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CHAPTER ELEVEN

Summary Description of the Mahāpuruṣa

In the context of worship, this chapter describes the Mahāpuruṣa and the various expansions of the sun in each month. Śrī Sūta first tells Śaunaka Ṛṣi about the material objects through which one can understand the major limbs, the secondary limbs, the weapons and the garments of Lord Śrī Hari. Then he outlines the process of practical service by which a mortal soul can attain immortality. When Śaunaka shows further interest in learning about the expansion of Lord Hari in the form of the sun-god, Sūta replies that Lord Śrī Hari the indwelling controller of the universe and its original creator manifests Himself in the form of the demigod of the sun. Sages describe this sun-god in many features according to his different material designations. To sustain the world, the Personality of Godhead manifests His potency of time as the sun and travels throughout the twelve months, beginning with Caitra, along with twelve sets of personal associates. One who remembers the opulences of the Personality of Godhead Śrī Hari in His form as the sun will become free of his sinful reactions.

Devanagari

श्रीशौनक उवाच
अथेममर्थं पृच्छामो भवन्तं बहुवित्तमम् ।
समस्ततन्त्रराद्धान्ते भवान् भागवत तत्त्ववित् ॥ १ ॥

Text

śrī-śaunaka uvāca
athemam arthaṁ pṛcchāmo
bhavantaṁ bahu-vittamam
samasta-tantra-rāddhānte
bhavān bhāgavata tattva-vit

Synonyms

śrī-śaunakaḥ uvāca — Śrī Śaunaka said; atha — now; imam — this; artham — matter; pṛcchāmaḥ — we are inquiring about; bhavantam — from you; bahu-vit-tamam — the possessor of the broadest knowledge; samasta — of all; tantra — the scriptures prescribing practical methods of worship; rāddha-ante — in the definitive conclusions; bhavān — you; bhāgavata — O great devotee of the Supreme Lord; tattva-vit — the knower of the essential facts.

Translation

Śrī Śaunaka said: O Sūta, you are the best of learned men and a great devotee of the Supreme Lord. Therefore we now inquire from you about the definitive conclusion of all tantra scriptures.

Devanagari

तान्त्रिका: परिचर्यायां केवलस्य श्रिय: पते: ।
अङ्गोपाङ्गायुधाकल्पं कल्पयन्ति यथा च यै: ॥ २ ॥
तन्नो वर्णय भद्रं ते क्रियायोगं बुभुत्सताम् ।
येन क्रियानैपुणेन मर्त्यो यायादमर्त्यताम् ॥ ३ ॥

Text

tāntrikāḥ paricaryāyāṁ
kevalasya śriyaḥ pateḥ
aṅgopāṅgāyudhākalpaṁ
kalpayanti yathā ca yaiḥ
tan no varṇaya bhadraṁ te
kriyā-yogaṁ bubhutsatām
yena kriyā-naipuṇena
martyo yāyād amartyatām

Synonyms

tāntrikāḥ — the followers of the methods of the tantric literatures; paricaryāyām — in regulated worship; kevalasya — who is pure spirit; śriyaḥ — of the goddess of fortune; pateḥ — of the master; aṅga — His limbs, such as His feet; upāṅga — His secondary limbs, such as associates like Garuḍa; āyudha — His weapons, such as the Sudarśana disc; ākalpam — and His ornaments, such as the Kaustubha gem; kalpayanti — they conceive of; yathā — how; ca — and; yaiḥ — by which (material representations); tat — that; naḥ — to us; varṇaya — please describe; bhadram — all-auspiciousness; te — unto you; kriyā-yogam — the practical method of cultivation; bubhutsatām — who are eager to learn; yena — by which; kriyā — in the systematic practice; naipuṇena — expertise; martyaḥ — a mortal being; yāyāt — may attain; amartyatām — immortality.

Translation

All good fortune to you! Please explain to us, who are very eager to learn, the process of kriyā-yoga practiced through regulated worship of the transcendental Lord, the husband of the goddess of fortune. Please also explain how the Lord’s devotees conceive of His limbs, associates, weapons and ornaments in terms of particular material representations. By expertly worshiping the Supreme Lord, a mortal can attain immortality.

Devanagari

सूत उवाच
नमस्कृत्य गुरून् वक्ष्ये विभूतीर्वैष्णवीरपि ।
या: प्रोक्ता वेदतन्त्राभ्यामाचार्यै: पद्मजादिभि: ॥ ४ ॥

Text

sūta uvāca
namaskṛtya gurūn vakṣye
vibhūtīr vaiṣṇavīr api
yāḥ proktā veda-tantrābhyām
ācāryaiḥ padmajādibhiḥ

Synonyms

sūtaḥ uvāca — Sūta Gosvāmī said; namaskṛtya — offering obeisances; gurūn — to the spiritual masters; vakṣye — I shall speak; vibhūtīḥ — the opulences; vaiṣṇavīḥ — belonging to Lord Viṣṇu; api — indeed; yāḥ — which; proktāḥ — are described; veda-tantrābhyām — by the Vedas and the tantras; ācāryaiḥ — by standard authorities; padmaja-ādibhiḥ — beginning with Lord Brahmā.

Translation

Sūta Gosvāmī said: Offering obeisances to my spiritual masters, I shall repeat to you the description of the opulences of Lord Viṣṇu given in the Vedas and tantras by great authorities, beginning from lotus-born Brahmā.

Devanagari

मायाद्यैर्नवभिस्तत्त्वै: स विकारमयो विराट् ।
निर्मितो द‍ृश्यते यत्र सचित्के भुवनत्रयम् ॥ ५ ॥

Text

māyādyair navabhis tattvaiḥ
sa vikāra-mayo virāṭ
nirmito dṛśyate yatra
sa-citke bhuvana-trayam

Synonyms

māyā-ādyaiḥ — beginning with the unmanifest stage of nature; navabhiḥ — with the nine; tattvaiḥ — elements; saḥ — that; vikāra-mayaḥ — also comprising the transformations (of the eleven senses and the five gross elements); virāṭ — the universal form of the Lord; nirmitaḥ — constructed; dṛśyate — are seen; yatra — in which; sa-citke — being conscious; bhuvana-trayam — the three planetary systems.

Translation

The universal form [virāṭ] of the Personality of Godhead includes the nine basic elements of creation, starting with the unmanifest nature, and their subsequent transformations. Once this universal form is instilled with consciousness, the three planetary systems become visible within it.

Purport

The nine basic elements of creation are prakṛti, sūtra, mahat-tattva, false ego, and the five subtle perceptions. The transformations are the eleven senses and the five gross material elements.

Devanagari

एतद् वै पौरुषं रूपं भू: पादौ द्यौ: शिरो नभ: ।
नाभि: सूर्योऽक्षिणी नासे वायु: कर्णौ दिश: प्रभो: ॥ ६ ॥
प्रजापति: प्रजननमपानो मृत्युरीशितु: ।
तद्बाहवो लोकपाला मनश्चन्द्रो भ्रुवौ यम: ॥ ७ ॥
लज्जोत्तरोऽधरो लोभो दन्ता ज्योत्स्‍ना स्मयो भ्रम: ।
रोमाणि भूरुहा भूम्नो मेघा: पुरुषमूर्धजा: ॥ ८ ॥

Text

etad vai pauruṣaṁ rūpaṁ
bhūḥ pādau dyauḥ śiro nabhaḥ
nābhiḥ sūryo ’kṣiṇī nāse
vāyuḥ karṇau diśaḥ prabhoḥ
prajāpatiḥ prajananam
apāno mṛtyur īśituḥ
tad-bāhavo loka-pālā
manaś candro bhruvau yamaḥ
lajjottaro ’dharo lobho
dantā jyotsnā smayo bhramaḥ
romāṇi bhūruhā bhūmno
meghāḥ puruṣa-mūrdhajāḥ

Synonyms

etat — this; vai — indeed; pauruṣam — of the Virāṭ-puruṣa; rūpam — the form; bhūḥ — the earth; pādau — His feet; dyauḥ — heaven; śiraḥ — His head; nabhaḥ — the sky; nābhiḥ — His navel; sūryaḥ — the sun; akṣiṇī — His eyes; nāse — His nostrils; vāyuḥ — the air; karṇau — His ears; diśaḥ — the directions; prabhoḥ — of the Supreme Lord; prajā-patiḥ — the demigod of procreation; prajananam — His genitals; apānaḥ — His anus; mṛtyuḥ — death; īśituḥ — of the absolute controller; tat-bāhavaḥ — His many arms; loka-pālāḥ — the presiding demigods of the various planets; manaḥ — His mind; candraḥ — the moon; bhruvau — His eyebrows; yamaḥ — the god of death; lajjā — shame; uttaraḥ — His upper lip; adharaḥ — His lower lip; lobhaḥ — greed; dantāḥ — His teeth; jyotsnā — the light of the moon; smayaḥ — His smile; bhramaḥ — delusion; romāṇi — the hairs of the body; bhū-ruhāḥ — the trees; bhūmnaḥ — of the almighty Lord; meghāḥ — the clouds; puruṣa — of the Virāṭ-puruṣa; mūrdha-jāḥ — the hairs upon the head.

Translation

This is the representation of the Supreme Lord as the universal person, in which the earth is His feet, the sky His navel, the sun His eyes, the wind His nostrils, the demigod of procreation His genitals, death His anus and the moon His mind. The heavenly planets are His head, the directions His ears, and the demigods protecting the various planets His many arms. The god of death is His eyebrows, shame His lower lip, greed His upper lip, delusion His smile, and moonshine His teeth, while the trees are the almighty Puruṣa’s bodily hairs, and the clouds the hair on His head.

Purport

Various aspects of material creation, such as the earth, the sun and the trees, are sustained by various limbs of the universal body of the Lord. Thus they are considered nondifferent from Him, as described in this verse, which is meant for meditation.

Devanagari

यावानयं वै पुरुषो यावत्या संस्थया मित: ।
तावानसावपि महापुरुषो लोकसंस्थया ॥ ९ ॥

Text

yāvān ayaṁ vai puruṣo
yāvatyā saṁsthayā mitaḥ
tāvān asāv api mahā-
puruṣo loka-saṁsthayā

Synonyms

yāvān — to which extent; ayam — this; vai — indeed; puruṣaḥ — ordinary individual person; yāvatyā — extending to which dimensions; saṁsthayā — by the position of his limbs; mitaḥ — measured; tāvān — to that extent; asau — He; api — also; mahā-puruṣaḥ — the transcendental personality; loka-saṁsthayā — according to the positions of the planetary systems.

Translation

Just as one can determine the dimensions of an ordinary person of this world by measuring his various limbs, one can determine the dimensions of the Mahāpuruṣa by measuring the arrangement of the planetary systems within His universal form.

Devanagari

कौस्तुभव्यपदेशेन स्वात्मज्योतिर्बिभर्त्यज: ।
तत्प्रभा व्यापिनी साक्षात् श्रीवत्समुरसा विभु: ॥ १० ॥

Text

kaustubha-vyapadeśena
svātma-jyotir bibharty ajaḥ
tat-prabhā vyāpinī sākṣāt
śrīvatsam urasā vibhuḥ

Synonyms

kaustubha-vyapadeśena — represented by the Kaustubha gem; sva-ātma — of the pure jīva soul; jyotiḥ — the spiritual light; bibharti — carries; ajaḥ — the unborn Lord; tat-prabhā — the effulgence of this (Kaustubha); vyāpinī — expansive; sākṣāt — directly; śrīvatsam — of the Śrīvatsa mark; urasā — upon His chest; vibhuḥ — the almighty.

Translation

Upon His chest the almighty, unborn Personality of Godhead bears the Kaustubha gem, which represents the pure spirit soul, along with the Śrīvatsa mark, which is the direct manifestation of this gem’s expansive effulgence.

Devanagari

स्वमायां वनमालाख्यां नानागुणमयीं दधत् ।
वासश्छन्दोमयं पीतं ब्रह्मसूत्रं त्रिवृत् स्वरम् ॥ ११ ॥
बिभर्ति साङ्ख्यं योगं च देवो मकरकुण्डले ।
मौलिं पदं पारमेष्ठ्यं सर्वलोकाभयङ्करम् ॥ १२ ॥

Text

sva-māyāṁ vana-mālākhyāṁ
nānā-guṇa-mayīṁ dadhat
vāsaś chando-mayaṁ pītaṁ
brahma-sūtraṁ tri-vṛt svaram
bibharti sāṅkhyaṁ yogaṁ ca
devo makara-kuṇḍale
mauliṁ padaṁ pārameṣṭhyaṁ
sarva-lokābhayaṅ-karam

Synonyms

sva-māyām — His own material energy; vana-mālā-ākhyām — represented as His flower garland; nānā-guṇa — various combinations of the modes of nature; mayīm — composed of; dadhat — wearing; vāsaḥ — His garment; chandaḥ-mayam — consisting of the Vedic meters; pītam — yellow; brahma-sūtram — His sacred thread; tri-vṛt — threefold; svaram — the sacred sound oṁkāra; bibharti — He carries; sāṅkhyam — the process of Sāṅkhya; yogam — the process of yoga; ca — and; devaḥ — the Lord; makara-kuṇḍale — His shark-shaped earrings; maulim — His crown; padam — the position; pārameṣṭhyam — supreme (of Lord Brahmā); sarva-loka — to all the worlds; abhayam — fearlessness; karam — which gives.

Translation

His flower garland is His material energy, comprising various combinations of the modes of nature. His yellow garment is the Vedic meters, and His sacred thread the syllable om composed of three sounds. In the form of His two shark-shaped earrings, the Lord carries the processes of Sāṅkhya and yoga, and His crown, bestowing fearlessness on the inhabitants of all the worlds, is the supreme position of Brahmaloka.

Devanagari

अव्याकृतमनन्ताख्यमासनं यदधिष्ठित: ।
धर्मज्ञानादिभिर्युक्तं सत्त्वं पद्ममिहोच्यते ॥ १३ ॥

Text

avyākṛtam anantākhyam
āsanaṁ yad-adhiṣṭhitaḥ
dharma-jñānādibhir yuktaṁ
sattvaṁ padmam ihocyate

Synonyms

avyākṛtam — the unmanifest phase of material creation; ananta-ākhyam — known as Lord Ananta; āsanam — His personal seat; yat-adhiṣṭhitaḥ — upon which He is sitting; dharma-jñāna-ādibhiḥ — together with religion, knowledge and so on; yuktam — conjoined; sattvam — in the mode of goodness; padmam — His lotus; iha — thereupon; ucyate — is said.

Translation

Ananta, the Lord’s sitting place, is the unmanifest phase of material nature, and the Lord’s lotus throne is the mode of goodness, endowed with religion and knowledge.

Devanagari

ओज:सहोबलयुतं मुख्यतत्त्वं गदां दधत् ।
अपां तत्त्वं दरवरं तेजस्तत्त्वं सुदर्शनम् ॥ १४ ॥
नभोनिभं नभस्तत्त्वमसिं चर्म तमोमयम् ।
कालरूपं धनु: शार्ङ्गं तथा कर्ममयेषुधिम् ॥ १५ ॥

Text

ojaḥ-saho-bala-yutaṁ
mukhya-tattvaṁ gadāṁ dadhat
apāṁ tattvaṁ dara-varaṁ
tejas-tattvaṁ sudarśanam
nabho-nibhaṁ nabhas-tattvam
asiṁ carma tamo-mayam
kāla-rūpaṁ dhanuḥ śārṅgaṁ
tathā karma-mayeṣudhim

Synonyms

ojaḥ-sahaḥ-bala — with the power of the senses, the power of the mind and the power of the body; yutam — conjoined; mukhya-tattvam — the principle element, air, which is the vital force within the material body; gadām — His club; dadhat — carrying; apām — of water; tattvam — the element; dara — His conchshell; varam — excellent; tejaḥ-tattvam — the element fire; sudarśanam — His Sudarśana disc; nabhaḥ-nibham — just like the sky; nabhaḥ-tattvam — the element ether; asim — His sword; carma — His shield; tamaḥ-mayam — composed of the mode of ignorance; kāla-rūpam — appearing as time; dhanuḥ — His bow; śārṅgam — named Śārṅga; tathā — and; karma-maya — representing the active senses; iṣu-dhim — the quiver holding His arrows.

Translation

The club the Lord carries is the chief element, prāṇa, incorporating the potencies of sensory, mental and physical strength. His excellent conchshell is the element water, His Sudarśana disc the element fire, and His sword, pure as the sky, the element ether. His shield embodies the mode of ignorance, His bow, named Śārṅga, time, and His arrow-filled quiver the working sensory organs.

Devanagari

इन्द्रियाणि शरानाहुराकूतीरस्य स्यन्दनम् ।
तन्मात्राण्यस्याभिव्यक्तिं मुद्रयार्थक्रियात्मताम् ॥ १६ ॥

Text

indriyāṇi śarān āhur
ākūtīr asya syandanam
tan-mātrāṇy asyābhivyaktiṁ
mudrayārtha-kriyātmatām

Synonyms

indriyāṇi — the senses; śarān — His arrows; āhuḥ — they say; ākūtīḥ — (the mind with its) active functions; asya — of Him; syandanam — the chariot; tat-mātrāṇi — the objects of perception; asya — His; abhivyaktim — external appearance; mudrayā — by the gestures of His hands (symbolizing the giving of benedictions, the offering of fearlessness, and so on); artha-kriyā-ātmatām — the essence of purposeful activity.

Translation

His arrows are said to be the senses, and His chariot is the active, forceful mind. His external appearance is the subtle objects of perception, and the gestures of His hands are the essence of all purposeful activity.

Purport

All activity is ultimately aimed at the supreme perfection of life, and this perfection is awarded by the merciful hands of the Lord. The gestures of the Lord remove all fear from the heart of a devotee and elevate him to the Lord’s own association in the spiritual sky.

Devanagari

मण्डलं देवयजनं दीक्षा संस्कार आत्मन: ।
परिचर्या भगवत आत्मनो दुरितक्षय: ॥ १७ ॥

Text

maṇḍalaṁ deva-yajanaṁ
dīkṣā saṁskāra ātmanaḥ
paricaryā bhagavata
ātmano durita-kṣayaḥ

Synonyms

maṇḍalam — the sun globe; deva-yajanam — the place where the Supreme Lord is worshiped; dīkṣā — spiritual initiation; saṁskāraḥ — the process of purification; ātmanaḥ — for the spirit soul; paricaryā — devotional service; bhagavataḥ — of the Personality of Godhead; ātmanaḥ — for the jīva soul; durita — of sinful reactions; kṣayaḥ — the destruction.

Translation

The sun globe is the place where the Supreme Lord is worshiped, spiritual initiation is the means of purification for the spirit soul, and rendering devotional service to the Personality of Godhead is the process for eradicating all one’s sinful reactions.

Purport

One should meditate on the fiery sun globe as a place where God is worshiped. Lord Kṛṣṇa is the reservoir of all effulgence, and thus it is fitting that He be properly worshiped on the glowing sun.

Devanagari

भगवान् भगशब्दार्थं लीलाकमलमुद्वहन् ।
धर्मं यशश्च भगवांश्चामरव्यजनेऽभजत् ॥ १८ ॥

Text

bhagavān bhaga-śabdārthaṁ
līlā-kamalam udvahan
dharmaṁ yaśaś ca bhagavāṁś
cāmara-vyajane ’bhajat

Synonyms

bhagavān — the Personality of Godhead; bhaga-śabda — of the word bhaga; artham — the meaning (namely, “opulence”); līlā-kamalam — His pastime lotus; udvahan — carrying; dharmam — religion; yaśaḥ — fame; ca — and; bhagavān — the Personality of Godhead; cāmara-vyajane — the pair of yak-tail fans; abhajat — has accepted.

Translation

Playfully carrying a lotus, which represents the various opulences designated by the word bhaga, the Supreme Lord accepts service from a pair of cāmara fans, which are religion and fame.

Devanagari

आतपत्रं तु वैकुण्ठं द्विजा धामाकुतोभयम् ।
त्रिवृद्‌वेद: सुपर्णाख्यो यज्ञं वहति पूरुषम् ॥ १९ ॥

Text

ātapatraṁ tu vaikuṇṭhaṁ
dvijā dhāmākuto-bhayam
tri-vṛd vedaḥ suparṇākhyo
yajñaṁ vahati pūruṣam

Synonyms

ātapatram — His umbrella; tu — and; vaikuṇṭham — His spiritual abode, Vaikuṇṭha; dvijāḥ — O brāhmaṇas; dhāma — His personal abode, the spiritual world; akutaḥ-bhayam — free from fear; tri-vṛt — threefold; vedaḥ — the Veda; suparṇa-ākhyaḥ — named Suparṇa, or Garuḍa; yajñam — sacrifice personified; vahati — carried; pūruṣam — the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

Translation

O brāhmaṇas, the Lord’s umbrella is His spiritual abode, Vaikuṇṭha, where there is no fear, and Garuḍa, who carries the Lord of sacrifice, is the threefold Veda.

Devanagari

अनपायिनी भगवती श्री: साक्षादात्मनो हरे: ।
विष्वक्सेनस्तन्त्रमूर्तिर्विदित: पार्षदाधिप: ।
नन्दादयोऽष्टौ द्वा:स्थाश्च तेऽणिमाद्या हरेर्गुणा: ॥ २० ॥

Text

anapāyinī bhagavatī
śrīḥ sākṣād ātmano hareḥ
viṣvaksenas tantra-mūrtir
viditaḥ pārṣadādhipaḥ
nandādayo ’ṣṭau dvāḥ-sthāś ca
te ’ṇimādyā harer guṇāḥ

Synonyms

anapāyinī — inseparable; bhagavatī — the goddess of fortune; śrīḥ — Śrī; sākṣāt — directly; ātmanaḥ — of the internal nature; hareḥ — of Lord Hari; viṣvaksenaḥ — Viṣvaksena; tantra-mūrtiḥ — as the personification of the tantra scriptures; viditaḥ — is known; pārṣada-adhipaḥ — the chief of His personal associates; nanda-ādayaḥ — Nanda and the others; aṣṭau — the eight; dvāḥ-sthāḥ — doorkeepers; ca — and; te — they; aṇimā-ādyāḥaṇimā and the other mystic perfections; hareḥ — of the Supreme Lord; guṇāḥ — the qualities.

Translation

The goddess of fortune, Śrī, who never leaves the Lord’s side, appears with Him in this world as the representation of His internal potency. Viṣvaksena, the chief among His personal associates, is known to be the personification of the Pañcarātra and other tantras. And the Lord’s eight doorkeepers, headed by Nanda, are His mystic perfections, beginning with aṇimā.

Purport

According to Śrīla Jīva Gosvāmī, the goddess of fortune is the original source of all material opulence. Material nature is directly controlled by the Lord’s inferior energy, Mahā-māyā, whereas the goddess of fortune is His internal, superior energy. Still, the opulence of the Lord’s inferior nature has its source in the supreme spiritual opulence of the goddess of fortune. As stated in Śrī Hayaśīrṣa Pañcarātra:

paramātmā harir devas
tac-chaktiḥ śrīr ihoditā
śrīr devī prakṛtiḥ proktā
keśavaḥ puruṣaḥ smṛtaḥ
na viṣṇunā vinā devī
na hariḥ padmajāṁ vinā

“The Supreme Soul is Lord Hari, and His potency is known in this world as Śrī. Goddess Śrī is known as prakṛti, and the Supreme Lord Keśava is known as the puruṣa. The divine goddess is never present without Him, nor does He ever appear without her.”

Also, Śrī Viṣṇu Purāṇa (1.8.15) states:

nityaiva sā jagan-mātā
viṣṇoḥ śrīr anapāyinī
yathā sarva-gato viṣṇus
tathaiveyaṁ dvijottamāḥ

“She is the eternal mother of the universe, the goddess of fortune of Lord Viṣṇu, and she is never separated from Him. In the same way that Lord Viṣṇu is present everywhere, so is she, O best of brāhmaṇas.”

Also in Viṣṇu Purāṇa (1.9.140):

evaṁ yathā jagat-svāmī
deva-devo janārdanaḥ
avatāraṁ karoty eva
tathā śrīs tat-sahāyinī

“Thus, in the same way that the Lord of the universe, the God of gods, Janārdana, descends to this world, so His consort, the goddess of fortune, does also.”

The pure spiritual status of the goddess of fortune is described in the Skanda Purāṇa:

aparaṁ tv akṣaraṁ yā sā
prakṛtir jaḍa-rūpikā
śrīḥ parā prakṛtiḥ proktā
cetanā viṣṇu-saṁśrayā
taṁ akṣaraṁ paraṁ prāhuḥ
parataḥ param akṣaram
harir evākhila-guṇo ’py
akṣara-trayam īritam

“The inferior infallible entity is that nature who manifests as the material world. The goddess of fortune, on the other hand, is known as the superior nature. She is pure consciousness and is under the direct shelter of Lord Viṣṇu. While she is said to be the superior infallible entity, that infallible entity who is greater than the greatest is Lord Hari Himself, the original possessor of all transcendental qualities. In this way, three distinct infallible entities are described.”

Thus, although the inferior energy of the Lord is infallible in her function, her power to manifest temporary illusory opulences exists by the grace of the internal energy, the goddess of fortune, who is the personal consort of the Supreme Lord.

The Padma Purāṇa (256.9-21) lists eighteen doorkeepers of the Lord: Nanda, Sunanda, Jaya, Vijaya, Caṇḍa, Pracaṇḍa, Bhadra, Subhadra, Dhātā, Vidhātā, Kumuda, Kumudākṣa, Pundarīkṣa, Vāmana, Śaṅkukarṇa, Sarvanetra, Sumukha and Supratiṣṭhita.

Devanagari

वासुदेव: सङ्कर्षण: प्रद्युम्न: पुरुष: स्वयम् ।
अनिरुद्ध इति ब्रह्मन् मूर्तिव्यूहोऽभिधीयते ॥ २१ ॥

Text

vāsudevaḥ saṅkarṣaṇaḥ
pradyumnaḥ puruṣaḥ svayam
aniruddha iti brahman
mūrti-vyūho ’bhidhīyate

Synonyms

vāsudevaḥ saṅkarṣaṇaḥ pradyumnaḥ — Vāsudeva, Saṅkarṣaṇa and Pradyumna; puruṣaḥ — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; svayam — Himself; aniruddhaḥ — Aniruddha; iti — thus; brahman — O brāhmaṇa, Śaunaka; mūrti-vyūhaḥ — the expansion of personal forms; abhidhīyate — is designated.

Translation

Vāsudeva, Saṅkarṣaṇa, Pradyumna and Aniruddha are the names of the direct personal expansions of the Supreme Godhead, O brāhmaṇa Śaunaka.

Devanagari

स विश्वस्तैजस: प्राज्ञस्तुरीय इति वृत्तिभि: ।
अर्थेन्द्रियाशयज्ञानैर्भगवान् परिभाव्यते ॥ २२ ॥

Text

sa viśvas taijasaḥ prājñas
turīya iti vṛttibhiḥ
arthendriyāśaya-jñānair
bhagavān paribhāvyate

Synonyms

saḥ — He; viśvaḥ taijasaḥ prājñaḥ — the manifestations of waking consciousness, sleep and deep sleep; turīyaḥ — the fourth, transcendental stage; iti — thus termed; vṛttibhiḥ — by the functions; artha — by the external objects of perception; indriya — the mind; āśaya — covered consciousness; jñānaiḥ — and spiritual knowledge; bhagavān — the Personality of Godhead; paribhāvyate — is conceived of.

Translation

One can conceive of the Supreme Personality of Godhead in terms of awakened consciousness, sleep and deep sleep — which function respectively through external objects, the mind and material intelligence — and also in terms of the fourth, transcendental level of consciousness, which is characterized by pure knowledge.

Devanagari

अङ्गोपाङ्गायुधाकल्पैर्भगवांस्तच्चतुष्टयम् ।
बिभर्ति स्म चतुर्मूर्तिर्भगवान् हरिरीश्वर: ॥ २३ ॥

Text

aṅgopāṅgāyudhākalpair
bhagavāṁs tac catuṣṭayam
bibharti sma catur-mūrtir
bhagavān harir īśvaraḥ

Synonyms

aṅga — with His major limbs; upāṅga — minor limbs; āyudha — weapons; ākalpaiḥ — and ornaments; bhagavān — the Personality of Godhead; tat catuṣṭayam — these four manifestations (of viśva, taijasa, prājña and turīya); bibharti — maintains; sma — indeed; catuḥ-mūrtiḥ — in His four personal features (Vāsudeva, Saṅkarṣaṇa, Pradyumna and Aniruddha); bhagavān — the Lord; hariḥ — Hari; īśvaraḥ — the supreme controller.

Translation

The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Hari, thus appears in four personal expansions, each exhibiting major limbs, minor limbs, weapons and ornaments. Through these distinct features, the Lord maintains the four phases of existence.

Purport

The Lord’s spiritual body, weapons, ornaments and associates are all pure transcendental existence, identical with Him.

Devanagari

द्विजऋषभ स एष ब्रह्मयोनि: स्वयंद‍ृक्
स्वमहिमपरिपूर्णो मायया च स्वयैतत् ।
सृजति हरति पातीत्याख्ययानावृताक्षो
विवृत इव निरुक्तस्तत्परैरात्मलभ्य: ॥ २४ ॥

Text

dvija-ṛṣabha sa eṣa brahma-yoniḥ svayaṁ-dṛk
sva-mahima-paripūrṇo māyayā ca svayaitat
sṛjati harati pātīty ākhyayānāvṛtākṣo
vivṛta iva niruktas tat-parair ātma-labhyaḥ

Synonyms

dvija-ṛṣabha — O best of the brāhmaṇas; saḥ eṣaḥ — He alone; brahma-yoniḥ — the source of the Vedas; svayam-dṛk — who is self-illuminating; sva-mahima — in His own glory; paripūrṇaḥ — perfectly complete; māyayā — by the material energy; ca — and; svayā — His own; etat — this universe; sṛjati — He creates; harati — He withdraws; pāti — He maintains; iti ākhyayā — conceived of as such; anāvṛta — uncovered; akṣaḥ — His transcendental awareness; vivṛtaḥ — materially divided; iva — as if; niruktaḥ — described; tat-paraiḥ — by those who are devoted to Him; ātma — as their very Soul; labhyaḥ — realizable.

Translation

O best of brāhmaṇas, He alone is the self-luminous, original source of the Vedas, perfect and complete in His own glory. By His material energy He creates, destroys and maintains this entire universe. Because He is the performer of various material functions, He is sometimes described as materially divided, yet He always remains transcendentally situated in pure knowledge. Those who are dedicated to Him in devotion can realize Him to be their true Soul.

Purport

Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura recommends that we become humble by practicing the following meditation: “The earth, which is always visible to me, is the expansion of the lotus feet of my Lord, who is always to be meditated upon. All moving and nonmoving living beings have taken shelter of the earth and are thus sheltered at the lotus feet of my Lord. For this reason I should respect every living being and not envy anyone. In fact, all living entities constitute the Kaustubha gem on My Lord’s chest. Therefore I should never envy or deride any living entity.” By practicing this meditation one can achieve success in life.

Devanagari

श्रीकृष्ण कृष्णसख वृष्ण्यृषभावनिध्रुग्
राजन्यवंशदहनानपवर्गवीर्य ।
गोविन्द गोपवनिताव्रजभृत्यगीत-
तीर्थश्रव: श्रवणमङ्गल पाहि भृत्यान् ॥ २५ ॥

Text

śrī-kṛṣṇa kṛṣṇa-sakha vṛṣṇy-ṛṣabhāvani-dhrug-
rājanya-vaṁśa-dahanānapavarga-vīrya
govinda gopa-vanitā-vraja-bhṛtya-gīta
tīrtha-śravaḥ śravaṇa-maṅgala pāhi bhṛtyān

Synonyms

śrī-kṛṣṇa — O Śrī Kṛṣṇa; kṛṣṇa-sakha — O friend of Arjuna; vṛṣṇi — of the descendants of Vṛṣṇi; ṛṣabha — O chief; avani — on the earth; dhruk — rebellious; rājanya-vaṁśa — of the dynasties of kings; dahana — O annihilator; anapavarga — without deterioration; vīrya — whose prowess; govinda — O proprietor of Goloka-dhāma; gopa — of the cowherd men; vanitā — and the cowherd women; vraja — by the multitude; bhṛtya — and by their servants; gīta — sung; tīrtha — pious, as the most holy place of pilgrimage; śravaḥ — whose glories; śravaṇa — just to hear about whom; maṅgala — auspicious; pāhi — please protect; bhṛtyān — Your servants.

Translation

O Kṛṣṇa, O friend of Arjuna, O chief among the descendants of Vṛṣṇi, You are the destroyer of those political parties that are disturbing elements on this earth. Your prowess never deteriorates. You are the proprietor of the transcendental abode, and Your most sacred glories, which are sung by Vṛndāvana’s cowherd men and women and their servants, bestow all auspiciousness just by being heard. O Lord, please protect Your devotees.

Devanagari

य इदं कल्य उत्थाय महापुरुषलक्षणम् ।
तच्चित्त: प्रयतो जप्‍त्वा ब्रह्म वेद गुहाशयम् ॥ २६ ॥

Text

ya idaṁ kalya utthāya
mahā-puruṣa-lakṣaṇam
tac-cittaḥ prayato japtvā
brahma veda guhāśayam

Synonyms

yaḥ — anyone who; idam — this; kalye — at dawn; utthāya — rising; mahā-puruṣa-lakṣaṇam — the characteristics of the Supreme Personality in His universal form; tat-cittaḥ — with mind absorbed in Him; prayataḥ — purified; japtvā — chanting to oneself; brahma — the Absolute Truth; veda — he comes to know; guhā-śayam — situated within the heart.

Translation

Anyone who rises early in the morning and, with a purified mind fixed upon the Mahāpuruṣa, quietly chants this description of His characteristics will realize Him as the Supreme Absolute Truth residing within the heart.

Devanagari

श्रीशौनक उवाच
शुको यदाह भगवान् विष्णुराताय श‍ृण्वते ।
सौरो गणो मासि मासि नाना वसति सप्तक: ॥ २७ ॥
तेषां नामानि कर्माणि नियुक्तानामधीश्वरै: ।
ब्रूहि न: श्रद्दधानानां व्यूहं सूर्यात्मनो हरे: ॥ २८ ॥

Text

śrī-śaunaka uvāca
śuko yad āha bhagavān
viṣṇu-rātāya śṛṇvate
sauro gaṇo māsi māsi
nānā vasati saptakaḥ
teṣāṁ nāmāni karmāṇi
niyuktānām adhīśvaraiḥ
brūhi naḥ śraddadhānānāṁ
vyūhaṁ sūryātmano hareḥ

Synonyms

śrī-śaunakaḥ uvāca — Śrī Śaunaka said; śukaḥ — Śukadeva Gosvāmī; yat — which; āha — described; bhagavān — the great sage; viṣṇu-rātāya — to King Parīkṣit; śṛṇvate — who was listening; sauraḥ — of the sun-god; gaṇaḥ — the associates; māsi māsi — in each month; nānā — various; vasati — who reside; saptakaḥ — the group of seven; teṣām — of them; nāmāni — the names; karmāṇi — the activities; niyuktānām — who are engaged; adhīśvaraiḥ — by the various features of the sun-god, who are their controllers; brūhi — please speak; naḥ — to us; śraddadhānānām — who are faithful; vyūham — the personal expansions; sūrya-ātmanaḥ — in His personal expansion as the sun-god; hareḥ — of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Hari.

Translation

Śrī Śaunaka said: Please describe to us, who have great faith in your words, the different sets of seven personal features and associates the sun-god exhibits during each month, along with their names and activities. The associates of the sun-god, who serve their lord, are personal expansions of the Supreme Personality of Godhead Hari in His feature as the presiding deity of the sun.

Purport

After hearing an account of the exalted conversation between Śukadeva Gosvāmī and Mahārāja Parīkṣit, Śaunaka now inquires about the sun as the expansion of the Supreme Lord. Although the sun is the king of all planets, Śrī Śaunaka is specifically interested in this effulgent globe as the expansion of Śrī Hari, the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

The personalities related with the sun are of seven categories. In the course of the sun’s orbit there are twelve months, and in each month a different sun-god and a different set of his six associates preside. In each of the twelve months beginning from Vaiśākha there are different names for the sun-god himself, the sage, the Yakṣa, the Gandharva, the Apsarā, the Rākṣasa and the Nāga, making a total of seven categories.

Devanagari

सूत उवाच
अनाद्यविद्यया विष्णोरात्मन: सर्वदेहिनाम् ।
निर्मितो लोकतन्त्रोऽयं लोकेषु परिवर्तते ॥ २९ ॥

Text

sūta uvāca
anādy-avidyayā viṣṇor
ātmanaḥ sarva-dehinām
nirmito loka-tantro ’yaṁ
lokeṣu parivartate

Synonyms

sūtaḥ uvāca — Sūta Gosvāmī said; anādi — beginningless; avidyayā — by the illusory energy; viṣṇoḥ — of Lord Viṣṇu; ātmanaḥ — who is the Supreme Soul; sarva-dehinām — of all embodied living beings; nirmitaḥ — produced; loka-tantraḥ — the regulator of the planets; ayam — this; lokeṣu — among the planets; parivartate — travels.

Translation

Sūta Gosvāmī said: The sun travels among all the planets and thus regulates their movements. It has been created by Lord Viṣṇu, the Supreme Soul of all embodied beings, through His beginningless material energy.

Devanagari

एक एव हि लोकानां सूर्य आत्मादिकृद्धरि: ।
सर्ववेदक्रियामूलमृषिभिर्बहुधोदित: ॥ ३० ॥

Text

eka eva hi lokānāṁ
sūrya ātmādi-kṛd dhariḥ
sarva-veda-kriyā-mūlam
ṛṣibhir bahudhoditaḥ

Synonyms

ekaḥ — one; eva — only; hi — indeed; lokānām — of the worlds; sūryaḥ — the sun; ātmā — their soul; ādi-kṛt — the original creator; hariḥ — the Personality of Godhead, Hari; sarva-veda — in all the Vedas; kriyā — of the ritualistic activities; mūlam — the basis; ṛṣibhiḥ — by the sages; bahudhā — variously; uditaḥ — designated.

Translation

The sun-god, being nondifferent from Lord Hari, is the one soul of all the worlds and their original creator. He is the source of all the ritualistic activities prescribed in the Vedas and has been given many names by the Vedic sages.

Devanagari

कालो देश: क्रिया कर्ता करणं कार्यमागम: ।
द्रव्यं फलमिति ब्रह्मन् नवधोक्तोऽजया हरि: ॥ ३१ ॥

Text

kālo deśaḥ kriyā kartā
karaṇaṁ kāryam āgamaḥ
dravyaṁ phalam iti brahman
navadhokto ’jayā hariḥ

Synonyms

kālaḥ — time; deśaḥ — place; kriyā — endeavor; kartā — performer; karaṇam — instrument; kāryam — specific ritual; āgamaḥ — scripture; dravyam — paraphernalia; phalam — result; iti — thus; brahman — O brāhmaṇa, Śaunaka; navadhā — in nine phases; uktaḥ — described; ajayā — in terms of the material energy; hariḥ — Lord Hari.

Translation

Being the source of the material energy, the Personality of Godhead Lord Hari in His expansion as the sun-god is described in nine aspects, O Śaunaka: the time, the place, the endeavor, the performer, the instrument, the specific ritual, the scripture, the paraphernalia of worship and the result to be achieved.

Devanagari

मध्वादिषु द्वादशसु भगवान् कालरूपधृक् ।
लोकतन्त्राय चरति पृथग्द्वादशभिर्गणै: ॥ ३२ ॥

Text

madhv-ādiṣu dvādaśasu
bhagavān kāla-rūpa-dhṛk
loka-tantrāya carati
pṛthag dvādaśabhir gaṇaiḥ

Synonyms

madhu-ādiṣu — beginning with Madhu; dvādaśasu — in the twelve (months); bhagavān — the Supreme Lord; kāla-rūpa — the form of time; dhṛk — assuming; loka-tantrāya — to regulate planetary motion; carati — travels; pṛthak — separately; dvādaśabhiḥ — with twelve; gaṇaiḥ — sets of associates.

Translation

The Supreme Personality of Godhead, manifesting His potency of time as the sun-god, travels about in each of the twelve months, beginning with Madhu, to regulate planetary motion within the universe. Traveling with the sun-god in each of the twelve months is a different set of six associates.

Devanagari

धाता कृतस्थली हेतिर्वासुकी रथकृन्मुने ।
पुलस्त्यस्तुम्बुरुरिति मधुमासं नयन्त्यमी ॥ ३३ ॥

Text

dhātā kṛtasthalī hetir
vāsukī rathakṛn mune
pulastyas tumburur iti
madhu-māsaṁ nayanty amī

Synonyms

dhātā kṛtasthalī hetiḥ — Dhātā, Kṛtasthalī and Heti; vāsukiḥ rathakṛt — Vāsuki and Rathakṛt; mune — O sage; pulastyaḥ tumburuḥ — Pulastya and Tumburu; iti — thus; madhu-māsam — the month of Madhu (Caitra, at the time of the spring equinox); nayanti — lead forth; amī — these.

Translation

My dear sage, Dhātā as the sun-god, Kṛtasthalī as the Apsarā, Heti as the Rākṣasa, Vāsuki as the Nāga, Rathakṛt as the Yakṣa, Pulastya as the sage and Tumburu as the Gandharva rule the month of Madhu.

Devanagari

अर्यमा पुलहोऽथौजा: प्रहेति: पुञ्जिकस्थली ।
नारद: कच्छनीरश्च नयन्त्येते स्म माधवम् ॥ ३४ ॥

Text

aryamā pulaho ’thaujāḥ
prahetiḥ puñjikasthalī
nāradaḥ kacchanīraś ca
nayanty ete sma mādhavam

Synonyms

aryamā pulahaḥ athaujāḥ — Aryamā, Pulaha and Athaujā; prahetiḥ puñjikasthalī — Praheti and Puñjikasthalī; nāradaḥ kacchanīraḥ — Nārada and Kacchanīra; ca — also; nayanti — rule; ete — these; sma — indeed; mādhavam — the month of Mādhava (Vaiśākha).

Translation

Aryamā as the sun-god, Pulaha as the sage, Athaujā as the Yakṣa, Praheti as the Rākṣasa, Puñjikasthalī as the Apsarā, Nārada as the Gandharva and Kacchanīra as the Nāga rule the month of Mādhava.

Devanagari

मित्रोऽत्रि: पौरुषेयोऽथ तक्षको मेनका हहा: ।
रथस्वन इति ह्येते शुक्रमासं नयन्त्यमी ॥ ३५ ॥

Text

mitro ’triḥ pauruṣeyo ’tha
takṣako menakā hahāḥ
rathasvana iti hy ete
śukra-māsaṁ nayanty amī

Synonyms

mitraḥ atriḥ pauruṣeyaḥ — Mitra, Atri and Pauruṣeya; atha — as well; takṣakaḥ menakā hahāḥ — Takṣaka, Menakā and Hāhā; rathasvanaḥ — Rathasvana; iti — thus; hi — indeed; ete — these; śukra-māsam — the month of Śukra (Jyaiṣṭha); nayanti — rule; amī — these.

Translation

Mitra as the sun-god, Atri as the sage, Pauruṣeya as the Rākṣasa, Takṣaka as the Nāga, Menakā as the Apsarā, Hāhā as the Gandharva and Rathasvana as the Yakṣa rule the month of Śukra.

Devanagari

वसिष्ठो वरुणो रम्भा सहजन्यस्तथा हुहू: ।
शुक्रश्चित्रस्वनश्चैव शुचिमासं नयन्त्यमी ॥ ३६ ॥

Text

vasiṣṭho varuṇo rambhā
sahajanyas tathā huhūḥ
śukraś citrasvanaś caiva
śuci-māsaṁ nayanty amī

Synonyms

vasiṣṭhaḥ varuṇaḥ rambhā — Vasiṣṭha, Varuṇa and Rambhā; sahajanyaḥ — Sahajanya; tathā — also; huhūḥ — Hūhū; śukraḥ citrasvanaḥ — Śukra and Citrasvana; ca eva — as well; śuci-māsam — the month of Śuci (Āṣāḍha); nayanti — rule; amī — these.

Translation

Vasiṣṭha as the sage, Varuṇa as the sun-god, Rambhā as the Apsarā, Sahajanya as the Rākṣasa, Hūhū as the Gandharva, Śukra as the Nāga and Citrasvana as the Yakṣa rule the month of Śuci.

Devanagari

इन्द्रो विश्वावसु: श्रोता एलापत्रस्तथाङ्गिरा: ।
प्रम्‍लोचा राक्षसो वर्यो नभोमासं नयन्त्यमी ॥ ३७ ॥

Text

indro viśvāvasuḥ śrotā
elāpatras tathāṅgirāḥ
pramlocā rākṣaso varyo
nabho-māsaṁ nayanty amī

Synonyms

indraḥ viśvāvasuḥ śrotāḥ — Indra, Viśvāvasu and Śrotā; elāpatraḥ — Elāpatra; tathā — and; aṅgirāḥ — Aṅgirā; pramlocā — Pramlocā; rākṣasaḥ varyaḥ — the Rākṣasa named Varya; nabhaḥ-māsam — the month of Nabhas (Śrāvaṇa); nayanti — rule; amī — these.

Translation

Indra as the sun-god, Viśvāvasu as the Gandharva, Śrotā as the Yakṣa, Elāpatra as the Nāga, Aṅgirā as the sage, Pramlocā as the Apsarā and Varya as the Rākṣasa rule the month of Nabhas.

Devanagari

विवस्वानुग्रसेनश्च व्याघ्र आसारणो भृगु: ।
अनुम्‍लोचा शङ्खपालो नभस्याख्यं नयन्त्यमी ॥ ३८ ॥

Text

vivasvān ugrasenaś ca
vyāghra āsāraṇo bhṛguḥ
anumlocā śaṅkhapālo
nabhasyākhyaṁ nayanty amī

Synonyms

vivasvān ugrasenaḥ — Vivasvān and Ugrasena; ca — also; vyāghraḥ āsāraṇaḥ bhṛguḥ — Vyāghra, Āsāraṇa and Bhṛgu; anumlocā śaṅkhapālaḥ — Anumlocā and Śaṅkhapāla; nabhasya-ākhyam — the month named Nabhasya (Bhādra); nayanti — rule; amī — these.

Translation

Vivasvān as the sun-god, Ugrasena as the Gandharva, Vyāghra as the Rākṣasa, Āsāraṇa as the Yakṣa, Bhṛgu as the sage, Anumlocā as the Apsarā and Śaṅkhapāla as the Nāga rule the month of Nabhasya.

Devanagari

पूषा धनञ्जयो वात: सुषेण: सुरुचिस्तथा ।
घृताची गौतमश्चेति तपोमासं नयन्त्यमी ॥ ३९ ॥

Text

pūṣā dhanañjayo vātaḥ
suṣeṇaḥ surucis tathā
ghṛtācī gautamaś ceti
tapo-māsaṁ nayanty amī

Synonyms

pūṣā dhanañjayaḥ vātaḥ — Pūṣā, Dhanañjaya and Vāta; suṣeṇaḥ suruciḥ — Suṣeṇa and Suruci; tathā — also; ghṛtācī gautamaḥ — Ghṛtācī and Gautama; ca — as well; iti — thus; tapaḥ-māsam — the month of Tapas (Māgha); nayanti — rule; amī — these.

Translation

Pūṣā as the sun-god, Dhanañjaya as the Nāga, Vāta as the Rākṣasa, Suṣeṇa as the Gandharva, Suruci as the Yakṣa, Ghṛtācī as the Apsarā and Gautama as the sage rule the month of Tapas.

Devanagari

ऋतुर्वर्चा भरद्वाज: पर्जन्य: सेनजित्तथा ।
विश्व ऐरावतश्चैव तपस्याख्यं नयन्त्यमी ॥ ४० ॥

Text

ṛtur varcā bharadvājaḥ
parjanyaḥ senajit tathā
viśva airāvataś caiva
tapasyākhyaṁ nayanty amī

Synonyms

ṛtuḥ varcā bharadvājaḥ — Ṛtu, Varcā and Bharadvāja; parjanyaḥ senajit — Parjanya and Senajit; tathā — also; viśvaḥ airāvataḥ — Viśva and Airāvata; ca eva — also; tapasya-ākhyam — the month known as Tapasya (Phālguna); nayanti — rule; amī — these.

Translation

Ṛtu as the Yakṣa, Varcā as the Rākṣasa, Bharadvāja as the sage, Parjanya as the sun-god, Senajit as the Apsarā, Viśva as the Gandharva and Airāvata as the Nāga rule the month known as Tapasya.

Devanagari

अथांशु: कश्यपस्तार्क्ष्य ऋतसेनस्तथोर्वशी ।
विद्युच्छत्रुर्महाशङ्ख: सहोमासं नयन्त्यमी ॥ ४१ ॥

Text

athāṁśuḥ kaśyapas tārkṣya
ṛtasenas tathorvaśī
vidyucchatrur mahāśaṅkhaḥ
saho-māsaṁ nayanty amī

Synonyms

atha — then; aṁśuḥ kaśyapaḥ tārkṣyaḥ — Aṁśu, Kaśyapa and Tārkṣya; ṛtasenaḥ — Ṛtasena; tathā — and; urvaśī — Urvaśī; vidyucchatruḥ mahāśaṅkhaḥ — Vidyucchatru and Mahāśaṅkha; sahaḥ-māsam — the month of Sahas (Mārgaśīrṣa); nayanti — rule; amī — these.

Translation

Aṁśu as the sun-god, Kaśyapa as the sage, Tārkṣya as the Yakṣa, Ṛtasena as the Gandharva, Urvaśī as the Apsarā, Vidyucchatru as the Rākṣasa and Mahāśaṅkha as the Nāga rule the month of Sahas.

Devanagari

भग: स्फूर्जोऽरिष्टनेमिरूर्ण आयुश्च पञ्चम: ।
कर्कोटक: पूर्वचित्ति: पुष्यमासं नयन्त्यमी ॥ ४२ ॥

Text

bhagaḥ sphūrjo ’riṣṭanemir
ūrṇa āyuś ca pañcamaḥ
karkoṭakaḥ pūrvacittiḥ
puṣya-māsaṁ nayanty amī

Synonyms

bhagaḥ sphūrjaḥ ariṣṭanemiḥ — Bhaga, Sphūrja and Ariṣṭanemi; ūrṇaḥ — Ūrṇa; āyuḥ — Āyur; ca — and; pañcamaḥ — the fifth associate; karkoṭakaḥ pūrvacittiḥ — Karkoṭaka and Pūrvacitti; puṣya-māsam — the month of Puṣya; nayanti — rule; amī — these.

Translation

Bhaga as the sun-god, Sphūrja as the Rākṣasa, Ariṣṭanemi as the Gandharva, Ūrṇa as the Yakṣa, Āyur as the sage, Karkoṭaka as the Nāga and Pūrvacitti as the Apsarā rule the month of Puṣya.

Devanagari

त्वष्टा ऋचीकतनय: कम्बलश्च तिलोत्तमा ।
ब्रह्मापेतोऽथ शतजिद् धृतराष्ट्र इषम्भरा: ॥ ४३ ॥

Text

tvaṣṭā ṛcīka-tanayaḥ
kambalaś ca tilottamā
brahmāpeto ’tha satajid
dhṛtarāṣṭra iṣam-bharāḥ

Synonyms

tvaṣṭā — Tvaṣṭā; ṛcīka-tanayaḥ — the son of Ṛcīka (Jamadagni); kambalaḥ — Kambala; ca — and; tilottamā — Tilottamā; brahmāpetaḥ — Brahmāpeta; atha — and; śatajit — Śatajit; dhṛtarāṣṭraḥ — Dhṛtarāṣṭra; iṣam-bharāḥ — the maintainers of the month Iṣa (Āśvina).

Translation

Tvaṣṭā as the sun-god; Jamadagni, the son of Ṛcīka, as the sage; Kambalāśva as the Nāga; Tilottamā as the Apsarā; Brahmāpeta as the Rākṣasa; Śatajit as the Yakṣa; and Dhṛtarāṣṭra as the Gandharva maintain the month of Iṣa.

Devanagari

विष्णुरश्वतरो रम्भा सूर्यवर्चाश्च सत्यजित् ।
विश्वामित्रो मखापेत ऊर्जमासं नयन्त्यमी ॥ ४४ ॥

Text

viṣṇur aśvataro rambhā
sūryavarcāś ca satyajit
viśvāmitro makhāpeta
ūrja-māsaṁ nayanty amī

Synonyms

viṣṇuḥ aśvataraḥ rambhā — Viṣṇu, Aśvatara and Rambhā; sūryavarcāḥ — Sūryavarcā; ca — and; satyajit — Satyajit; viśvāmitraḥ makhāpetaḥ — Viśvāmitra and Makhāpeta; ūrja-māsam — the month of Ūrja (Kārttika); nayanti — rule; amī — these.

Translation

Viṣṇu as the sun-god, Aśvatara as the Nāga, Rambhā as the Apsarā, Sūryavarcā as the Gandharva, Satyajit as the Yakṣa, Viśvāmitra as the sage and Makhāpeta as the Rākṣasa rule the month of Ūrja.

Purport

All these sun-gods and their associates are mentioned in divisions in the Kūrma Purāṇa, as follows:

dhātāryamā ca mitraś ca
varuṇaś cendra eva ca
vivasvān atha pūṣā ca
parjanyaś cāṁśur eva ca
bhagas tvaṣṭā ca viṣṇuś ca
ādityā dvādaśa smṛtāḥ
pulastyaḥ pulahaś cātrir
vasiṣṭo ’thāṅgirā bhṛguḥ
gautamo ’tha bharadvājaḥ
kaśyapaḥ kratur eva ca
jamadagniḥ kauśikaś ca
munayo brahma-vādināḥ
rathakṛc cāpy athojāś ca
grāmaṇīḥ surucis tathā
ratha-citrasvanaḥ śrotā
aruṇaḥ senajit tathā
tārkṣya ariṣṭanemiś ca
ṛtajit satyajit tathā
atha hetiḥ prahetiś ca
pauruṣeyo vadhas tathā
varyo vyāghras tathāpaś ca
vāyur vidyud divākaraḥ
brahmāpetaś ca vipendrā
yajñāpetaś ca rākṣakāḥ
vāsukiḥ kacchanīraś ca
takṣakaḥ śukra eva ca
elāpatraḥ śaṅkhapālas
tathairāvata-saṁjñitaḥ
dhanañjayo mahāpadmas
tathā karkoṭako dvijāḥ
kambalo ’śvataraś caiva
vahanty enaṁ yathā-kramam
tumburur nārado hāhā
hūhūr viśvāvasus tathā
ugraseno vasurucir
viśvavasur athāparaḥ
citrasenas tathorṇāyur
dhṛṭarāṣṭro dvijottamāḥ
sūryavarcā dvādaśaite
gandharvā gāyatāṁ varāḥ
kṛtasthaly apsaro-varyā
tathānyā puñjikasthalī
menakā sahajanyā ca
pramlocā ca dvijottamāḥ
anumlocā ghṛtācī ca
viśvācī corvaśī tathā
anyā ca pūrvacittiḥ syād
anyā caiva tilottamā
rambhā ceti dvija-śreṣṭhās
tathaivāpsarasaḥ smṛtāḥ

Devanagari

एता भगवतो विष्णोरादित्यस्य विभूतय: ।
स्मरतां सन्ध्ययोर्नृणां हरन्त्यंहो दिने दिने ॥ ४५ ॥

Text

etā bhagavato viṣṇor
ādityasya vibhūtayaḥ
smaratāṁ sandhyayor nṝṇāṁ
haranty aṁho dine dine

Synonyms

etāḥ — these; bhagavataḥ — of the Personality of Godhead; viṣṇoḥ — Lord Viṣṇu; ādityasya — of the sun-god; vibhūtayaḥ — the opulences; smaratām — for those who remember; sandhyayoḥ — at the junctures of the day; nṝṇām — for such men; haranti — they take away; aṁhaḥ — sinful reactions; dine dine — day after day.

Translation

All these personalities are the opulent expansions of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Viṣṇu, in the form of the sun-god. These deities take away all the sinful reactions of those who remember them each day at dawn and sunset.

Devanagari

द्वादशस्वपि मासेषु देवोऽसौ षड्‌भिरस्य वै ।
चरन् समन्तात्तनुते परत्रेह च सन्मतिम् ॥ ४६ ॥

Text

dvādaśasv api māseṣu
devo ’sau ṣaḍbhir asya vai
caran samantāt tanute
paratreha ca san-matim

Synonyms

dvādaśasu — in each of the twelve; api — indeed; māseṣu — months; devaḥ — the lord; asau — this; ṣaḍbhiḥ — with his six types of associates; asya — for the population of this universe; vai — certainly; caran — traveling; samantāt — in all directions; tanute — spreads; paratra — in the next life; iha — in this life; ca — and; sat-matim — pure consciousness.

Translation

Thus, throughout the twelve months, the lord of the sun travels in all directions with his six types of associates, disseminating among the inhabitants of this universe purity of consciousness for both this life and the next.

Devanagari

सामर्ग्यजुर्भिस्तल्ल‍िङ्गैऋर्षय: संस्तुवन्त्यमुम् ।
गन्धर्वास्तं प्रगायन्ति नृत्यन्त्यप्सरसोऽग्रत: ॥ ४७ ॥
उन्नह्यन्ति रथं नागा ग्रामण्यो रथयोजका: ।
चोदयन्ति रथं पृष्ठे नैऋर्ता बलशालिन: ॥ ४८ ॥

Text

sāmarg-yajurbhis tal-liṅgair
ṛṣayaḥ saṁstuvanty amum
gandharvās taṁ pragāyanti
nṛtyanty apsaraso ’grataḥ
unnahyanti rathaṁ nāgā
grāmaṇyo ratha-yojakāḥ
codayanti rathaṁ pṛṣṭhe
nairṛtā bala-śālinaḥ

Synonyms

sāma-ṛk-yajurbhiḥ — with the hymns of the Sāma, Ṛg and Yajur Vedas; tat-liṅgaiḥ — which reveal the sun; ṛṣayaḥ — the sages; saṁstuvanti — glorify; amum — him; gandharvāḥ — the Gandharvas; tam — about him; pragāyanti — sing loudly; nṛtyanti — dance; apsarasaḥ — the Apsarās; agrataḥ — in front; unnahyanti — bind up; ratham — the chariot; nāgāḥ — the Nāgas; grāmaṇyaḥ — the Yakṣas; ratha-yojakāḥ — those who harness the horses to the chariot; codayanti — drive; ratham — the chariot; pṛṣṭhe — from the rear; nairṛtāḥ — the Rākṣasas; bala-śālinaḥ — strong.

Translation

While the sages glorify the sun-god with the hymns of the Sāma, Ṛg and Yajur Vedas, which reveal his identity, the Gandharvas also sing his praises and the Apsarās dance before his chariot. The Nāgas arrange the chariot ropes and the Yakṣas harness the horses to the chariot, while the powerful Rākṣasas push from behind.

Devanagari

वालखिल्या: सहस्राणि षष्टिर्ब्रह्मर्षयोऽमला: ।
पुरतोऽभिमुखं यान्ति स्तुवन्ति स्तुतिभिर्विभुम् ॥ ४९ ॥

Text

vālakhilyāḥ sahasrāṇi
ṣaṣṭir brahmarṣayo ’malāḥ
purato ’bhimukhaṁ yānti
stuvanti stutibhir vibhum

Synonyms

vālakhilyāḥ — the Vālakhilyas; sahasrāṇi — thousands; ṣaṣṭiḥ — sixty; brahma-ṛṣayaḥ — great sages among the brāhmaṇas; amalāḥ — pure; purataḥ — in front; abhimukham — facing the chariot; yānti — they go; stuvanti — they offer praise; stutibhiḥ — with Vedic prayers; vibhum — to the almighty lord.

Translation

Facing the chariot, the sixty thousand brāhmaṇa sages known as Vālakhilyas travel in front and offer prayers to the almighty sun-god with Vedic mantras.

Devanagari

एवं ह्यनादिनिधनो भगवान् हरिरीश्वर: ।
कल्पे कल्पे स्वमात्मानं व्यूह्य लोकानवत्यज: ॥ ५० ॥

Text

evaṁ hy anādi-nidhano
bhagavān harir īśvaraḥ
kalpe kalpe svam ātmānaṁ
vyūhya lokān avaty ajaḥ

Synonyms

evam — thus; hi — indeed; anādi — without beginning; nidhanaḥ — or end; bhagavān — the Personality of Godhead; hariḥ — Lord Hari; īśvaraḥ — the supreme controller; kalpe kalpe — in each day of Brahmā; svam ātmānam — Himself; vyūhya — expanding into various forms; lokān — the worlds; avati — protects; ajaḥ — the unborn Lord.

Translation

For the protection of all the worlds, the Supreme Personality of Godhead Hari, who is unborn and without beginning or end, thus expands Himself during each day of Brahmā into these specific categories of His personal representations.

Purport

Thus end the purports of the humble servants of His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupāda to the Twelfth Canto, Eleventh Chapter, of the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, entitled “Summary Description of the Mahāpuruṣa.”