiḥ

Synonyms

te — these Vedas; paramparayā — by continuous disciplic succession; prāptāḥ — received; tat-tat — of each succeeding generation; śiṣyaiḥ — by the disciples; dhṛta-vrataiḥ — who were firm in their vows; catuḥ-yugeṣu — throughout the four ages; atha — then; vyastāḥ — were divided; dvāpara-ādau — at the end of the Dvāpara millennium; mahā-ṛṣibhiḥ — by great authorities.

Translation

In this way, throughout the cycles of four ages, generation after generation of disciples — all firmly fixed in their spiritual vows — have received these Vedas by disciplic succession. At the end of each Dvāpara-yuga the Vedas are edited into separate divisions by eminent sages.

Devanagari

क्षीणायुष: क्षीणसत्त्वान् दुर्मेधान् वीक्ष्य कालत: ।
वेदान्ब्रह्मर्षयो व्यस्यन् हृदिस्थाच्युतचोदिता: ॥ ४७ ॥

Text

kṣīṇāyuṣaḥ kṣīṇa-sattvān
durmedhān vīkṣya kālataḥ
vedān brahmarṣayo vyasyan
hṛdi-sthācyuta-coditāḥ

Synonyms

kṣīṇa-āyuṣaḥ — their life span diminished; kṣīṇa-sattvān — their strength diminished; durmedhān — of less intelligence; vīkṣya — observing; kālataḥ — by the effect of time; vedān — the Vedas; brahma-ṛṣayaḥ — the chief sages; vyasyan — divided up; hṛdi-stha — sitting within their hearts; acyuta — by the infallible Personality of Godhead; coditāḥ — inspired.

Translation

Observing that people in general were diminished in their life span, strength and intelligence by the influence of time, great sages took inspiration from the Personality of Godhead sitting within their hearts and systematically divided the Vedas.

Devanagari

अस्मिन्नप्यन्तरे ब्रह्मन् भगवान्लोकभावन: ।
ब्रह्मेशाद्यैर्लोकपालैर्याचितो धर्मगुप्तये ॥ ४८ ॥
पराशरात् सत्यवत्यामंशांशकलया विभु: ।
अवतीर्णो महाभाग वेदं चक्रे चतुर्विधम् ॥ ४९ ॥

Text

asminn apy antare brahman
bhagavān loka-bhāvanaḥ
brahmeśādyair loka-pālair
yācito dharma-guptaye
parāśarāt satyavatyām
aṁśāṁśa-kalayā vibhuḥ
avatīrṇo mahā-bhāga
vedaṁ cakre catur-vidham

Synonyms

asmin — in this; api — also; antare — rule of Manu; brahman — O brāhmaṇa (Śaunaka); bhagavān — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; loka — of the universe; bhāvanaḥ — the protector; brahma — by Brahmā; īśa — Śiva; ādyaiḥ — and the others; loka-pālaiḥ — the rulers of the various planets; yācitaḥ — requested; dharma-guptaye — for the protection of the principles of religion; parāśarāt — by Parāśara Muni; satyavatyām — in the womb of Satyavatī; aṁśa — of His plenary expansion (Saṅkarṣaṇa); aṁśa — of the expansion (Viṣṇu); kalayā — as the partial expansion; vibhuḥ — the Lord; avatīrṇaḥ — descended; mahā-bhāga — O most fortunate one; vedam — the Veda; cakre — he made; catuḥ-vidham — in four parts.

Translation

O brāhmaṇa, in the present age of Vaivasvata Manu, the leaders of the universe, led by Brahmā and Śiva, requested the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the protector of all the worlds, to save the principles of religion. O most fortunate Śaunaka, the almighty Lord, exhibiting a divine spark of a portion of His plenary portion, then appeared in the womb of Satyavatī as the son of Parāśara. In this form, named Kṛṣṇa Dvaipāyana Vyāsa, he divided the one Veda into four.

Devanagari

ऋगथर्वयजु:साम्नां राशीरुद्‍धृत्य वर्गश: ।
चतस्र: संहिताश्चक्रे मन्त्रैर्मणिगणा इव ॥ ५० ॥

Text

ṛg-atharva-yajuḥ-sāmnāṁ
rāśīr uddhṛtya vargaśaḥ
catasraḥ saṁhitāś cakre
mantrair maṇi-gaṇā iva

Synonyms

ṛk-atharva-yajuḥ-sāmnām — of the Ṛg, Atharva, Yajur and Sāma Vedas; rāśīḥ — the accumulation (of mantras); uddhṛtya — separating out; vargaśaḥ — in specific categories; catasraḥ — four; saṁhitāḥ — collections; cakre — he made; mantraiḥ — with the mantras; maṇi-gaṇāḥ — gems; iva — just as.

Translation

Śrīla Vyāsadeva separated the mantras of the Ṛg, Atharva, Yajur and Sāma Vedas into four divisions, just as one sorts out a mixed collection of jewels into piles. Thus he composed four distinct Vedic literatures.

Purport

When Lord Brahmā first spoke the four Vedas with his four mouths, the mantras were mixed together like an unsorted collection of various types of jewels. Śrīla Vyāsadeva sorted the Vedic mantras into four divisions (saṁhitās), which thus became the recognizable Ṛg, Atharva, Yajur and Sāma Vedas.

Devanagari

तासां स चतुर: शिष्यानुपाहूय महामति: ।
एकैकां संहितां ब्रह्मन्नेकैकस्मै ददौ विभु: ॥ ५१ ॥

Text

tāsāṁ sa caturaḥ śiṣyān
upāhūya mahā-matiḥ
ekaikāṁ saṁhitāṁ brahmann
ekaikasmai dadau vibhuḥ

Synonyms

tāsām — of those four collections; saḥ — he; caturaḥ — four; śiṣyān — disciples; upāhūya — calling near; mahā-matiḥ — the powerfully intelligent sage; eka-ekām — one by one; saṁhitām — a collection; brahman — O brāhmaṇa; eka-ekasmai — to each of them; dadau — he gave; vibhuḥ — the powerful Vyāsadeva.

Translation

The most powerful and intelligent Vyāsadeva called four of his disciples, O brāhmaṇa, and entrusted to each of them one of these four saṁhitās.

Devanagari

पैलाय संहितामाद्यां बह्‌वृचाख्यां उवाच ह ।
वैशम्पायनसंज्ञाय निगदाख्यं यजुर्गणम् ॥ ५२ ॥
साम्नां जैमिनये प्राह तथा छन्दोगसंहिताम् ।
अथर्वाङ्गिरसीं नाम स्वशिष्याय सुमन्तवे ॥ ५३ ॥

Text

pailāya saṁhitām ādyāṁ
bahvṛcākhyāṁ uvāca ha
vaiśampāyana-saṁjñāya
nigadākhyaṁ yajur-gaṇam
sāmnāṁ jaiminaye prāha
tathā chandoga-saṁhitām
atharvāṅgirasīṁ nāma
sva-śiṣyāya sumantave

Synonyms

pailāya — to Paila; saṁhitām — the collection; ādyām — first (of the Ṛg Veda); bahu-ṛca-ākhyam — called Bahvṛca; uvāca — he spoke; ha — indeed; vaiśampāyana-saṁjñāya — to the sage named Vaiśampāyana; nigada-ākhyam — known as Nigada; yajuḥ-gaṇam — the collection of Yajur mantras; sāmnām — the mantras of the Sāma Veda; jaiminaye — to Jaimini; prāha — he spoke; tathā — and; chandoga-saṁhitām — the saṁhitā named Chandoga; atharva-aṅgirasīm — the Veda ascribed to the sages Atharva and Aṅgirā; nāma — indeed; sva-śiṣyāya — to his disciple; sumantave — Sumantu.

Translation

Śrīla Vyāsadeva taught the first saṁhitā, the Ṛg Veda, to Paila and gave this collection the name Bahvṛca. To the sage Vaiśampāyana he spoke the collection of Yajur mantras named Nigada. He taught the Sāma Veda mantras, designated as the Chandoga-saṁhitā, to Jaimini, and he spoke the Atharva Veda to his dear disciple Sumantu.

Devanagari

पैल: स्वसंहितामूचे इन्द्रप्रमितये मुनि: ।
बाष्कलाय च सोऽप्याह शिष्येभ्य: संहितां स्वकाम् ॥ ५४ ॥
चतुर्धा व्यस्य बोध्याय याज्ञवल्क्‍‍याय भार्गव ।
पराशरायाग्निमित्र इन्द्रप्रमितिरात्मवान् ॥ ५५ ॥
अध्यापयत् संहितां स्वां माण्डूकेयमृषिं कविम् ।
तस्य शिष्यो देवमित्र: सौभर्यादिभ्य ऊचिवान् ॥ ५६ ॥

Text

pailaḥ sva-saṁhitām ūce
indrapramitaye muniḥ
bāṣkalāya ca so ’py āha
śiṣyebhyaḥ saṁhitāṁ svakām
caturdhā vyasya bodhyāya
yājñavalkyāya bhārgava
parāśarāyāgnimitra
indrapramitir ātmavān
adhyāpayat saṁhitāṁ svāṁ
māṇḍūkeyam ṛṣiṁ kavim
tasya śiṣyo devamitraḥ
saubhary-ādibhya ūcivān

Synonyms

pailaḥ — Paila; sva-saṁhitām — his own collection; ūce — spoke; indrapramitaye — to Indrapramiti; muniḥ — the sage; bāṣkalāya — to Bāṣkala; ca — and; saḥ — he (Bāṣkala); api — moreover; āha — spoke; śiṣyebhyaḥ — to his disciples; saṁhitām — the collection; svakām — his own; caturdhā — in four parts; vyasya — dividing; bodhyāya — to Bodhya; yājñavalkyāya — to Yājñavalkya; bhārgava — O descendant of Bhṛgu (Śaunaka); parāśarāya — to Parāśara; agnimitre — to Agnimitra; indrapramitiḥ — Indrapramiti; ātma-vān — the self-controlled; adhyāpayat — taught; saṁhitām — the collection; svām — his; māṇḍūkeyam — to Māṇḍūkeya; ṛṣim — the sage; kavim — scholarly; tasya — of him (Māṇḍūkeya); śiṣyaḥ — the disciple; devamitraḥ — Devamitra; saubhari-ādibhyaḥ — to Saubhari and others; ūcivān — spoke.

Translation

After dividing his saṁhitā into two parts, the wise Paila spoke it to Indrapramiti and Bāṣkala. Bāṣkala further divided his collection into four parts, O Bhārgava, and instructed them to his disciples Bodhya, Yājñavalkya, Parāśara and Agnimitra. Indrapramiti, the self-controlled sage, taught his saṁhitā to the learned mystic Māṇḍūkeya, whose disciple Devamitra later passed down the divisions of the Ṛg Veda to Saubhari and others.

Purport

According to Śrīla Śrīdhara Svāmī, Māṇḍūkeya was the son of Indrapramiti, from whom he received Vedic knowledge.

Devanagari

शाकल्यस्तत्सुत: स्वां तु पञ्चधा व्यस्य संहिताम् ।
वात्स्यमुद्गलशालीयगोखल्यशिशिरेष्वधात् ॥ ५७ ॥

Text

śākalyas tat-sutaḥ svāṁ tu
pañcadhā vyasya saṁhitām
vātsya-mudgala-śālīya-
gokhalya-śiśireṣv adhāt

Synonyms

śākalyaḥ — Śākalya; tat-sutaḥ — the son of Māṇḍūkeya; svām — his own; tu — and; pañcadhā — in five parts; vyasya — dividing; saṁhitām — the collection; vātsya-mudgala-śālīya — to Vātsya, Mudgala and Śālīya; gokhalya-śiśireṣu — and to Gokhalya and Śiśira; adhāt — gave.

Translation

The son of Māṇḍūkeya, named Śākalya, divided his own collection into five, entrusting one subdivision each to Vātsya, Mudgala, Śālīya, Gokhalya and Śiśira.

Devanagari

जातूकर्ण्यश्च तच्छिष्य: सनिरुक्तां स्वसंहिताम् ।
बलाकपैलजाबालविरजेभ्यो ददौ मुनि: ॥ ५८ ॥

Text

jātūkarṇyaś ca tac-chiṣyaḥ
sa-niruktāṁ sva-saṁhitām
balāka-paila-jābāla-
virajebhyo dadau muniḥ

Synonyms

jātūkarṇyaḥ — Jātūkarṇya; ca — and; tat-śiṣyaḥ — the disciple of Śākalya; sa-niruktām — along with a glossary explaining obscure terms; sva-saṁhitām — the collection he received; balāka-paila-jābāla-virajebhyaḥ — to Balāka, Paila, Jābāla and Viraja; dadau — passed down; muniḥ — the sage.

Translation

The sage Jātūkarṇya was also a disciple of Śākalya, and after dividing the saṁhitā he received from Śākalya into three parts, he added a fourth section, a Vedic glossary. He taught one of these parts to each of four disciples — Balāka, the second Paila, Jābāla and Viraja.

Devanagari

बाष्कलि: प्रतिशाखाभ्यो वालखिल्याख्यसंहिताम् ।
चक्रे वालायनिर्भज्य: काशारश्चैव तां दधु: ॥ ५९ ॥

Text

bāṣkaliḥ prati-śākhābhyo
vālakhilyākhya-saṁhitām
cakre vālāyanir bhajyaḥ
kāśāraś caiva tāṁ dadhuḥ

Synonyms

bāṣkaliḥ — Bāṣkali, the son of Bāṣkala; prati-śākhābhyaḥ — from all the different branches; vālakhilya-ākhya — entitled Vālakhilya; saṁhitām — the collection; cakre — he made; vālāyaniḥ — Vālāyani; bhajyaḥ — Bhajya; kāśāraḥ — Kāśāra; ca — and; eva — indeed; tām — that; dadhuḥ — they accepted.

Translation

Bāṣkali assembled the Vālakhilya-saṁhitā, a collection from all the branches of the Ṛg Veda. This collection was received by Vālāyani, Bhajya and Kāśāra.

Purport

According to Śrīla Śrīdhara Svāmī, Vālāyani, Bhajya and Kāśāra belonged to the Daitya community.

Devanagari

बह्‌वृचा: संहिता ह्येता एभिर्ब्रह्मर्षिभिर्धृता: ।
श्रुत्वैतच्छन्दसां व्यासं सर्वपापै: प्रमुच्यते ॥ ६० ॥

Text

bahvṛcāḥ saṁhitā hy etā
ebhir brahmarṣibhir dhṛtāḥ
śrutvaitac-chandasāṁ vyāsaṁ
sarva-pāpaiḥ pramucyate

Synonyms

bahu-ṛcāḥ — of the Ṛg Veda; saṁhitāḥ — the collections; hi — indeed; etāḥ — these; ebhiḥ — by these; brahma-ṛṣibhiḥ — saintly brāhmaṇas; dhṛtāḥ — maintained through disciplic succession; śrutvā — hearing; etat — their; chandasām — of the sacred verses; vyāsam — the process of division; sarva-pāpaiḥ — from all sins; pramucyate — one becomes delivered.

Translation

Thus these various saṁhitās of the Ṛg Veda were maintained through disciplic succession by these saintly brāhmaṇas. Simply by hearing of this distribution of the Vedic hymns, one will be freed from all sins.

Devanagari

वैशम्पायनशिष्या वै चरकाध्वर्यवोऽभवन् ।
यच्चेरुर्ब्रह्महत्यांह: क्षपणं स्वगुरोर्व्रतम् ॥ ६१ ॥

Text

vaiśampāyana-śiṣyā vai
carakādhvaryavo ’bhavan
yac cerur brahma-hatyāṁhaḥ
kṣapaṇaṁ sva-guror vratam

Synonyms

vaiśampāyana-śiṣyāḥ — the disciples of Vaiśampāyana; vai — indeed; caraka — named the Carakas; adhvaryavaḥ — authorities of the Atharva Veda; abhavan — became; yat — because; ceruḥ — they executed; brahma-hatyā — due to the killing of a brāhmaṇa; aṁhaḥ — of the sin; kṣapaṇam — the expiation; sva-guroḥ — for their own guru; vratam — the vow.

Translation

The disciples of Vaiśampāyana became authorities in the Atharva Veda. They were known as the Carakas because they executed strict vows to free their guru from his sin of killing a brāhmaṇa.

Devanagari

याज्ञवल्‍क्यश्च तच्छिष्य आहाहो भगवन् कियत् ।
चरितेनाल्पसाराणां चरिष्येऽहं सुदुश्चरम् ॥ ६२ ॥

Text

yājñavalkyaś ca tac-chiṣya
āhāho bhagavan kiyat
caritenālpa-sārāṇāṁ
cariṣye ’haṁ su-duścaram

Synonyms

yājñavalkyaḥ — Yājñavalkya; ca — and; tat-śiṣyaḥ — the disciple of Vaiśampāyana; āha — said; aho — just see; bhagavan — O master; kiyat — how much value; caritena — with the endeavor; alpa-sārāṇām — of these weak fellows; cariṣye — shall execute; aham — I; su-duścaram — that which is very difficult to perform.

Translation

Once Yājñavalkya, one of the disciples of Vaiśampāyana, said: O master, how much benefit will be derived from the feeble endeavors of these weak disciples of yours? I will personally perform some outstanding penance.

Devanagari

इत्युक्तो गुरुरप्याह कुपितो याह्यलं त्वया ।
विप्रावमन्त्रा शिष्येण मदधीतं त्यजाश्विति ॥ ६३ ॥

Text

ity ukto gurur apy āha
kupito yāhy alaṁ tvayā
viprāvamantrā śiṣyeṇa
mad-adhītaṁ tyajāśv iti

Synonyms

iti — thus; uktaḥ — addressed; guruḥ — his spiritual master; api — indeed; āha — said; kupitaḥ — angry; yāhi — go away; alam — enough; tvayā — with you; vipra-avamantrā — the insulter of brāhmaṇas; śiṣyeṇa — such a disciple; mat-adhītam — what has been taught by me; tyaja — give up; āśu — immediately; iti — thus.

Translation

Addressed thus, the spiritual master Vaiśampāyana became angry and said: Go away from here! Enough of you, O disciple who insults brāhmaṇas! Furthermore, you must immediately give back everything I have taught you.

Purport

Śrī Vaiśampāyana was angry because one of his disciples, Yājñavalkya, was insulting the other disciples, who were, after all, qualified brāhmaṇas. Just as a father is disturbed when one son mistreats the father’s other children, the spiritual master is very displeased if a proud disciple insults or mistreats the guru’s other disciples.

Devanagari

देवरातसुत: सोऽपि छर्दित्वा यजुषां गणम् ।
ततो गतोऽथ मुनयो दद‍ृशुस्तान् यजुर्गणान् ॥ ६४ ॥
यजूंषि तित्तिरा भूत्वा तल्ल‍ोलुपतयाददु: ।
तैत्तिरीया इति यजु:शाखा आसन् सुपेशला: ॥ ६५ ॥

Text

devarāta-sutaḥ so ’pi
charditvā yajuṣāṁ gaṇam
tato gato ’tha munayo
dadṛśus tān yajur-gaṇān
yajūṁṣi tittirā bhūtvā
tal-lolupatayādaduḥ
taittirīyā iti yajuḥ-
śākhā āsan su-peśalāḥ

Synonyms

devarāta-sutaḥ — the son of Devarāta (Yājñavalkya); saḥ — he; api — indeed; charditvā — vomiting; yajuṣām — of the Yajur Veda; gaṇam — the collected mantras; tataḥ — from there; gataḥ — having gone; atha — then; munayaḥ — the sages; dadṛśuḥ — saw; tān — those; yajuḥ-gaṇānyajur-mantras; yajūṁsi — these yajur-mantras; tittirāḥ — partridges; bhūtvā — becoming; tat — for those mantras; lolupatayā — with greedy desire; ādaduḥ — picked them up; taittirīyāḥ — known as Taittirīya; iti — thus; yajuḥ-śākhāḥ — branches of the Yajur Veda; āsan — came into being; su-peśalāḥ — most beautiful.

Translation

Yājñavalkya, the son of Devarāta, then vomited the mantras of the Yajur Veda and went away from there. The assembled disciples, looking greedily upon these yajur hymns, assumed the form of partridges and picked them all up. These divisions of the Yajur Veda therefore became known as the most beautiful Taittirīya-saṁhitā, the hymns collected by partridges [tittirāḥ].

Purport

According to Śrīla Śrīdhara Svāmī, it is improper for a brāhmaṇa to collect what has been vomited, and so the powerful brāhmaṇa disciples of Vaiśampāyana assumed the form of tittiras, partridges, and collected the valuable mantras.

Devanagari

याज्ञवल्‍क्यस्ततो ब्रह्मंश्छन्दांस्यधिगवेषयन् ।
गुरोरविद्यमानानि सूपतस्थेऽर्कमीश्वरम् ॥ ६६ ॥

Text

yājñavalkyas tato brahmaṁś
chandāṁsy adhi gaveṣayan
guror avidyamānāni
sūpatasthe ’rkam īśvaram

Synonyms

yājñavalkyaḥ — Yājñavalkya; tataḥ — thereafter; brahman — O brāhmaṇa; chandāṁsimantras; adhi — additional; gaveṣayan — seeking out; guroḥ — to his spiritual master; avidyamānāni — not known; su-upatasthe — he carefully worshiped; arkam — the sun; īśvaram — the powerful controller.

Translation

My dear brāhmaṇa Śaunaka, Yājñavalkya then desired to find out new yajur-mantras unknown to even his spiritual master. With this in mind he offered attentive worship to the powerful lord of the sun.

Devanagari

श्रीयाज्ञवल्‍क्य उवाच
ॐ नमो भगवते आदित्यायाखिलजगतामात्मस्वरूपेण कालस्वरूपेण चतुर्विधभूतनिकायानां ब्रह्मादिस्तम्बपर्यन्तानामन्तर्हृदयेषु बहिरपि चाकाश इवोपाधिनाव्यवधीयमानो भवानेक एव क्षणलवनिमेषावयवोपचितसंवत्सरगणेनापामादान विसर्गाभ्यामिमां लोकयात्रामनुवहति ॥ ६७ ॥

Text

śrī-yājñavalkya uvāca
oṁ namo bhagavate ādityāyākhila-jagatām ātma-svarūpeṇa kāla-svarūpeṇa catur-vidha-bhūta-nikāyānāṁ brahmādi-stamba-paryantānām antar-hṛdayeṣu bahir api cākāśa ivopādhināvyavadhīyamāno bhavān eka eva kṣaṇa-lava-nimeṣāvayavopacita-saṁvatsara-gaṇenāpām ādāna- visargābhyām imāṁ loka-yātrām anuvahati.

Synonyms

śrī-yājñavalkyaḥ uvāca — Śrī Yājñavalkya said; oṁ namaḥ — I offer my respectful obeisances; bhagavate — to the Personality of Godhead; ādityāya — appearing as the sun-god; akhila-jagatām — of all the planetary systems; ātma-svarūpeṇa — in the form of the Supersoul; kāla-svarūpeṇa — in the form of time; catuḥ-vidha — of four kinds; bhūta-nikāyānām — of all the living beings; brahma-ādi — beginning from Lord Brahmā; stamba-paryantānām — and extending down to the blades of grass; antaḥ-hṛdayeṣu — within the recesses of their hearts; bahiḥ — externally; api — also; ca — and; ākāśaḥ iva — in the same way as the sky; upādhinā — by material designations; avyavadhīyamānaḥ — not being covered; bhavān — yourself; ekaḥ — alone; eva — indeed; kṣaṇa-lava-nimeṣa — the kṣaṇa, lava and nimeṣa (the smallest fractions of time); avayava — by these fragments; upacita — collected together; saṁvatsara-gaṇena — by the years; apām — of the water; ādāna — by taking away; visargābhyām — and giving; imām — this; loka — of the universe; yātrām — the maintenance; anuvahati — carries out.

Translation

Śrī Yājñavalkya said: I offer my respectful obeisances to the Supreme Personality of Godhead appearing as the sun. You are present as the controller of the four kinds of living entities, beginning from Brahmā and extending down to the blades of grass. Just as the sky is present both inside and outside every living being, you exist both within the hearts of all as the Supersoul and externally in the form of time. Just as the sky cannot be covered by the clouds present within it, you are never covered by any false material designation. By the flow of years, which are made up of the tiny fragments of time called kṣaṇas, lavas and nimeṣas, you alone maintain this world, drying up the waters and giving them back as rain.

Purport

This prayer is not offered to the sun-god as an independent or autonomous entity but rather to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, represented by His powerful expansion the solar deity.

Devanagari

यदु ह वाव विबुधर्षभ सवितरदस्तपत्यनुसवनमहर अहराम्नायविधिनोपतिष्ठमानानामखिलदुरितवृजिन बीजावभर्जन भगवत: समभिधीमहि तपन मण्डलम् ॥ ६८ ॥

Text

yad u ha vāva vibudharṣabha savitar adas tapaty anusavanam ahar ahar āmnāya-vidhinopatiṣṭhamānānām akhila-durita-vṛjina- bījāvabharjana bhagavataḥ samabhidhīmahi tapana maṇḍalam.

Synonyms

yat — which; u ha vāva — indeed; vibudha-ṛṣabha — O chief of the demigods; savitaḥ — O lord of the sun; adaḥ — that; tapati — is glowing; anusavanam — at each of the junctures of the day (sunrise, noon and sunset); ahaḥ ahaḥ — each day; āmnāya-vidhinā — by the Vedic path, as passed down through disciplic succession; upatiṣṭhamānānām — of those who are engaged in offering prayer; akhila-durita — all sinful activities; vṛjina — the consequent suffering; bīja — and the original seed of such; avabharjana — O you who burn; bhagavataḥ — of the mighty controller; samabhidhīmahi — I meditate with full attention; tapana — O glowing one; maṇḍalam — upon the sphere.

Translation

O glowing one, O powerful lord of the sun, you are the chief of all the demigods. I meditate with careful attention on your fiery globe, because for those who offer prayers to you three times daily according to the Vedic method passed down through authorized disciplic succession, you burn away all sinful activities, all consequent suffering and even the original seed of desire.

Devanagari

य इह वाव स्थिरचरनिकराणां निजनिकेतनानां मनइन्द्रियासु गणाननात्मन: स्वयमात्मान्तर्यामी प्रचोदयति ॥ ६९ ॥

Text

ya iha vāva sthira-cara-nikarāṇāṁ nija-niketanānāṁ mana-indriyāsu-gaṇān anātmanaḥ svayam ātmāntar-yāmī pracodayati.

Synonyms

yaḥ — who; iha — in this world; vāva — indeed; sthira-cara-nikarāṇām — of all the nonmoving and moving living beings; nija-niketanānām — who depend on your shelter; manaḥ-indriya-asu-gaṇān — the mind, senses and vital air; anātmanaḥ — which are nonliving matter; svayam — yourself; ātma — in their hearts; antaḥ-yāmī — the indwelling lord; pracodayati — inspires to activity.

Translation

You are personally present as the indwelling lord in the hearts of all moving and nonmoving beings, who depend completely on your shelter. Indeed, you animate their material minds, senses and vital airs to act.

Devanagari

य एवेमं लोकमतिकरालवदनान्धकारसंज्ञाजगरग्रह गिलितं मृतकमिव विचेतनमवलोक्यानुकम्पया परमकारुणिक ईक्षयैवोत्थाप्याहरहरनुसवनं श्रेयसि स्वधर्माख्यात्मावस्थाने प्रवर्तयति ॥ ७० ॥

Text

ya evemaṁ lokam ati-karāla-vadanāndhakāra-saṁjñājagara-graha-gilitaṁ mṛtakam iva vicetanam avalokyānukampayā parama-kāruṇika īkṣayaivotthāpyāhar ahar anusavanaṁ śreyasi sva-dharmākhyātmāva-sthane pravartayati.

Synonyms

yaḥ — who; eva — alone; imam — this; lokam — world; ati-karāla — very fearful; vadana — the mouth of which; andhakāra-saṁjña — known as darkness; ajagara — by the python; graha — seized; gilitam — and swallowed; mṛtakam — dead; iva — as if; vicetanam — unconscious; avalokya — by glancing; anukampayā — mercifully; parama-kāruṇikaḥ — supremely magnanimous; īkṣayā — by casting his glance; eva — indeed; utthāpya — raising them up; ahaḥ ahaḥ — day after day; anu-savanam — at the three sacred junctures of the day; śreyasi — in the ultimate benefit; sva-dharma-ākhya — known as the soul’s proper duty; ātma-avasthāne — in the inclination toward spiritual life; pravartayati — engages.

Translation

The world has been seized and swallowed by the python of darkness in its horrible mouth and has become unconscious, as if dead. But mercifully glancing upon the sleeping people of the world, you raise them up with the gift of sight. Thus you are most magnanimous. At the three sacred junctures of each day, you engage the pious in the path of ultimate good, inducing them to perform religious duties that situate them in their spiritual position.

Purport

According to Vedic culture, the three higher classes of society (the intellectual, political and mercantile sections) are formally connected with the spiritual master by initiation and receive the Gāyatrī mantra. This purifying mantra is chanted three times daily — at sunrise, noon and sunset. Auspicious moments for the performance of spiritual duties are calculated according to the sun’s path in the sky, and this systematic scheduling of spiritual duties is here attributed to the sun as the representative of God.

Devanagari

अवनिपतिरिवासाधूनां भयमुदीरयन्नटति परित आशापालैस्तत्र तत्र कमलकोशाञ्जलिभिरुपहृतार्हण: ॥ ७१ ॥

Text

avani-patir ivāsādhūnāṁ bhayam udīrayann aṭati parita āśā-pālais tatra tatra kamala-kośāñjalibhir upahṛtārhaṇaḥ.

Synonyms

avani-patiḥ — a king; iva — as; asādhūnām — of the unholy; bhayam — fear; udīrayan — creating; aṭati — travels about; paritaḥ — all around; āśā-pālaiḥ — by the controlling deities of the directions; tatra tatra — here and there; kamala-kośa — holding lotus flowers; añjalibhiḥ — with folded palms; upahṛta — offered; arhaṇaḥ — honorable presentations.

Translation

Just like an earthly king, you travel about everywhere spreading fear among the unholy as the powerful deities of the directions offer you in their folded palms lotus flowers and other respectful presentations.

Devanagari

अथ ह भगवंस्तव चरणनलिनयुगलं त्रिभुवनगुरुभिरभिवन्दितमहमयातयामयजुष्काम उपसरामीति ॥ ७२ ॥

Text

atha ha bhagavaṁs tava caraṇa-nalina-yugalaṁ tri-bhuvana-gurubhir abhivanditam aham ayāta-yāma-yajuṣ-kāma upasarāmīti.

Synonyms

atha — thus; ha — indeed; bhagavan — O lord; tava — your; caraṇa-nalina-yugalam — two lotus feet; tri-bhuvana — of the three worlds; gurubhiḥ — by the spiritual masters; abhivanditam — honored; aham — I; ayāta-yāma — unknown to anyone else; yajuḥ-kāmaḥ — desiring to have the yajur-mantras; upasarāmi — am approaching with worship; iti — thus.

Translation

Therefore, my lord, I am prayerfully approaching your lotus feet, which are honored by the spiritual masters of the three worlds, because I hope to receive from you mantras of the Yajur Veda unknown to anyone else.

Devanagari

सूत उवाच
एवं स्तुत: स भगवान् वाजिरूपधरो रवि: ।
यजूंष्ययातयामानि मुनयेऽदात् प्रसादित: ॥ ७३ ॥

Text

sūta uvāca
evaṁ stutaḥ sa bhagavān
vāji-rūpa-dharo raviḥ
yajūṁṣy ayāta-yāmāni
munaye ’dāt prasāditaḥ

Synonyms

sūtaḥ uvāca — Sūta Gosvāmī said; evam — in this way; stutaḥ — offered glorification; saḥ — he; bhagavān — the powerful demigod; vāji-rūpa — the form of a horse; dharaḥ — assuming; raviḥ — the sun-god; yajūṁṣiyajur- mantras; ayāta-yāmāni — never learned by any other mortal; munaye — to the sage; adāt — presented; prasāditaḥ — being satisfied.

Translation

Sūta Gosvāmī said: Satisfied by such glorification, the powerful sun-god assumed the form of a horse and presented to the sage Yājñavalkya yajur-mantras previously unknown in human society.

Devanagari

यजुर्भिरकरोच्छाखा दशपञ्च शतैर्विभु: ।
जगृहुर्वाजसन्यस्ता: काण्वमाध्यन्दिनादय: ॥ ७४ ॥

Text

yajurbhir akaroc chākhā
daśa pañca śatair vibhuḥ
jagṛhur vājasanyas tāḥ
kāṇva-mādhyandinādayaḥ

Synonyms

yajurbhiḥ — with the yajur-mantras; akarot — he made; śākhāḥ — branches; daśa — ten; pañca — plus five; śataiḥ — with the hundreds; vibhuḥ — the powerful; jagṛhuḥ — they accepted; vāja-sanyaḥ — produced from the hairs of the horse’s mane and thus known as Vājasaneyī; tāḥ — them; kāṇva-mādhyandina-ādayaḥ — the disciples of Kāṇva and Mādhyandina, and other ṛṣis.

Translation

From these countless hundreds of mantras of the Yajur Veda, the powerful sage compiled fifteen new branches of Vedic literature. These became known as the Vājasaneyi-saṁhitā because they were produced from the hairs of the horse’s mane, and they were accepted in disciplic succession by the followers of Kāṇva, Mādhyandina and other ṛṣis.

Devanagari

जैमिने: सामगस्यासीत् सुमन्तुस्तनयो मुनि: ।
सुत्वांस्तु तत्सुतस्ताभ्यामेकैकां प्राह संहिताम् ॥ ७५ ॥

Text

jaimineḥ sama-gasyāsīt
sumantus tanayo muniḥ
sutvāṁs tu tat-sutas tābhyām
ekaikāṁ prāha saṁhitām

Synonyms

jaimineḥ — of Jaimini; sama-gasya — the singer of the Sāma Veda; āsīt — there was; sumantuḥ — Sumantu; tanayaḥ — the son; muniḥ — the sage (Jaimini); sutvān — Sutvān; tu — and; tat-sutaḥ — the son of Sumantu; tābhyām — to each of them; eka-ekām — one of each of the two parts; prāha — he spoke; saṁhitām — collection.

Translation

Jaimini Ṛṣi, the authority of the Sāma Veda, had a son named Sumantu, and the son of Sumantu was Sutvān. The sage Jaimini spoke to each of them a different part of the Sāma-veda-saṁhitā.

Devanagari

सुकर्मा चापि तच्छिष्य: सामवेदतरोर्महान् ।
सहस्रसंहिताभेदं चक्रे साम्नां ततो द्विज ॥ ७६ ॥
हिरण्यनाभ: कौशल्य: पौष्यञ्जिश्च सुकर्मण: ।
शिष्यौ जगृहतुश्चान्य आवन्त्यो ब्रह्मवित्तम: ॥ ७७ ॥

Text

sukarmā cāpi tac-chiṣyaḥ
sāma-veda-taror mahān
sahasra-saṁhitā-bhedaṁ
cakre sāmnāṁ tato dvija
hiraṇyanābhaḥ kauśalyaḥ
pauṣyañjiś ca sukarmaṇaḥ
śiṣyau jagṛhatuś cānya
āvantyo brahma-vittamaḥ

Synonyms

sukarmā — Sukarmā; ca — and; api — indeed; tat-śiṣyaḥ — the disciple of Jaimini; sāma-veda-taroḥ — of the tree of the Sāma Veda; mahān — the great thinker; sahasra-saṁhitā — of one thousand collections; bhedam — a division; cakre — he made; sāmnām — of the sāma-mantras; tataḥ — and then; dvija — O brāhmaṇa (Śaunaka); hiraṇyanābhaḥ kauśalyaḥ — Hiraṇyanābha, the son of Kuśala; pauṣyañjiḥ — Pauṣyañji; ca — and; sukarmaṇaḥ — of Sukarmā; śiṣyau — the two disciples; jagṛhatuḥ — took; ca — and; anyaḥ — another; āvantyaḥ — Āvantya; brahma-vit-tamaḥ — most perfectly realized in knowledge of the Absolute Truth.

Translation

Sukarmā, another disciple of Jaimini, was a great scholar. He divided the mighty tree of the Sāma Veda into one thousand saṁhitās. Then, O brāhmaṇa, three disciples of Sukarmā — Hiraṇyanābha, the son of Kuśala; Pauṣyañji; and Āvantya, who was very advanced in spiritual realization — took charge of the sāma-mantras.

Devanagari

उदीच्या: सामगा: शिष्या आसन् पञ्चशतानि वै ।
पौष्यञ्ज्यावन्त्ययोश्चापि तांश्च प्राच्यान् प्रचक्षते ॥ ७८ ॥

Text

udīcyāḥ sāma-gāḥ śiṣyā
āsan pañca-śatāni vai
pauṣyañjy-āvantyayoś cāpi
tāṁś ca prācyān pracakṣate

Synonyms

udīcyāḥ — belonging to the north; sāma-gāḥ — the singer of the Sāma Veda; śiṣyāḥ — the disciples; āsan — there were; pañca-śatāni — five hundred; vai — indeed; pauṣyañji-āvantyayoḥ — of Pauṣyañji and Āvantya; ca — and; api — indeed; tān — they; ca — also; prācyān — easterners; pracakṣate — are called.

Translation

The five hundred disciples of Pauṣyañji and Āvantya became known as the northern singers of the Sāma Veda, and in later times some of them also became known as eastern singers.

Devanagari

लौगाक्षिर्माङ्गलि: कुल्य: कुशीद: कुक्षिरेव च ।
पौष्यञ्जिशिष्या जगृहु: संहितास्ते शतं शतम् ॥ ७९ ॥

Text

laugākṣir māṅgaliḥ kulyaḥ
kuśīdaḥ kukṣir eva ca
pauṣyañji-śiṣyā jagṛhuḥ
saṁhitās te śataṁ śatam

Synonyms

laugākṣiḥ māṅgaliḥ kulyaḥ — Laugākṣi, Māṅgali and Kulya; kuśīdaḥ kukṣiḥ — Kuśīda and Kukṣi; eva — indeed; ca — also; pauṣyañji-śiṣyāḥ — disciples of Pauṣyañji; jagṛhuḥ — they took; saṁhitāḥ — collections; te — they; śatam śatam — each one hundred.

Translation

Five other disciples of Pauṣyañji, namely Laugākṣi, Māṅgali, Kulya, Kuśīda and Kukṣi, each received one hundred saṁhitās.

Devanagari

कृतो हिरण्यनाभस्य चतुर्विंशतिसंहिता: ।
शिष्य ऊचे स्वशिष्येभ्य: शेषा आवन्त्य आत्मवान् ॥ ८० ॥

Text

kṛto hiraṇyanābhasya
catur-viṁśati saṁhitāḥ
śiṣya ūce sva-śiṣyebhyaḥ
śeṣā āvantya ātmavān

Synonyms

kṛtaḥ — Kṛta; hiraṇyanābhasya — of Hiraṇyanābha; catuḥ-viṁśati — twenty-four; saṁhitāḥ — collections; śiṣyaḥ — the disciple; ūce — spoke; sva-śiṣyebhyaḥ — to his own disciples; śeṣāḥ — the remaining (collections); āvantyaḥ — Āvantya; ātma-vān — the self-controlled.

Translation

Kṛta, the disciple of Hiraṇyanābha, spoke twenty-four saṁhitās to his own disciples, and the remaining collections were passed down by the self-realized sage Āvantya.

Purport

Thus end the purports of the humble servants of His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupāda to the Twelfth Canto, Sixth Chapter, of the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, entitled “Mahārāja Parīkṣit Passes Away.”