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Mantra Fourteen

Štirinajsta mantra

Text

Besedilo

sambhūtiṁ ca vināśaṁ ca
yas tad vedobhayaḿ saha
vināśena mṛtyuṁ tīrtvā
sambhūtyāmṛtam aśnute
sambhūtiṁ ca vināśaṁ ca
yas tad vedobhayaḿ saha
vināśena mṛtyuṁ tīrtvā
sambhūtyāmṛtam aśnute

Synonyms

Synonyms

sambhūtim — the eternal Personality of Godhead, His transcendental name, form, pastimes, qualities and paraphernalia, the variegatedness of His abode, etc.; ca — and; vināśam — the temporary material manifestation of demigods, men, animals, etc., with their false names, fame, etc.; ca — also; yaḥ — one who; tat — that; veda — knows; ubhayam — both; saha — along with; vināśena — with everything liable to be vanquished; mṛtyum — death; tīrtvā — surpassing; sambhūtyā — in the eternal kingdom of God; amṛtam — deathlessness; aśnute — enjoys.

sambhūtim — večnega Vsevišnjega Gospoda, Njegovo transcendentalno ime, podobo, zabave, lastnosti in osebne predmete, raznolikost Njegovega prebivališča itd; ca — in; vināśam — začasno materialno pojavitev polbogov, ljudi, živali itdter njihovih nepravih imen, slave itd; ca — tudi; yaḥ — kdor; tat — to; veda — pozna; ubhayam — oboje; saha — skupaj z; vināśena — z vsem, kar je podvrženo uničenju; mṛtyum — smrt; tīrtvā — presegajoč; sambhūtyā — v večnem Božjem kraljestvu; amṛtam — neumrljivost; aśnute — uživa.

Translation

Translation

One should know perfectly the Personality of Godhead Śrī Kṛṣṇa and His transcendental name, form, qualities and pastimes, as well as the temporary material creation with its temporary demigods, men and animals. When one knows these, he surpasses death and the ephemeral cosmic manifestation with it, and in the eternal kingdom of God he enjoys his eternal life of bliss and knowledge.

Človek bi moral resnično poznati Vsevišnjega Gospoda, Śrī Kṛṣṇo, Njegovo transcendentalno ime, podobo, lastnosti in zabave pa tudi začasno materialno stvarstvo z minljivimi polbogovi, ljudmi in živalmi. Takrat se lahko dvigne nad smrt in bežen pojavni svet ter v večnem Božjem kraljestvu uživa v neskončnem življenju, polnem blaženosti in vednosti.

Purport

Purport

By its so-called advancement of knowledge, human civilization has created many material things, including spaceships and atomic energy. Yet it has failed to create a situation in which people need not die, take birth again, become old or suffer from disease. Whenever an intelligent man raises the question of these miseries before a so-called scientist, the scientist very cleverly replies that material science is progressing and that ultimately it will be possible to render man deathless, ageless and diseaseless. Such answers prove the scientists’ gross ignorance of material nature. In material nature, everyone is under the stringent laws of matter and must pass through six stages of existence: birth, growth, maintenance, production of by-products, deterioration and finally death. No one in contact with material nature can be beyond these six laws of transformation; therefore no one – whether demigod, man, animal or plant – can survive forever in the material world.

Človeška civilizacija je z navideznim znanstvenim napredkom ustvarila veliko materialnih stvari, med drugim vesoljske ladje in atomsko energijo. Kljub temu pa ji ni uspelo ustvariti okoliščin, v katerih ljudem ne bi bilo treba umreti, se spet roditi, ostareti ali trpeti v bolezni. Kadar koli pameten človek tako imenovane znanstvenike opozori na te nadloge, mu ti zvito zagotovijo, da materialna znanost napreduje in da bo človek nazadnje premagal smrt in staranje ter izkoreninil bolezni. Ti odgovori dokazujejo njihovo globoko nepoznavanje materialne narave. V snovnem svetu smo vsi podvrženi strogim zakonom materije in prehajamo skozi šest stopenj obstoja: rojstvo, rast, vzdrževanje, proizvajanje stranskih proizvodov, hiranje in smrt. Nihče, ki je v stiku z materialno naravo, se ne more dvigniti nad te zakone preobrazbe – zato v tem svetu nihče ne more živeti večno, pa naj bo polbog, človek, žival ali rastlina.

The duration of life varies according to species. Lord Brahmā, the chief living being within this material universe, lives for millions and millions of years, while a minute germ lives for some hours only. But no one in the material world can survive eternally. Things are born or created under certain conditions, they stay for some time, and, if they continue to live, they grow, procreate, gradually dwindle and finally vanish. According to these laws, even the Brahmās, of which there are millions in different universes, are all liable to death either today or tomorrow. Therefore the entire material universe is called Martyaloka, the place of death.

   Dolžina življenja je odvisna od življenjske vrste. Gospod Brahmā, glavno živo bitje v vesolju, živi na milijone let, neznatna klica pa le nekaj ur. Nihče v materialnem svetu pa ne more živeti večno. Vse stvari so ustvarjene v določenih okoliščinah, nekaj časa obstajajo in končno propadejo – živa bitja pa se rodijo, rastejo, se razmnožujejo, postopoma hirajo in nazadnje umrejo. Po teh zakonih bodo prej ali slej umrli celo Brahme, ki jih je v raznih vesoljih na milijone. Zato se celotno materialno stvarstvo imenuje Martyaloka, kraj smrti.

Material scientists and politicians are trying to make this place deathless because they have no information of the deathless spiritual nature. This is due to their ignorance of the Vedic literature, which contains full knowledge confirmed by mature transcendental experience. Unfortunately, modern man is averse to receiving knowledge from the Vedas, Purāṇas and other scriptures.

   Posvetni znanstveniki in politiki, ki ničesar ne vedo o večni duhovni naravi, bi radi dosegli, da bi ljudje postali neumrljivi na tem svetu. To je posledica nepoznavanja vedske književnosti, ki vsebuje popolno znanje, podprto z zrelo božansko izkušnjo. Na žalost dandanes ljudje nočejo sprejemati znanja iz Ved, Purāṇ in drugih svetih spisov.

From the Viṣṇu Purāṇa (6.7.61) we receive the following information:

   Viṣṇu Purāṇa (6.7.61) nas uči:

viṣṇu-śaktiḥ parā proktā
kṣetrajñākhyā tathā parā
avidyā-karma-saṁjñānyā
tṛtīyā śaktir iṣyate
viṣṇu-śaktiḥ parā proktā
kṣetrajñākhyā tathā parā
avidyā-karma-saṁjñānyā
tṛtīyā śaktir iṣyate

Lord Viṣṇu, the Personality of Godhead, possesses different energies, known as parā (superior) and aparā (inferior). The living entities belong to the superior energy. The material energy, in which we are presently entangled, is the inferior energy. The material creation is made possible by this energy, which covers the living entities with ignorance (avidyā) and induces them to perform fruitive activities. Yet there is another part of the Lord’s superior energy that is different from both this material, inferior energy and the living entities. That superior energy constitutes the eternal, deathless abode of the Lord. This is confirmed in the Bhagavad-gītā (8.20):

Božanska Osebnost Gospod Viṣṇu ima raznovrstne energije, ki so bodisi parā (višje) ali aparā (nižje). Živo bitje pripada Gospodovi višji energiji, materialna energija, v katero smo trenutno zapleteni, pa je nižja. Ta energija, ki živa bitja prekrije z nevednostjo (avidyo) in jih sili k delovanju z željo po uživanju sadov dela, omogoča materialno stvarjenje. Obstaja pa še drugi del Gospodove višje energije, ki se razlikuje tako od materialne (nižje) energije kot od živih bitij. Ta sestavlja večno in neumrljivo Božje prebivališče. To potrjuje Bhagavad-gītā (8.20):

paras tasmāt tu bhāvo ’nyo
’vyakto ’vyaktāt sanātanaḥ
yaḥ sa sarveṣu bhūteṣu
naśyatsu na vinaśyati
paras tasmāt tu bhāvo ’nyo
’vyakto ’vyaktāt sanātanaḥ
yaḥ sa sarveṣu bhūteṣu
naśyatsu na vinaśyati

All the material planets – upper, lower and intermediate, including the sun, moon and Venus – are scattered throughout the universe. These planets exist only during the lifetime of Brahmā. Some lower planets, however, are vanquished after the end of one day of Brahmā and are again created during the next day of Brahmā. On the upper planets, time is calculated differently. One of our years is equal to only twenty-four hours, or one day and night, on many of the upper planets. The four ages of earth (Satya, Tretā, Dvāpara and Kali) last only twelve thousand years according to the time scale of the upper planets. Such a length of time multiplied by one thousand constitutes one day of Brahmā, and one night of Brahmā is the same. Such days and nights accumulate into months and years, and Brahmā lives for one hundred such years. At the end of Brahmā’s life, the complete universal manifestation is vanquished.

Materialni planeti – višji, nižji in srednji, skupaj s Soncem, Mesecem in Venero – so razpršeni po vsem vesolju. Obstajajo samo toliko časa, kolikor dolgo živi Brahmā. Kljub temu so nekateri nižji planeti uničeni ob koncu Brahmovega dne in so naslednji dan spet ustvarjeni. Na višjih planetih čas teče drugače. Naše leto je enako le štiriindvajsetim uram oziroma enemu dnevu in noči na številnih višjih planetih. Štiri zemeljske dobe (satya, tretā, dvāpara in kali) trajajo na višjih planetih samo dvanajst tisoč let. Če to obdobje tisočkrat pomnožimo, dobimo Brahmov dan, enako dolgo pa traja tudi njegova noč. Brahmovi dnevi in noči sestavljajo njegove mesece in leta, živi pa sto svojih let. Po tem času je uničena celotna vesoljna pojavitev.

Those living beings who reside on higher planets like the sun and the moon, as well as those on Martyaloka, this earth planet, and also those who live on lower planets – all are merged into the waters of devastation during the night of Brahmā. During this time no living beings or species remain manifest, although spiritually they continue to exist. This unmanifested stage is called avyakta. Again, when the entire universe is vanquished at the end of Brahmā’s lifetime, there is another avyakta state. But beyond these two unmanifested states is another unmanifested state, the spiritual atmosphere, or nature. There are a great number of spiritual planets in this atmosphere, and these planets exist eternally, even when all the planets within this material universe are vanquished at the end of Brahmā’s life. There are many material universes, each under the jurisdiction of a Brahmā, and this cosmic manifestation within the jurisdiction of the various Brahmās is but a display of one fourth of the energy of the Lord (ekapād-vibhūti). This is the inferior energy. Beyond the jurisdiction of Brahmā is the spiritual nature, which is called tripād-vibhūti, three fourths of the Lord’s energy. This is the superior energy, or parā-prakṛti.

   Vsa živa bitja – tista, ki prebivajo na višjih planetih, kot sta Sonce in Mesec, pa tudi tista na Martyaloki (Zemlji) in nižjih planetih – se med Brahmovo nočjo potopijo v vode uničenja. Čeprav takrat živa bitja in vrste duhovno še vedno obstajajo, niso zaznavna. To stanje se imenuje avyakta. Drugo stanje avyakte nastopi ob uničenju celotnega vesolja ob koncu Brahmovega življenja. Onkraj teh dveh pa obstaja še eno nezaznavno stanje – duhovni svet. Tam je nešteto duhovnih planetov, ki obstajajo večno, tudi ob koncu Brahmovega življenja, ko so uničeni vsi planeti materialnega vesolja. Obstaja veliko materialnih vesolj in vsakemu vlada drug Brahmā, vsa vesoljna pojavitev skupaj pa obsega le četrtino Gospodove energije (ekapād-vibhūti). To je Gospodova nižja energija. Onkraj Brahmove oblasti pa je duhovna narava, imenovana tripād-vibhūti, ki je Gospodova višja energija ali parā-prakṛti in obsega tri četrtine Njegove energije.

The predominating Supreme Person residing within the spiritual nature is Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa. As confirmed in the Bhagavad-gītā (8.22), He can be approached only by unalloyed devotional service and not by the processes of jñāna (philosophy), yoga (mysticism) or karma (fruitive work). The karmīs, or fruitive workers, can elevate themselves to the Svargaloka planets, which include the sun and the moon. Jñānīs and yogīs can attain still higher planets, such as Maharloka, Tapoloka and Brahmaloka, and when they become still more qualified through devotional service they can enter into the spiritual nature, either the illuminating cosmic atmosphere of the spiritual sky (Brahman) or the Vaikuṇṭha planets, according to their qualification. It is certain, however, that no one can enter into the spiritual Vaikuṇṭha planets without being trained in devotional service.

   Gospod Śrī Kṛṣṇa je prevladujoča Božanska Osebnost duhovnega sveta, Svojega prebivališča. Bhagavad-gītā (8.22) zagotavlja, da se Mu lahko približamo le s čistim vdanim služenjem, medtem ko nam z jñāno (filozofijo), jogo (mistiko) ali karmo (delovanjem z željo po uživanju sadov svojega dela) to ne bo uspelo. Karmīji oziroma tisti, ki si želijo sadov svojega dela, se lahko dvignejo na planete Svargaloke, ki vključujejo tudi Sonce in Mesec. Jñānīji in jogiji se lahko dvignejo še više, in sicer na Maharloko, Tapoloko in Brahmaloko, ko pa se z vdanim služenjem Gospodu še bolj usposobijo, lahko vstopijo v duhovni svet, bodisi v sijaj duhovnega neba (Brahman) ali pa na planete Vaikuṇṭhe – odvisno od svoje usposobljenosti. Zagotovo pa nihče ne more doseči duhovnih planetov Vaikuṇṭhe, ne da bi se prej usposobil v vdanem služenju Gospodu.

On the material planets, everyone from Brahmā down to the ant is trying to lord it over material nature, and this is the material disease. As long as this material disease continues, the living entity has to undergo the process of bodily change. Whether he takes the form of a man, demigod or animal, he ultimately has to endure an unmanifested condition during the two devastations – the devastation during the night of Brahmā and the devastation at the end of Brahmā’s life. If we want to put an end to this process of repeated birth and death, as well as the concomitant factors of old age and disease, we must try to enter the spiritual planets, where we can live eternally in the association of Lord Kṛṣṇa or His plenary expansions, His Nārāyaṇa forms. Lord Kṛṣṇa or His plenary expansions dominate every one of these innumerable planets, a fact confirmed in the śruti mantras: eko vaśī sarva-gaḥ kṛṣṇa īḍyaḥ/ eko ’pi san bahudhā yo ’vabhāti. (Gopāla-tāpanī Upaniṣad 1.21)

   Naša bolezen v materialnem svetu je, da si vsi, od Brahme do mravlje, prizadevamo vladati naravi. Vse dokler ne ozdravimo, smo podvrženi menjavanju teles. Ne glede na to, ali smo v človeški, polbožji ali živalski podobi, moramo nazadnje v času dveh uničenj prenašati nezaznavno stanje – med Brahmovo nočjo ali pa ob koncu njegovega življenja. Če se nočemo več rojevati in umirati, pa tudi stareti in zbolevati, si moramo prizadevati, da bi se dvignili na duhovne planete, kjer lahko živimo večno in se družimo s Kṛṣṇo ali Njegovimi popolnimi emanacijami v podobi Nārāyaṇe. Śruti mantre potrjujejo, da Gospod Kṛṣṇa ali Njegove popolne emanacije vladajo vsakemu od teh neštetih planetov: eko vaśī sarva-gaḥ kṛṣṇa īḍyaḥ / eko 'pi san bahudhā yo 'vabhāti (Gopāla-tāpanī Upaniṣad 1.21).

No one can dominate Kṛṣṇa. It is the conditioned soul who tries to dominate material nature and is instead subjected to the laws of material nature and the sufferings of repeated birth and death. The Lord comes here to reestablish the principles of religion, and the basic principle is the development of an attitude of surrender to Him. This is the Lord’s last instruction in the Bhagavad-gītā (18.66): sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja. “Give up all other processes and just surrender unto Me alone.” Unfortunately, foolish men have misinterpreted this prime teaching and misled the masses of people in diverse ways. People have been urged to open hospitals but not to educate themselves to enter into the spiritual kingdom by devotional service. They have been taught to take interest only in temporary relief work, which can never bring real happiness to the living entity. They start varieties of public and semi-governmental institutions to tackle the devastating power of nature, but they don’t know how to pacify insurmountable nature. Many men are advertised as great scholars of the Bhagavad-gītā, but they overlook the Gītā’s message, by which material nature can be pacified. Powerful nature can be pacified only by the awakening of God consciousness, as clearly pointed out in the Bhagavad-gītā (7.14).

   Kṛṣṇi nihče ne more gospodovati. Ker pogojene duše skušajo vladati materialni naravi, so podvržene njenim zakonom ter trpijo v ponavljajočem se rojevanju in umiranju. Gospod pride v ta svet vzpostavit verska načela, med katerimi je najosnovnejše želja po predanosti Bogu. To je Gospodovo zadnje navodilo v Bhagavad-gīti (18.66): sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja. »Opusti vse druge poti in se predaj samo Meni.« Na žalost pa nespametni ljudje napačno razlagajo ta najpomembnejši nauk in na razne načine zavajajo množice. Ljudi nagovarjajo, naj odpirajo bolnišnice, ne spodbujajo pa jih, naj se z vdanim služenjem Gospodu izobrazijo za vstop v duhovno kraljestvo. Učijo jih, naj se posvetijo samo minljivi dobrodelnosti, ki nikoli ne more zares osrečiti živega bitja. Ustanavljajo vrsto javnih in pol-vladnih organizacij za reševanje uničujočih posledic naravnih nesreč, ne vedo pa, kako nepremagljivo naravo pomiriti. Številne razglašajo za velike poznavalce Bhagavad-gīte, toda ti ne poznajo njenega sporočila, kako pomiriti mogočno materialno naravo. To je mogoče doseči le z obuditvijo zavedanja Boga, kar Bhagavad-gītā (7.14) posebej poudarja.

In this mantra, Śrī Īśopaniṣad teaches that one must perfectly know both sambhūti (the Personality of Godhead) and vināśa (the temporary material manifestation), side by side. By knowing the material manifestation alone, one cannot be saved, for in the course of nature there is devastation at every moment (ahany ahani bhūtāni gacchantīha yamā-layam). Nor can one be saved from these devastations by the opening of hospitals. One can be saved only by complete knowledge of the eternal life of bliss and awareness. The whole Vedic scheme is meant to educate men in this art of attaining eternal life. People are often misguided by temporary attractive things based on sense gratification, but service rendered to the sense objects is both misleading and degrading.

   Śrī Īśopaniṣad nas v tej mantri uči, da moramo popolnoma poznati tako sambhūti (Božansko Osebnost) kot vināśo (začasni pojavni svet). Če poznamo samo slednjega, se ne moremo rešiti, saj se bomo po naravnem toku slej ko prej soočili z uničenjem (ahany ahani bhūtāni gacchantīha yamālayam). Temu se ne moremo izogniti niti z odpiranjem bolnišnic. Rešimo se lahko samo s popolnim znanjem o večnem življenju, polnem blaženosti in zavedanja. Celoten vedski sistem je namenjen izobraževanju ljudi o tem, kako usvojiti umetnost večnega življenja. Ljudi pogosto zavedejo minljive privlačnosti, ki temeljijo na zadovoljevanju čutov, ne zavedajo pa se, da zaradi zavajajočega služenja čutom človek nazaduje.

We must therefore save ourselves and our fellow man in the right way. There is no question of liking or disliking the truth. It is there. If we want to be saved from repeated birth and death, we must take to the devotional service of the Lord. There can be no compromise, for this is a matter of necessity.

   Sebe in soljudi moramo zato reševati na pravilen način. O resnici ne moremo razpredati, ali nam je ljuba ali ne. Ta preprosto obstaja. Če se hočemo rešiti ponavljajočih se rojstev in smrti, se moramo nujno in brez polovičarstva posvetiti vdanemu služenju Gospodu.