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CHAPTER EIGHT

Talks Between Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and Rāmānanda Rāya

The summary of the eighth chapter is given by Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura in his Amṛta-pravāha-bhāṣya. After visiting the temple of Jiyaḍa-nṛsiṁha, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu went to the banks of the river Godāvarī, to a place known as Vidyānagara. When Śrīla Rāmānanda Rāya went there to take his bath, they met. After introducing himself, Śrī Rāmānanda Rāya requested Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu to remain in the village for some days. Honoring his request, Caitanya Mahāprabhu stayed there in the home of some Vedic brāhmaṇas. In the evening, Śrīla Rāmānanda Rāya used to come to see Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Rāmānanda Rāya, who was clothed in ordinary dress, offered the Lord respectful obeisances. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu questioned him on the object and process of worship and also asked him to recite verses from the Vedic literature.

First of all, Śrīla Rāmānanda Rāya enunciated the system of the varṇāśrama institution. He recited various verses about karmārpaṇa, stating that everything should be dedicated to the Lord. He then spoke of detached action, knowledge mixed with devotional service, and finally the spontaneous loving service of the Lord. After hearing Śrīla Rāmānanda Rāya recite some verses, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu accepted the principle of pure devotional service devoid of all kinds of speculation. After this, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu asked Rāmānanda Rāya to explain the higher platform of devotional service. Then Śrīla Rāmānanda Rāya explained unalloyed devotional service, love of Godhead, and serving the Lord in the moods of pure servitude, fraternity and parental love. Finally he spoke of serving the Lord in conjugal love. He then spoke of how conjugal love can be developed in various ways. This conjugal love attains its highest perfection in Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s love for Kṛṣṇa. He next described the position of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and the transcendental mellows of love of God. Śrīla Rāmānanda Rāya then recited a verse of his own concerning the platform of ecstatic vision, technically called prema-vilāsa-vivarta. Śrīla Rāmānanda Rāya also explained that all stages of conjugal love can be attained through the mercy of the residents of Vṛndāvana, especially by the mercy of the gopīs. All these subject matters were thus vividly described. Gradually Rāmānanda Rāya could understand the position of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, and when Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu exhibited His real form, Rāmānanda Rāya fell unconscious. After some days, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu asked Rāmānanda Rāya to retire from government service and come to Jagannātha Purī. These descriptions of the meetings between Rāmānanda Rāya and Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu are taken from the notebook of Svarūpa Dāmodara Gosvāmī.

Text

sañcārya rāmābhidha-bhakta-meghe
sva-bhakti-siddhānta-cayāmṛtāni
gaurābdhir etair amunā vitīrṇais
taj-jñatva-ratnālayatāṁ prayāti

Synonyms

sañcārya — by empowering; rāma-abhidha — of the name Rāma; bhakta-meghe — in the cloudlike devotee; sva-bhakti — of His own devotional service; siddhānta — of conclusions; caya — all collections; amṛtāni — nectar; gaura-abdhiḥ — the ocean known as Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; etaiḥ — by these; amunā — by the cloud known as Rāmānanda Rāya; vitīrṇaiḥ — distributed; tat-jñatva — of knowledge of devotional service; ratna-ālayatām — the quality of being an ocean containing valuable jewels; prayāti — achieved.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, who is known as Gaurāṅga, is the ocean of all conclusive knowledge in devotional service. He empowered Śrī Rāmānanda Rāya, who may be likened to a cloud of devotional service. This cloud was filled with the water of all the conclusive purports of devotional service and was empowered by the ocean to spread this water over the sea of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu Himself. Thus the ocean of Caitanya Mahāprabhu became filled with the jewels of the knowledge of pure devotional service.

Text

jaya jaya śrī-caitanya jaya nityānanda
jayādvaita-candra jaya gaura-bhakta-vṛnda

Synonyms

jaya jaya — all glories; śrī-caitanya — Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; jaya — all glories; nityānanda — to Lord Nityānanda; jaya advaita-candra — all glories to Advaita Ācārya; jaya gaura-bhakta-vṛnda — all glories to the devotees of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

Translation

All glories to Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu! All glories to Lord Nityānanda! All glories to Advaita Ācārya! And all glories to all the devotees of Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu!

Text

pūrva-rīte prabhu āge gamana karilā
‘jiyaḍa-nṛsiṁha’-kṣetre kata-dine gelā

Synonyms

pūrva-rīte — according to His previous program; prabhu — Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; āge — ahead; gamana — going; karilā — did; jiyaḍa-nṛsiṁha — of the name Jiyaḍa-nṛsiṁha; kṣetre — at the place of pilgrimage; kata-dine — after some days; gelā — arrived.

Translation

According to His previous program, Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu went forward on His tour and after some days arrived at the place of pilgrimage known as Jiyaḍa-nṛsiṁha.

Purport

The Jiyaḍa-nṛsiṁha temple is situated on the top of a hill about five miles away from Visakhapatnam. There is a railway station on the South Indian Railway known as Siṁhācala. The temple known as Siṁhācala is the best temple in the vicinity of Visakhapatnam. This temple is very affluent and is a typical example of the architecture of the area. On one stone tablet it is mentioned that formerly a queen covered the Deity with gold plate. This is mentioned in the Visakhapatnam Gazetteer. About the temple, there are residential quarters for the priests and devotees. Indeed, at the present moment there are many residential quarters to accommodate visiting devotees. The original Deity is situated within the depths of the temple, but there is another Deity, a duplicate, known as the vijaya-mūrti. This smaller Deity can be moved from the temple and taken on public processions. Priests who generally belong to the Rāmānuja-sampradāya are in charge of the Deity worship.

Text

nṛsiṁha dekhiyā kaila daṇḍavat-praṇati
premāveśe kaila bahu nṛtya-gīta-stuti

Synonyms

nṛsiṁha dekhiyā — by seeing Lord Nṛsiṁha in the temple; kaila — did; daṇḍavat-praṇati — offering of obeisances, falling flat before the Deity; premāveśe — in ecstatic love; kaila — did; bahu — all kinds of; nṛtya — dancing; gīta — chanting; stuti — and offering of prayers.

Translation

Upon seeing the Deity of Lord Nṛsiṁha in the temple, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu offered His respectful obeisances by falling flat. Then, in ecstatic love, He performed various dances, chanted, and offered prayers.

Text

“śrī-nṛsiṁha, jaya nṛsiṁha, jaya jaya nṛsiṁha
prahlādeśa jaya padmā-mukha-padma-bhṛṅga”

Synonyms

śrī-nṛsiṁha — Lord Nṛsiṁha with Lakṣmī; jaya nṛsiṁha — all glories to Lord Nṛsiṁha; jaya jaya — again and again glories; nṛsiṁha — to Nṛsiṁhadeva; prahlāda-īśa — to the Lord of Prahlāda Mahārāja; jaya — all glories; padmā — of the goddess of fortune; mukha-padma — of the lotuslike face; bhṛṅga — the bee.

Translation

“ ‘All glories to Nṛsiṁhadeva! All glories to Nṛsiṁhadeva, who is the Lord of Prahlāda Mahārāja and, like a honeybee, is always engaged in beholding the lotuslike face of the goddess of fortune.’

Purport

The goddess of fortune is always embraced by Lord Nṛsiṁhadeva. This is mentioned in the commentary on Śrīmad- Bhāgavatam written by the great commentator Śrīla Śrīdhara Svāmī. The following verse was composed by Śrīdhara Svāmī in his commentary on the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.87.1):

vāg-īśā yasya vadanelakṣmīr yasya ca vakṣasi
yasyāste hṛdaye samvit
taṁ nṛsiṁham ahaṁ bhaje

“Lord Nṛsiṁhadeva is always assisted by Sarasvatī, the goddess of learning, and He is always embracing the goddess of fortune to His chest. The Lord is always complete in knowledge within Himself. Let us offer obeisances unto Nṛsiṁhadeva.”

Similarly, in his commentary on the First Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (1.1.1), Śrīdhara Svāmī describes Lord Nṛsiṁhadeva in this way:

prahlāda-hṛdayāhlādaṁbhaktāvidyā-vidāraṇam
śarad-indu-ruciṁ vande
pārīndra-vadanaṁ harim

“Let me offer my obeisances unto Lord Nṛsiṁhadeva, who is always enlightening Prahlāda Mahārāja within his heart and who always kills the nescience that attacks the devotees. His mercy is distributed like moonshine, and His face is like that of a lion. Let me offer my obeisances unto Him again and again.”

Text

ugro ’py anugra evāyaṁ
sva-bhaktānāṁ nṛ-keśarī
keśarīva sva-potānām
anyeṣām ugra-vikramaḥ

Synonyms

ugraḥ — ferocious; api — although; anugraḥ — not ferocious; eva — certainly; ayam — this; sva-bhaktānām — to His pure devotees; nṛ-keśarī — having the body of a human being and a lion; keśarī iva — like a lioness; sva-potānām — to her young cubs; anyeṣām — to others; ugra — ferocious; vikramaḥ — whose strength.

Translation

“ ‘Although very ferocious, the lioness is very kind to her cubs. Similarly, although very ferocious to nondevotees like Hiraṇyakaśipu, Lord Nṛsiṁhadeva is very, very soft and kind to devotees like Prahlāda Mahārāja.’ ”

Purport

This verse was composed by Śrīdhara Svāmī in his commentary on the Seventh Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (7.9.1).

Text

ei-mata nānā śloka paḍi’ stuti kaila
nṛsiṁha-sevaka mālā-prasāda āni’ dila

Synonyms

ei-mata — in this way; nānā — various; śloka — verses; paḍi’ — reciting; stuti — prayers; kaila — offered; nṛsiṁha-sevaka — the priest of Lord Nṛsiṁhadeva in the temple; mālā — garlands; prasāda — and remnants of the food of Lord Nṛsiṁhadeva; āni’ — bringing; dila — offered.

Translation

In this way Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu recited different verses from the śāstra. The priest of Lord Nṛsiṁhadeva then brought garlands and the remnants of the Lord’s food and offered them to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

Text

pūrvavat kona vipre kaila nimantraṇa
sei rātri tāhāṅ rahi’ karilā gamana

Synonyms

pūrva-vat — as previously; kona — some; viprebrāhmaṇa; kaila — made; nimantraṇa — invitation; sei rātri — that night; tāhāṅ — there; rahi’ — staying; karilā — did; gamana — touring.

Translation

As usual, a brāhmaṇa offered Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu an invitation. The Lord passed the night in the temple and then commenced His tour again.

Text

prabhāte uṭhiyā prabhu calilā premāveśe
dig-vidik nāhi jñāna rātri-divase

Synonyms

prabhāte — in the morning; uṭhiyā — rising; prabhu — Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; calilā — went; prema-āveśe — in great ecstatic love; dik-vidik — the right or wrong direction; nāhi — there was not; jñāna — knowledge; rātri-divase — day and night.

Translation

The next morning, in the great ecstasy of love, Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu started on His tour with no knowledge of the proper direction, and He continued the whole day and night.

Text

pūrvavat ‘vaiṣṇava’ kari’ sarva loka-gaṇe
godāvarī-tīre prabhu āilā kata-dine

Synonyms

pūrva-vat — as previously; vaiṣṇava — devotees; kari’ — making; sarva — all; loka-gaṇe — the people; godāvarī-tīre — on the bank of the river Godāvarī; prabhu — the Lord; āilā — arrived; kata-dine — after some days.

Translation

As previously, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu converted to Vaiṣṇavism many people He met on the road. After some days, the Lord reached the banks of the river Godāvarī.

Text

godāvarī dekhi’ ha-ila ‘yamunā’-smaraṇa
tīre vana dekhi’ smṛti haila vṛndāvana

Synonyms

godāvarī — the river Godāvarī; dekhi’ — seeing; ha-ila — there was; yamunā smaraṇa — remembrance of the river Yamunā; tīre — on the banks; vana — the forests; dekhi’ — seeing; smṛti — remembrance; haila — there was; vṛndāvana — Śrī Vṛndāvana.

Translation

When He saw the river Godāvarī, the Lord remembered the river Yamunā, and when He saw the forest on the banks of the river, He remembered Śrī Vṛndāvana-dhāma.

Text

sei vane kata-kṣaṇa kari’ nṛtya-gāna
godāvarī pāra hañā tāhāṅ kaila snāna

Synonyms

sei vane — in that forest; kata-kṣaṇa — for some time; kari’ — performing; nṛtya-gāna — dancing and chanting; godāvarī — the river; pāra hañā — crossing; tāhāṅ — there; kaila — took; snāna — bath.

Translation

After performing His usual chanting and dancing for some time in this forest, the Lord crossed the river and took His bath on the other bank.

Text

ghāṭa chāḍi’ kata-dūre jala-sannidhāne
vasi’ prabhu kare kṛṣṇa-nāma-saṅkīrtane

Synonyms

ghāṭa chāḍi’ — leaving the bathing place; kata-dūre — a short distance away; jala-sannidhāne — near the water; vasi’ — sitting; prabhu — the Lord; kare — does; kṛṣṇa-nāma-saṅkīrtane — chanting of the holy name of Lord Kṛṣṇa.

Translation

After bathing in the river, the Lord walked a little distance from the bathing place and engaged in chanting the holy name of Kṛṣṇa.

Text

hena-kāle dolāya caḍi’ rāmānanda rāya
snāna karibāre āilā, bājanā bājāya

Synonyms

hena-kāle — at this time; dolāya caḍi’ — riding on a palanquin; rāmānanda rāya — Śrīla Rāmānanda Rāya; snāna — bath; karibāre — to take; āilā — came there; bājanā bājāya — accompanied by a musical band.

Translation

At that time, accompanied by the sounds of music, Rāmānanda Rāya came there on a palanquin to take his bath.

Text

tāṅra saṅge bahu āilā vaidika brāhmaṇa
vidhi-mate kaila teṅho snānādi-tarpaṇa

Synonyms

tāṅra saṅge — with him; bahu — many; āilā — came; vaidika — following the Vedic principles; brāhmaṇabrāhmaṇas; vidhi-mate — according to ritualistic ceremonies; kaila — did; teṅho — he, Śrīla Rāmānanda Rāya; snāna-ādi-tarpaṇa — bathing and offering oblations, etc.

Translation

Many brāhmaṇas following the Vedic principles accompanied Rāmānanda Rāya. According to the Vedic rituals, Rāmānanda Rāya took his bath and offered oblations to his forefathers.

Text

prabhu tāṅre dekhi’ jānila — ei rāma-rāya
tāṅhāre milite prabhura mana uṭhi’ dhāya

Synonyms

prabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; tāṅre — him; dekhi’ — seeing; jānila — could understand; ei — this; rāma-rāya — Śrīla Rāmānanda Rāya; tāṅhāre — him; milite — to meet; prabhura — of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; mana — mind; uṭhi’ — rising; dhāya — runs after.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu could understand that the person who had come to bathe in the river was Rāmānanda Rāya. The Lord wanted so much to meet him that His mind immediately began running after him.

Text

tathāpi dhairya dhari’ prabhu rahilā vasiyā
rāmānanda āilā apūrva sannyāsī dekhiyā

Synonyms

tathāpi — still; dhariya dhari’ — keeping patient; prabhu — Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; rahilā — remained; vasiyā — sitting; rāmānanda — Śrīla Rāmānanda Rāya; āilā — arrived; apūrva — wonderful; sannyāsī — renunciant; dekhiyā — seeing.

Translation

Although Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was running after him mentally, He patiently remained sitting. Rāmānanda Rāya, seeing the wonderful sannyāsī, then came to see Him.

Text

sūrya-śata-sama kānti, aruṇa vasana
subalita prakāṇḍa deha, kamala-locana

Synonyms

sūrya-śata — hundreds of suns; sama — like; kānti — luster; aruṇa — saffron; vasana — garments; subalita — very strongly built; prakāṇḍa — big; deha — body; kamala-locana — eyes like lotus petals.

Translation

Śrīla Rāmānanda Rāya then saw Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu to be as brilliant as a hundred suns. The Lord was covered by a saffron garment. He was large in body and very strongly built, and His eyes were like lotus petals.

Text

dekhiyā tāṅhāra mane haila camatkāra
āsiyā karila daṇḍavat namaskāra

Synonyms

dekhiyā — seeing; tāṅhāra — his; mane — in the mind; haila — there was; camatkāra — wonder; āsiyā — coming there; karila — did; daṇḍa-vat — like a rod; namaskāra — obeisances.

Translation

When Rāmānanda Rāya saw the wonderful sannyāsī, he was struck with wonder. He went to Him and immediately offered his respectful obeisances, falling down flat like a rod.

Text

uṭhi’ prabhu kahe, — ūṭha, kaha ‘kṛṣṇa’ ‘kṛṣṇa’
tāre āliṅgite prabhura hṛdaya satṛṣṇa

Synonyms

uṭhi’ — rising; prabhu — the Lord; kahe — said; uṭha — get up; kaha — chant; kṛṣṇa kṛṣṇa — the holy name of Lord Kṛṣṇa; tāre — him; āliṅgite — to embrace; prabhura — of Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; hṛdaya — the heart; sa-tṛṣṇa — very eager.

Translation

The Lord stood up and asked Rāmānanda Rāya to arise and chant the holy name of Kṛṣṇa. Indeed, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was very eager to embrace him.

Text

tathāpi puchila, — tumi rāya rāmānanda?
teṅho kahe, — sei haṅa dāsa śūdra manda

Synonyms

tathāpi — still; puchila — He inquired; tumi — you; rāya rāmānanda — Rāmānanda Rāya; teṅho kahe — he replied; sei haṅa — I am that; dāsa — servant; śūdra — belonging to the śūdra community; manda — very low.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu then inquired whether he was Rāmānanda Rāya, and he replied, “Yes, I am Your very low servant, and I belong to the śūdra community.”

Text

tabe tāre kaila prabhu dṛḍha āliṅgana
premāveśe prabhu-bhṛtya doṅhe acetana

Synonyms

tabe — thereafter; tāre — him; kaila — did; prabhu — Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; dṛḍha — firm; āliṅgana — embracing; prema-āveśe — in ecstatic love; prabhu-bhṛtya — the servant and the master; doṅhe — both; acetana — unconscious.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu then embraced Śrī Rāmānanda Rāya very firmly. Indeed, both the master and the servant almost lost consciousness due to ecstatic love.

Text

svābhāvika prema doṅhāra udaya karilā
duṅhā āliṅgiyā duṅhe bhūmite paḍilā

Synonyms

svābhāvika — natural; prema — love; doṅhāra — of both of them; udaya — awakening; karilā — there was; duṅhā — both; āliṅgiyā — embracing; duṅhe — both of them; bhūmite — on the ground; paḍilā — fell down.

Translation

Their natural love for each other was awakened in them both, and they embraced and fell to the ground.

Purport

Śrīla Rāmānanda Rāya was an incarnation of the gopī Viśākhā. Since Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was Lord Kṛṣṇa Himself, there was naturally an awakening of love between Viśākhā and Kṛṣṇa. Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya Mahāprabhu is the combination of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and Kṛṣṇa, and the gopī Viśākhā is a principal gopī assisting Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. Thus the natural love between Rāmānanda Rāya and Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu awakened and they embraced.

Text

stambha, sveda, aśru, kampa, pulaka, vaivarṇya
duṅhāra mukhete śuni’ gadgada ‘kṛṣṇa’ varṇa

Synonyms

stambha — paralysis; sveda — perspiration; aśru — tears; kampa — shivering; pulaka — horripilation; vaivarṇya — paleness; duṅhāra — of both of them; mukhete — in the mouth; śuni’ — hearing; gadgada — faltering; kṛṣṇa varṇa — Kṛṣṇa’s name.

Translation

When they embraced each other, ecstatic symptoms — paralysis, perspiration, tears, shivering, paleness and standing up of the bodily hairs — appeared. The word “Kṛṣṇa” came from their mouths falteringly.

Text

dekhiyā brāhmaṇa-gaṇera haila camatkāra
vaidika brāhmaṇa saba karena vicāra

Synonyms

dekhiyā — seeing this; brāhmaṇa-gaṇera — of the ritualistic brāhmaṇas; haila — there was; camatkāra — wonder; vaidika — followers of Vedic ritualistic ceremonies; brāhmaṇa — the brāhmaṇas; saba — all; karena — did; vicāra — consideration.

Translation

When the stereotyped, ritualistic brāhmaṇas who were following the Vedic principles saw this ecstatic manifestation of love, they were struck with wonder. All these brāhmaṇas began to reflect as follows.

Text

ei ta’ sannyāsīra teja dekhi brahma-sama
śūdre āliṅgiyā kene karena krandana

Synonyms

ei ta’ — this indeed; sannyāsīra — of the sannyāsī, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; teja — bodily effulgence; dekhi — we see; brahma-sama — exactly like Brahman; śūdre — a śūdra, or worker; āliṅgiyā — embracing; kene — why; karena — does; krandana — crying.

Translation

The brāhmaṇas thought, “We can see that this sannyāsī has a luster like the effulgence of Brahman, but how is it He is crying upon embracing a śūdra, a member of the fourth caste in the social order?”

Text

ei mahārāja — mahā-paṇḍita, gambhīra
sannyāsīra sparśe matta ha-ilā asthira

Synonyms

ei mahārāja — this Rāmānanda Rāya, who is the Governor; mahā-paṇḍita — a very learned person; gambhīra — grave; sannyāsīra sparśe — by touching a sannyāsī; matta — mad; ha-ilā — became; asthira — restless.

Translation

They thought, “This Rāmānanda Rāya is the Governor of Madras, a highly learned and grave person, a mahā-paṇḍita, but upon touching this sannyāsī he has become restless like a madman.”

Text

ei-mata vipra-gaṇa bhāve mane mana
vijātīya loka dekhi, prabhu kaila samvaraṇa

Synonyms

ei-mata — in this way; vipra-gaṇa — all the brāhmaṇas; bhāve — think; mane mana — within their minds; vijātīya loka — outside people; dekhi — seeing; prabhu — Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; kaila — did; samvaraṇa — restraining.

Translation

While the brāhmaṇas were thinking in this way about the activities of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and Rāmānanda Rāya, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu saw those outsiders and restrained His transcendental emotions.

Purport

Rāmānanda Rāya was intimately related to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; therefore he can be accepted as a sajātīya, a person within the intimate circle of the Lord. The brāhmaṇas, however, were followers of the Vedic rituals and were not able to have an intimate connection with Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Consequently they are called vijātīya-loka. In other words, they were not pure devotees. One may be a highly learned brāhmaṇa, but if he is not a pure devotee he is a vijātīya, an outcaste, one outside devotional service — in other words, a nondevotee. Although Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and Rāmānanda Rāya were embracing in ecstasy, the Lord restrained His transcendental emotions upon seeing the outsider brāhmaṇas.

Text

sustha hañā duṅhe sei sthānete vasilā
tabe hāsi’ mahāprabhu kahite lāgilā

Synonyms

su-stha hañā — becoming steady; duṅhe — both of them; sei — that; sthānete — in the place; vasilā — sat down; tabe — then; hāsi’ — smiling; mahāprabhu — Caitanya Mahāprabhu; kahite — to speak; lāgilā — began.

Translation

When they regained their sanity, they both sat down, and Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu smiled and began to speak as follows.

Text

‘sārvabhauma bhaṭṭācārya kahila tomāra guṇe
tomāre milite more karila yatane

Synonyms

sārvabhauma bhaṭṭācārya — Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya; kahila — has spoken; tomāra — your; guṇe — good qualities; tomāre — you; milite — to meet; more — Me; karila — made; yatane — endeavor.

Translation

“Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya spoke of your good qualities, and he made a great endeavor to convince Me to meet you.

Text

tomā milibāre mora ethā āgamana
bhāla haila, anāyāse pāiluṅ daraśana’

Synonyms

tomā — you; milibāre — to meet; mora — My; ethā — here; āgamana — coming; bhāla haila — it was very good; anāyāse — without difficulty; pāiluṅ — I have gotten; daraśana — interview.

Translation

“Indeed, I have come here just to meet you. It is very good that even without making an effort I have gotten your interview here.”

Text

rāya kahe, — sārvabhauma kare bhṛtya-jñāna
parokṣeha mora hite haya sāvadhāna

Synonyms

rāya kahe — Rāmānanda Rāya replied; sārvabhauma — Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya; kare — does; bhṛtya-jñāna — thinks of me as his servant; parokṣeha — in my absence; mora — of me; hite — for the benefit; haya — is; sāvadhāna — always careful.

Translation

Rāmānanda Rāya replied, “Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya thinks of me as his servant. Even in my absence he is very careful to do me good.

Text

tāṅra kṛpāya pāinu tomāra daraśana
āji saphala haila mora manuṣya-janama

Synonyms

tāṅra kṛpāya — by his mercy; pāinu — I have gotten; tomāra — Your; daraśana — interview; āji — today; sa-phala — successful; haila — has become; mora — my; manuṣya-janama — birth as a human being.

Translation

“By his mercy I have received Your interview here. Consequently I consider that today I have become a successful human being.

Text

sārvabhaume tomāra kṛpā, — tāra ei cihna
aspṛśya sparśile hañā tāṅra premādhīna

Synonyms

sārvabhaume — unto Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya; tomāra — Your; kṛpā — mercy; tāra — of such mercy; ei — this; cihna — the symptom; aspṛśya — untouchable; sparśile — You have touched; hañā — becoming; tāṅra — his; prema-adhīna — influenced by love.

Translation

“I can see that You have bestowed special mercy upon Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya. Therefore You have touched me, although I am untouchable. This is due only to his love for You.

Text

kāhāṅ tumi — sākṣāt īśvara nārāyaṇa
kāhāṅ muñi — rāja-sevī viṣayī śūdrādhama

Synonyms

kāhāṅ — whereas; tumi — You; sākṣāt — directly; īśvara nārāyaṇa — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; kāhāṅ — whereas; muñi — I; rāja-sevī — government servant; viṣayī — materialist; śūdra-adhama — worse than a śūdra, or fourth-class man.

Translation

“You are the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Nārāyaṇa Himself, and I am only a government servant interested in materialistic activities. Indeed, I am the lowest among men of the fourth caste.

Text

mora sparśe nā karile ghṛṇā, veda-bhaya
mora darśana tomā vede niṣedhaya

Synonyms

mora — of me; sparśe — by the touch; — not; karile — You did; ghṛṇā — hatred; veda-bhaya — afraid of the injunctions of the Vedas; mora — of me; darśana — seeing; tomā — You; vede — the Vedic injunctions; niṣedhaya — forbid.

Translation

“You do not fear the Vedic injunctions stating that You should not associate with a śūdra. You were not contemptuous of my touch, although in the Vedas You are forbidden to associate with śūdras.

Purport

In the Bhagavad-gītā (9.32) the Lord says:

māṁ hi pārtha vyapāśrityaye ’pi syuḥ pāpa-yonayaḥ
striyo vaiśyās tathā śūdrās
te ’pi yānti parāṁ gatim

“O son of Pṛthā, those who take shelter in Me, though they be of lower birth — women, vaiśyas [merchants], as well as śūdras [workers] — can attain the supreme destination.”

The word pāpa-yonayaḥ means “born into a lower-class.” According to the Vedic system of classification, women, vaiśyas, and śūdras belong to a lower social order. A low life means a life without Kṛṣṇa consciousness. High and low positions in society are calculated by considering a person’s Kṛṣṇa consciousness. A brāhmaṇa is considered to be on the highest platform because he knows Brahman, the Absolute Truth. The second caste, the kṣatriya caste, also know Brahman, but not as well as the brāhmaṇas. The vaiśyas and śūdras do not clearly understand God consciousness, but if they take to Kṛṣṇa consciousness by the mercy of Kṛṣṇa and the spiritual master, they do not remain in the lower castes (pāpa-yonayaḥ). It is clearly stated: te ’pi yānti parāṁ gatim.

Unless one has attained the highest standard of life, one cannot return home, back to Godhead. One may be a śūdra, vaiśya or woman, but if one is situated in the service of the Lord in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, one should not be considered strī, śūdra, vaiśya or lower than śūdra. Though a person may be from a lowborn family, if he is engaged in the Lord’s service he should never be considered to belong to a lowborn family. The Padma Purāṇa forbids, vīkṣate jāti-sāmānyāt sa yāti narakaṁ-dhruvam. A person goes to hell quickly when he considers a devotee of the Lord in terms of birth. Although Śrī Rāmānanda Rāya supposedly took birth in a śūdra family, he is not to be considered a śūdra, for he was a great advanced devotee. Indeed, he was on the transcendental platform. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu therefore embraced him. Out of spiritual humility, Śrī Rāmānanda Rāya presented himself as a śūdra (rāja-sevī viṣayī śūdrādhama). Even though one may engage in government service or in any other pounds-shillings-pence business — in short, in materialistic life — he need only take to Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Kṛṣṇa consciousness is a very simple process. One need only chant the holy names of the Lord and strictly follow the principles forbidding sinful activity. In this way one can no longer be considered an untouchable, a viṣayī or a śūdra. One who is advanced in spiritual life should not associate with nondevotees — namely men in government service and men engaged in materialistic activity for sense gratification or in the service of others. Such men are considered viṣayī, materialistic. It is said:

niṣkiñcanasya bhagavad-bhajanonmukhasya
pāraṁ paraṁ jigamiṣor bhava-sāgarasya
sandarśanaṁ viṣayiṇām atha yoṣitāṁ ca
hā hanta hanta viṣa-bhakṣaṇato ’py asādhu

“A person who is very seriously engaged in cultivating devotional service with a view to crossing the ocean of nescience and who has completely abandoned all material activities should never see a śūdra, a vaiśya or a woman.” (Śrī Caitanya-candrodaya-nāṭaka 8.23)

Text

tomāra kṛpāya tomāya karāya nindya-karma
sākṣāt īśvara tumi, ke jāne tomāra marma

Synonyms

tomāra kṛpāya — Your mercy; tomāya — unto You; karāya — induces; nindya-karma — forbidden actions; sākṣāt īśvara — directly the Supreme Personality of Godhead; tumi — You; ke jāne — who can know; tomāra — Your; marma — purpose.

Translation

“You are the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself; therefore no one can understand Your purpose. By Your mercy You are touching me, although this is not sanctioned by the Vedas.

Purport

A sannyāsī is strictly forbidden to see the viṣayīs, the materialistic people. But Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, out of His boundless and causeless mercy, could show favor to anyone, regardless of birth and position.

Text

āmā nistārite tomāra ihāṅ āgamana
parama-dayālu tumi patita-pāvana

Synonyms

āmā nistārite — to deliver me; tomāra — Your; ihāṅ — here; āgamana — appearance; parama-dayālu — greatly merciful; tumi — You; patita-pāvana — the deliverer of all fallen souls.

Translation

“You have come here specifically to deliver me. You are so merciful that You alone can deliver all fallen souls.

Purport

Śrīla Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura sings in his Prārthanā (39):

śrī-kṛṣṇa-caitanya-prabhu dayā kara more,
tomā vinā ke dayālu jagat-saṁsāre
patita-pāvana-hetu tava avatāra,
mo sama patita prabhu nā pāibe āra

“My dear Lord, please be merciful to me. Who can be more merciful than Your Lordship within these three worlds? You appear as an incarnation just to reclaim the conditioned, fallen souls, but I assure You that You will not find a soul more fallen than me.”

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s specific mission is to deliver fallen souls. Of course, in this Age of Kali there is hardly anyone who is not fallen according to the calculations of Vedic behavior. In His instructions to Rūpa Gosvāmī, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu described the so-called followers of Vedic religion in this way (Madhya 19.146):

veda-niṣṭha-madhye ardheka veda ‘mukhe’ māne
veda-niṣiddha pāpa kare, dharma nāhi gaṇe

So-called followers of Vedic principles simply accept the Vedas formally, but they act against Vedic principles. This is symptomatic of this Age of Kali. People claim to follow a certain type of religion, saying formally, “I am Hindu,” “I am Muslim,” “I am Christian,” “I am this or that,” but actually no one follows the principles enunciated in religious scriptures. This is the disease of this age. Therefore the merciful Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu has simply advised us to chant the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra: harer nāma harer nāma harer nāmaiva kevalam. The Lord can deliver anyone and everyone, even though one may have fallen from the injunctions of revealed scriptures. This is Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s special mercy. Consequently He is known as patita-pāvana, the deliverer of all fallen souls.

Text

mahānta-svabhāva ei tārite pāmara
nija kārya nāhi tabu yāna tāra ghara

Synonyms

mahānta-svabhāva — the nature of saintly persons; ei — this; tārite — to deliver; pāmara — fallen souls; nija — own; kārya — business; nāhi — there is not; tabu — still; yāna — goes; tāra — his; ghara — house.

Translation

“It is the general practice of all saintly people to deliver the fallen. Therefore they go to people’s houses, although they have no personal business there.

Purport

A sannyāsī is supposed to beg from door to door. He does not beg simply because he is hungry. His real purpose is to enlighten the occupant of every house by preaching Kṛṣṇa consciousness. A sannyāsī does not abandon his superior position and become a beggar just for the sake of begging. Similarly, a person in householder life may be very important, but he may also voluntarily take to the mendicant way of life. Rūpa Gosvāmī and Sanātana Gosvāmī were ministers, but they voluntarily accepted the mendicant’s life in order to humbly preach Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s message. It is said about them: tyaktvā tūrṇam aśeṣa-maṇḍala-pati-śreṇīṁ sadā tuccha-vat bhūtvā dīna-gaṇeśakau karuṇayā kaupīna-kanthāśritau. Although the Gosvāmīs were very aristocratic, on the order of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu they became mendicants just to deliver the fallen souls. One should also consider that those who engage in the missionary activities of the Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement are under the guidance of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. They are not actually beggars; their real business is to deliver fallen souls. Therefore they may go from door to door just to introduce a book about Kṛṣṇa consciousness so that people can become enlightened by reading. Formerly brahmacārīs and sannyāsīs used to beg from door to door. At the present moment, especially in the Western countries, a person may be handed over to the police if he begs from door to door. In Western countries, begging is considered criminal. Members of the Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement have no business begging. Instead, they work very hard to introduce some literatures about Kṛṣṇa consciousness so that people can read them and be benefited. But if one gives some contribution to a Kṛṣṇa conscious man, he never refuses it.

Text

mahad-vicalanaṁ nṝṇāṁ
gṛhiṇāṁ dīna-cetasām
niḥśreyasāya bhagavan
nānyathā kalpate kvacit

Synonyms

mahat-vicalanam — the wandering of saintly persons; nṝṇām — of human beings; gṛhiṇām — who are householders; dīna-cetasām — low-minded; niḥśreyasāya — for the ultimate benefit; bhagavan — O my Lord; na anyathā — not any other purpose; kalpate — one imagines; kvacit — at any time.

Translation

“ ‘My dear Lord, sometimes great saintly persons go to the homes of householders, although these householders are generally low-minded. When a saintly person visits their homes, one can understand that it is for no other purpose than to benefit the householders.’

Purport

This verse is from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.8.4).

Text

āmāra saṅge brāhmaṇādi sahasreka jana
tomāra darśane sabāra dravī-bhūta mana

Synonyms

āmāra saṅge — with me; brāhmaṇa-ādibrāhmaṇas and others; sahasreka — more than one thousand; jana — persons; tomāra — of You; darśane — in seeing; sabāra — of all of them; dravī-bhūta — became melted; mana — the hearts.

Translation

“Along with me there are about a thousand men — including the brāhmaṇas — and all of them appear to have had their hearts melted simply by seeing You.

Text

‘kṛṣṇa’ ‘kṛṣṇa’ nāma śuni sabāra vadane
sabāra aṅga — pulakita, aśru — nayane

Synonyms

kṛṣṇa kṛṣṇa — “Kṛṣṇa,” “Kṛṣṇa”; nāma — the holy name; śuni — I hear; sabāra — of everyone; vadane — in the mouths; sabāra — of all; aṅga — the bodies; pulakita — gladdened; aśru — tears; nayane — in the eyes.

Translation

“I hear everyone chanting the holy name of Kṛṣṇa. Everyone’s body is thrilled with ecstasy, and there are tears in everyone’s eyes.

Text

ākṛtye-prakṛtye tomāra īśvara-lakṣaṇa
jīve nā sambhave ei aprākṛta guṇa

Synonyms

ākṛtye — in bodily features; prakṛtye — in behavior; tomāra — of You; īśvara — of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; lakṣaṇa — the symptoms; jīve — in an ordinary living being; — not; sambhave — possible; ei — these; aprākṛta — transcendental; guṇa — qualities.

Translation

“My dear Sir, according to Your behavior and bodily features, You are the Supreme Personality of Godhead. It is impossible for ordinary living beings to possess such transcendental qualities.”

Purport

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s bodily features were uncommon. Indeed, His body was extraordinary in its measurements. The measurement of His chest and the measurement of His forearms were the same. This is called nyagrodha-parimaṇḍala. As far as His nature is concerned, He was kind to everyone. No one but the Supreme Personality of Godhead can be kind to everyone. Therefore the Lord’s name is Kṛṣṇa, “all-attractive.” As stated in the Bhagavad-gītā (14.4), Kṛṣṇa is the kind father of everyone. In every species of life (sarva-yoniṣu), He is the original father, the seed-giver (bīja-pradaḥ pitā). How, then, can He be unkind to any living entity? One may be a man, an animal or even a tree, but the Lord is kind to everyone. That is God’s qualification. He also says in the Bhagavad-gītā (9.29), samo ’haṁ sarva-bhūteṣu: “I am equally kind to everyone.” And He advises, sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja: “Give up all other engagements and simply surrender unto Me.” This instruction is meant not only for Arjuna but for all living entities. Whoever takes advantage of this offer is immediately immune to all sinful activity and returns home, back to Godhead. While present on this planet, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu made the same offer.

Text

prabhu kahe, — tumi mahā-bhāgavatottama
tomāra darśane sabāra drava haila mana

Synonyms

prabhu kahe — the Lord replied; tumi — you; mahā-bhāgavata-uttama — the best of the topmost devotees; tomāra darśane — by seeing you; sabāra — of everyone; drava — melted; haila — became; mana — the heart.

Translation

The Lord replied to Rāmānanda Rāya, “Sir, you are the best of the topmost devotees; therefore simply the sight of you has melted everyone’s heart.

Purport

Unless one is a first-class devotee, he cannot be a preacher. A preacher is generally a topmost devotee, but in order to meet the general populace, he has to come to distinguish between devotees and nondevotees. Otherwise, an advanced devotee makes no such distinctions. Indeed, he always sees that everyone is engaged in the service of the Lord. When one engages in preaching work, he must distinguish between people and understand that some people are not engaged in the devotional service of the Lord. The preacher then has to take compassion upon such innocent people who do not know how to worship the Lord. In Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (11.2.45), the symptoms of a topmost devotee are described as follows:

sarva-bhūteṣu yaḥ paśyedbhagavad-bhāvam ātmanaḥ
bhūtāni bhagavaty ātmany
eṣa bhāgavatottamaḥ

“The advanced devotee sees that all living entities are part and parcel of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Everyone is in Kṛṣṇa, and Kṛṣṇa is also within everyone. Such a vision is possible only for a person who is very advanced in devotional service.”

Text

anyera ki kathā, āmi — ‘māyāvādī sannyāsī’
āmiha tomāra sparśe kṛṣṇa-preme bhāsi

Synonyms

anyera — of others; ki kathā — what to speak; āmi — I; māyāvādī sannyāsī — a sannyāsī of the Māyāvādī sect; āmiha — I; tomāra — of you; sparśe — by the touch; kṛṣṇa — of Kṛṣṇa; preme — in love; bhāsi — float.

Translation

“Although I am a Māyāvādī sannyāsī, a nondevotee, I am also floating in the ocean of love of Kṛṣṇa simply by touching you. And what to speak of others?

Text

ei jāni’ kaṭhina mora hṛdaya śodhite
sārvabhauma kahilena tomāre milite

Synonyms

ei jāni’ — knowing this; kaṭhina — very hard; mora — My; hṛdaya — heart; śodhite — to rectify; sārvabhauma — Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya; kahilena — asked; tomāre — you; milite — to meet.

Translation

“Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya knew this would happen, and thus to rectify My heart, which is very hard, he asked Me to meet you.”

Text

ei-mata duṅhe stuti kare duṅhāra guṇa
duṅhe duṅhāra daraśane ānandita mana

Synonyms

ei-mata — in this way; duṅhe — both of them; stuti — praise; kare — offer; duṅhāra — of both of them; guṇa — qualities; duṅhe — both of them; duṅhāra — of both of them; daraśane — by the seeing; ānandita — pleased; mana — the minds.

Translation

In this way each of them praised the qualities of the other, and both of them were pleased to see each other.

Text

hena-kāle vaidika eka vaiṣṇava brāhmaṇa
daṇḍavat kari’ kaila prabhure nimantraṇa

Synonyms

hena-kāle — at this time; vaidika — a follower of the Vedic ritualistic ceremonies; eka — one; vaiṣṇava brāhmaṇa — a brāhmaṇa following Vaiṣṇava principles; daṇḍavat — obeisances offered by falling flat; kari’ — offering; kaila — made; prabhure — unto Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; nimantraṇa — invitation.

Translation

At this time a brāhmaṇa Vaiṣṇava following the Vedic principles came and offered obeisances. He fell flat before Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and invited Him for lunch.

Text

nimantraṇa mānila tāṅre vaiṣṇava jāniyā
rāmānande kahe prabhu īṣat hāsiyā

Synonyms

nimantraṇa — the invitation; mānila — accepted; tāṅre — him (the brāhmaṇa); vaiṣṇava — a devotee; jāniyā — understanding; rāmānande — unto Rāmānanda; kahe — said; prabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; īṣat — a little; hāsiyā — smiling.

Translation

Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu accepted the invitation, knowing the brāhmaṇa to be a devotee, and slightly smiling, He spoke as follows to Rāmānanda Rāya.

Purport

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu accepted the invitation of the Vaiṣṇava brāhmaṇa. Even though one is a brāhmaṇa strictly following all the rules and regulations of brahminical culture, if he is not a devotee, a follower of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, one should not accept his invitation. At the present moment people have become so degraded that they do not even follow the Vedic principles, to say nothing of Vaiṣṇava principles. They eat anything and everything — whatever they like — and therefore the members of the Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement should be very cautious about accepting invitations.

Text

tomāra mukhe kṛṣṇa-kathā śunite haya mana
punarapi pāi yena tomāra daraśana

Synonyms

tomāra mukhe — in your mouth; kṛṣṇa-kathā — talks on Kṛṣṇa; śunite — to hear; haya — there is; mana — My mind; punarapi — again; pāi — I may get; yena — if possible; tomāra — your; daraśana — interview.

Translation

“I wish to hear from you about Lord Kṛṣṇa. Indeed, My mind is inclined to desire this; therefore I wish to see you again.”

Text

rāya kahe, āilā yadi pāmara śodhite
darśana-mātre śuddha nahe mora duṣṭa citte
dina pāṅca-sāta rahi’ karaha mārjana
tabe śuddha haya mora ei duṣṭa mana

Synonyms

rāya kahe — Rāmānanda Rāya replied; āilā — You have come; yadi — although; pāmara — a fallen soul; śodhite — to rectify; darśana-mātre — simply seeing You; śuddha nahe — not purified; mora — my; duṣṭa — polluted; citte — consciousness; dina — days; pāṅca-sāta — five or seven; rahi’ — staying; karaha — kindly do; mārjana — cleansing; tabe — then; śuddha — pure; haya — it is; mora — my; ei — this; duṣṭa — polluted; mana — mind.

Translation

Rāmānanda Rāya replied, “My Lord, although You have come to correct me, a fallen soul, my mind is not yet purified simply by seeing You. Please stay for five or seven days and kindly cleanse my polluted mind. After that much time, my mind will certainly be pure.”

Text

yadyapi viccheda doṅhāra sahana nā yāya
tathāpi daṇḍavat kari’ calilā rāma-rāya

Synonyms

yadyapi — although; viccheda — separation; doṅhāra — of both of them; sahana — toleration; — not; yāya — possible; tathāpi — still; daṇḍavat — obeisances; kari’ — offering; calilā — departed; rāma-rāya — Rāmānanda Rāya.

Translation

Although neither could tolerate separation from the other, Rāmānanda Rāya nonetheless offered his obeisances to Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and departed.

Text

prabhu yāi’ sei vipra-ghare bhikṣā kaila
dui janāra utkanṭḥāya āsi’ sandhyā haila

Synonyms

prabhu — Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; yāi’ — going; sei — that; vipra-ghare — to the house of the brāhmaṇa; bhikṣā — lunch; kaila — accepted; dui — two; janāra — of the persons; utkaṇṭhāya — in the impatience; āsi’ — coming; sandhyā — evening; haila — appeared.

Translation

Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu then went to the house of the brāhmaṇa who had invited Him and took His lunch there. When the evening of that day arrived, both Rāmānanda Rāya and the Lord were eager to meet each other again.

Text

prabhu snāna-kṛtya kari’ āchena vasiyā
eka-bhṛtya-saṅge rāya mililā āsiyā

Synonyms

prabhu — the Lord; snāna-kṛtya — the daily duty of bathing; kari’ — finishing; āchena — was; vasiyā — sitting; eka — one; bhṛtya — servant; saṅge — with; rāya — Rāya Rāmānanda; mililā — met; āsiyā — coming.

Translation

After finishing His evening bath, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu sat down and waited for Rāmānanda Rāya to come. Then Rāmānanda Rāya, accompanied by one servant, came to meet Him.

Purport

A Vaiṣṇava who is supposed to be advanced in spiritual understanding — be he a householder or a sannyāsī — must bathe three times a day: morning, noon and evening. When one is engaged in the service of the Deity, he must especially follow the principles of the Padma Purāṇa and take regular baths. He should also, after bathing, decorate his body with the twelve tilakas.

Text

namaskāra kaila rāya, prabhu kaila āliṅgane
dui jane kṛṣṇa-kathā kaya rahaḥ-sthāne

Synonyms

namaskāra — obeisances; kaila — offered; rāya — Rāmānanda Rāya; prabhu — Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; kaila — did; āliṅgane — embracing; dui — two; jane — the persons; kṛṣṇa-kathā — talks about Kṛṣṇa; kaya — discussed; rahaḥ-sthāne — in a secluded place.

Translation

Rāmānanda Rāya approached Lord Śrī Caitanya and offered his respectful obeisances, and the Lord embraced him. Then they began to discuss Kṛṣṇa in a secluded place.

Purport

The word rahaḥ-sthāne, “in a secluded place,” is very significant. Talks about Kṛṣṇa and His pastimes — especially His pastimes in Vṛndāvana and His dealings with the gopīs — are all very confidential. They are not subject matter for public discussion because those who have no understanding of the transcendental nature of Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes always commit great offenses, thinking Kṛṣṇa to be an ordinary human being and the gopīs ordinary girls. Following the principle of Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, who never discussed the dealings between Kṛṣṇa and the gopīs publicly, devotees in the Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement are enjoined not to discuss the pastimes of Lord Kṛṣṇa in Vṛndāvana in public. For the general public, saṅkīrtana is the most effective method to awaken Kṛṣṇa consciousness. If possible, one should discuss the principles enunciated in the Bhagavad-gītā. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu followed this principle very strictly and discussed the philosophy of the Bhagavad-gītā with learned scholars like Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya and Prakāśānanda Sarasvatī. However, He taught the principles of the bhakti cult to students like Sanātana Gosvāmī and Rūpa Gosvāmī, and He discussed with Śrī Rāmānanda Rāya the topmost devotional dealings between Kṛṣṇa and the gopīs. For the general populace, He performed saṅkīrtana very vigorously. We must also follow these principles in preaching Kṛṣṇa consciousness all over the world.

Text

prabhu kahe, — “paḍa śloka sādhyera nirṇaya”
rāya kahe, — “sva-dharmācaraṇe viṣṇu-bhakti haya”

Synonyms

prabhu kahe — Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu said; paḍa — just recite; śloka — a verse from the revealed scriptures; sādhyera — of the aim of life; nirṇaya — an ascertainment; rāya kahe — Rāmānanda Rāya replied; sva-dharma-ācaraṇe — by executing one’s occupational duty; viṣṇu-bhakti — devotional service to Lord Viṣṇu; haya — there is.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu ordered Rāmānanda Rāya, “Recite a verse from the revealed scriptures concerning the ultimate goal of life.”

Purport

Rāmānanda replied, “If one executes the prescribed duties of his social position, he awakens his original Kṛṣṇa consciousness.

In this connection, Śrī Rāmānujācārya states in the Vedārtha-saṅgraha that devotional service is naturally very dear to the living entity. Indeed, it is life’s goal. This devotional service is supreme knowledge, or Kṛṣṇa consciousness, and it brings detachment from all material activity. In the transcendental position, a living being can perfectly acknowledge the superiority of serving the Supreme Lord. The devotees attain the Supreme Lord only by devotional service. Having such knowledge, one engages in his occupational duty, and that is called bhakti-yoga. By performing bhakti-yoga, one can rise to the platform of pure devotional service.

A great saint, the father of Śrīla Vyāsadeva, Parāśara Muni, has specifically mentioned that devotional service to the Lord can ultimately be awakened in human society by the discharge of duties in accordance with the varṇāśrama system. The Supreme Personality of Godhead instituted varṇāśrama-dharma to give human beings a chance to return home, back to Godhead. The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa, who is known in the Bhagavad-gītā as Puruṣottama — the greatest of all personalities — personally came and declared that the institution of varṇāśrama-dharma was founded by Him. As stated in the Bhagavad-gītā (4.13):

cātur-varṇyaṁ mayā sṛṣṭaṁguṇa-karma-vibhāgaśaḥ
tasya kartāram api māṁ
viddhy akartāram avyayam

Elsewhere in the Bhagavad-gītā (18.45-46) the Lord says:

sve sve karmaṇy abhirataḥsaṁsiddhiṁ labhate naraḥ
sva-karma-nirataḥ siddhiṁ
yathā vindati tac chṛṇu
yataḥ pravṛttir bhūtānāṁyena sarvam idaṁ tatam
sva-karmaṇā tam abhyarcya
siddhiṁ vindati mānavaḥ

Human society should be divided into four divisions — brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya and śūdra — and everyone should always engage in his occupational duty. The Lord says that those engaged in their occupational duty can attain perfection simply by rendering loving devotional service to the Lord while executing their particular duty. Actually the modern ideal of a classless society can be introduced only by Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Let men perform their occupational duty, and let them give their profits to the service of the Lord. In other words, one can attain the perfection of life by discharging one’s occupational duty and employing the results in the service of the Lord. This method is confirmed by great personalities like Bodhāyana, Taṅka, Dramiḍa, Guhadeva, Kapardi and Bhāruci. It is also confirmed by the Vedānta-sūtra.

Text

varṇāśramācāra-vatā
puruṣeṇa paraḥ pumān
viṣṇur ārādhyate panthā
nānyat tat-toṣa-kāraṇam

Synonyms

varṇa-āśrama-ācāra-vatā — who behaves according to the system of four divisions of social order and four divisions of spiritual life; puruṣeṇa — by a man; paraḥ — the supreme; pumān — person; viṣṇuḥ — Lord Viṣṇu; ārādhyate — is worshiped; panthā — way; na — not; anyat — another; tat-toṣa-kāraṇam — cause of satisfying the Lord.

Translation

“ ‘The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Viṣṇu, is worshiped by the proper execution of prescribed duties in the system of varṇa and āśrama. There is no other way to satisfy the Supreme Personality of Godhead. One must be situated in the institution of the four varṇas and āśramas.’ ”

Purport

This is a quotation from the Viṣṇu Purāṇa (3.8.9). As stated by Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura in his Amṛta-pravāha-bhāṣya, “The purport is that one can realize life’s perfection simply by satisfying the Supreme Personality of Godhead.” This is also confirmed in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (1.2.13):

ataḥ pumbhir dvija-śreṣṭhāvarṇāśrama-vibhāgaśaḥ
sv-anuṣṭhitasya dharmasya
saṁsiddhir hari-toṣaṇam

“O best among the twice-born, it is therefore concluded that the highest perfection one can achieve by discharging the duties prescribed for one’s own occupation according to caste divisions and orders of life is to please the Personality of Godhead.”

Every man should perform his occupational duty in the light of his particular tendency. According to his abilities, one should accept a position in the varṇāśrama institution. The divisions of brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya and śūdra are natural divisions within society. Indeed, everyone has a prescribed duty according to the varṇāśrama-dharma. Those who properly execute their prescribed duties live peacefully and are not disturbed by material conditions. The spiritual orders — brahmacarya, gṛhastha, vānaprastha and sannyāsa — are called āśramas. If one executes his prescribed duty in both the social and spiritual orders, the Supreme Personality of Godhead is satisfied. If one neglects his duties, however, he becomes a transgressor and a candidate for a hellish condition. Actually we see that different people are engaged in different ways; therefore there must be divisions according to work. To attain perfection, one must make devotional service the center of life. In this way one can awaken his natural instincts by work, association and education. One should accept the varṇāśrama divisions by qualification, not by birth. Unless this system is introduced, human activities cannot be systematically executed.

The brāhmaṇas are the intellectuals who can understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead. They are always engaged in the cultivation of knowledge. It does not matter whether one is born in India or outside India. Those who are naturally very heroic and who tend to rule over others are called kṣatriyas. Those who tend to produce food by agricultural methods, protect cows and other animals and engage in trade are called vaiśyas, or merchants. Those who are not sufficiently intelligent to be brāhmaṇas, kṣatriyas or vaiśyas are required to serve a master and are called śūdras. Thus everyone can engage in the service of the Lord and awaken his natural Kṛṣṇa consciousness. If a society does not function according to such natural divisions, the social orders become degraded. The conclusion is that the scientific method of varṇāśrama-dharma should be adopted by society.

Text

prabhu kahe, — “eho bāhya, āge kaha āra”
rāya kahe, “kṛṣṇe karmārpaṇa — sarva-sādhya-sāra”

Synonyms

prabhu kahe — the Lord said; eho — this; bāhya — external; āge — ahead; kaha — say; āra — more; rāya kahe — Śrī Rāmānanda Rāya said; kṛṣṇe — unto Kṛṣṇa; karma-arpaṇa — offering the results of activities; sarva-sādhya-sāra — the essence of all means of perfection.

Translation

The Lord replied, “This is external. You had better tell Me of some other means.”

Purport

Rāmānanda replied, “To offer the results of one’s activities to Kṛṣṇa is the essence of all perfection.”

Text

yat karoṣi yad aśnāsi
yaj juhoṣi dadāsi yat
yat tapasyasi kaunteya
tat kuruṣva mad-arpaṇam

Synonyms

yat — whatever; karoṣi — you do; yat — whatever; aśnāsi — you eat; yat — whatever; juhoṣi — you offer in sacrifice; dadāsi — you give in charity; yat — whatever; yat — whatever; tapasyasi — you perform as austerity; kaunteya — O son of Kuntī; tat — that; kuruṣva — just do; mat — unto Me; arpaṇam — offering.

Translation

Rāmānanda Rāya continued, “ ‘My dear son of Kuntī, whatever you do, whatever you eat, whatever you offer in sacrifice, whatever you give in charity, and whatever austerities you perform, all the results of such activities should be offered to Me, Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead.’ ”

Purport

The Lord has said that the varṇāśrama-dharma is not properly executed in this Age of Kali; therefore He ordered Rāmānanda Rāya to go further into the matter. Rāmānanda replied with this verse from the Bhagavad-gītā (9.27), which instructs that while remaining in the system of varṇāśrama-dharma one may offer the results of his activities to Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa in loving service. Naturally Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was asking Rāmānanda Rāya about the execution of devotional service. Rāmānanda Rāya first enunciated the principle of varṇāśrama-dharma in consideration of materialistic people. However, this conception is not transcendental. As long as one is in the material world, he must follow the principles of varṇāśrama-dharma, but devotional service is transcendental. The system of varṇāśrama-dharma refers to the three modes of material nature, but transcendental devotional service is on the absolute platform.

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu belongs to the spiritual world, and His methods for propagating the saṅkīrtana movement are also imported from the spiritual world. Śrīla Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura has sung: golokera prema-dhana, hari-nāma-saṅkīrtana, rati na janmila kene tāya. This states that the saṅkīrtana movement has nothing to do with this material world. It is imported from the spiritual world, Goloka Vṛndāvana. Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura laments that mundane people do not take this saṅkīrtana movement seriously. Considering the position of devotional service and the saṅkīrtana movement, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu deemed the system of varṇāśrama-dharma to be material, although it aims at elevation to the spiritual platform. However, the saṅkīrtana movement can raise one immediately to the spiritual platform. Consequently it is said that varṇāśrama-dharma is external, and Caitanya Mahāprabhu requested Rāmānanda Rāya to proceed deeper into the matter and uncover the spiritual platform.

Sometimes materialists consider Lord Viṣṇu a material conception. Impersonalists think that above Lord Viṣṇu is the impersonal Brahman. The impersonalists misunderstand the worship of Lord Viṣṇu. They worship Lord Viṣṇu to merge into His body. In order that viṣṇu-ārādhana not be misunderstood, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu requested that Śrī Rāmānanda Rāya proceed further and clear up the issue. Rāmānanda Rāya quoted the verse from the Bhagavad-gītā stating that the results of one’s occupational duty may be offered to Lord Viṣṇu or Kṛṣṇa. In Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (1.2.8) it is also said:

dharmaḥ sv-anuṣṭhitaḥ puṁsāṁviṣvaksena-kathāsu yaḥ
notpādayed yadi ratiṁ
śrama eva hi kevalam

“If one executes the occupational duties of varṇāśrama-dharma but does not cultivate his dormant Kṛṣṇa consciousness, his activities are futile. His occupation simply becomes unnecessary labor.”

Text

prabhu kahe, — “eho bāhya, āge kaha āra”
rāya kahe, — “svadharma-tyāga, ei sādhya-sāra”

Synonyms

prabhu kahe — the Lord replied; eho — this; bāhya — external; āge — ahead; kaha — speak; āra — more; rāya kahe — Rāmānanda Rāya replied; sva-dharma-tyāga — relinquishing one’s occupational duties; ei — this; sādhya-sāra — the essence of all perfection.

Translation

“This is also external,” Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu said. “Please proceed and speak further on this matter.”

Rāmānanda Rāya replied, “To give up one’s occupational duties in the varṇāśrama system is the essence of perfection.”

Purport

A brāhmaṇa may renounce his family and accept sannyāsa. Others — kṣatriyas and vaiśyas — may also give up their families and take to Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Such renunciation is called karma-tyāga. By such renunciation, the Supreme Personality of Godhead is satisfied.

In contrast, the process of renouncing the results of one’s activities by offering these results to Kṛṣṇa is not considered uncontaminated, because, although such a process implies that one recognizes Kṛṣṇa as the Supreme Person, it still involves one in activities on the material platform. Since such activities are within the material universe, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu considered them external. To correct this, Rāmānanda Rāya recommended that one take to the renounced order of life in order to transcend material activities. This is supported by the following verse from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (11.11.32).

Text

ājñāyaivaṁ guṇān doṣān
mayādiṣṭān api svakān
dharmān santyajya yaḥ sarvān
māṁ bhajet sa ca sattamaḥ

Synonyms

ājñāya — knowing perfectly; evam — thus; guṇān — qualities; doṣān — faults; mayā — by Me; ādiṣṭān — instructed; api — although; svakān — own; dharmān — occupational duties; santyajya — giving up; yaḥ — anyone who; sarvān — all; mām — unto Me; bhajet — may render service; saḥ — he; ca — and; sat-tamaḥ — a first-class person.

Translation

Rāmānanda Rāya continued, “ ‘Occupational duties are described in the religious scriptures. If one analyzes them, he can fully understand their qualities and faults and then give them up completely to render service unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Such a person is considered a first-class man.’

Text

sarva-dharmān parityajya
mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja
ahaṁ tvāṁ sarva-pāpebhyo
mokṣayiṣyāmi mā śucaḥ

Synonyms

sarva-dharmān — all kinds of occupational duties; parityajya — giving up; mām ekam — unto Me only; śaraṇam — as shelter; vraja — go; aham — I; tvām — unto you; sarva-pāpebhyaḥ — from all the reactions of sinful life; mokṣayiṣyāmi — will give liberation; — don’t; śucaḥ — worry.

Translation

“As stated in scripture [Bg. 18.66], ‘After giving up all kinds of religious and occupational duties, if you come to Me, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and take shelter, I will give you protection from all of life’s sinful reactions. Do not worry.’ ”

Purport

In this connection, Śrīla Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī instructs in his book Manaḥ-śikṣā (2):

na dharmaṁ nādharmaṁ śruti-gaṇa-niruktaṁ kila kuru
vraje rādhā-kṛṣṇa-pracura-paricaryām iha tanu

He has thus enjoined that we should not perform religious or irreligious activities as prescribed in the Vedas. The best course is to engage always in the service of Lord Kṛṣṇa and Rādhārāṇī. That is the perfection of everything in this life. Similarly, in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (4.29.46) it is said by Nārada Muni:

yadā yasyānugṛhṇātibhagavān ātma-bhāvitaḥ
sa jahāti matiṁ loke
vede ca pariniṣṭhitām

“When one actually takes to the loving service of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, he gives up all duties in the material world, as well as all duties prescribed by the Vedic literatures. In this way one is fixed in the service of the Lord.”

Text

prabhu kahe, — “eho bāhya, āge kaha āra”
rāya kahe, “jñāna-miśrā bhakti — sādhya-sāra”

Synonyms

prabhu kahe — the Lord said; eho — this; bāhya — external; āge — ahead; kaha — say; āra — more; rāya kahe — Rāya replied; jñāna-miśrā bhakti — devotional service mixed with empiric knowledge; sādhya-sāra — is the essence of perfection.

Translation

After hearing Rāmānanda Rāya speak in this way, Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu again rejected his statement and said, “Go ahead and say something more.”

Purport

Rāmānanda Rāya then replied, “Devotional service mixed with empiric knowledge is the essence of perfection.”

Devotional service mixed with non-Vedic speculative knowledge is certainly not pure devotional service. Therefore Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī in his Anubhāṣya preaches that self-realization following the execution of ritualistic ceremonies is in the neutral stage between liberation and conditioned life. It is a place beyond this material world, in the river Virajā, where the three modes of material nature are subdued or neutralized in the unmanifest stage. However, the spiritual world is a manifestation of spiritual energy and is known as Vaikuṇṭhaloka, “the place where there is no anxiety.” The material world, known as brahmāṇḍa, is the creation of the external energy. Between the two creations — the material creation and the spiritual creation — is a river known as Virajā, as well as a place known as Brahmaloka. Virajā-nadī and Brahmaloka are shelters for living entities disgusted with material life and inclined to impersonal existence by way of denying material variegatedness. Since these places are not situated in the Vaikunṭḥalokas, or the spiritual world, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu proclaims them to be external. In the Brahmaloka and Virajā-nadī, one cannot conceive of the Vaikuṇṭhalokas. Brahmaloka and Virajā-nadī are also attained after difficult austerities, but in these realms there is no understanding of the Supreme Personality of Godhead and His transcendental loving service. Without such spiritual knowledge, simple detachment from material conditions is but another side of material existence. From the spiritual point of view, it is all external. When Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu rejected this proposal, Rāmānanda Rāya suggested that devotional service based on philosophy and logic is a more advanced position. He therefore quoted the following verse from the Bhagavad-gītā (18.54).

Text

brahma-bhūtaḥ prasannātmā
na śocati na kāṅkṣati
samaḥ sarveṣu bhūteṣu
mad-bhaktiṁ labhate parām

Synonyms

brahma-bhūtaḥ — freed from material conceptions of life but attached to an impersonal situation; prasanna-ātmā — fully joyful; na śocati — he does not lament; na kāṅkṣati — he does not hanker; samaḥ — equally disposed; sarveṣu — all; bhūteṣu — to the living entities; mat-bhaktim — My devotional service; labhate — achieves; parām — transcendental.

Translation

Rāmānanda Rāya continued, “According to the Bhagavad-gītā, ‘One who is thus transcendentally situated at once realizes the Supreme Brahman and becomes fully joyful. He never laments or desires to have anything. He is equally disposed toward every living entity. In that state he attains pure devotional service unto Me.’ ”

Purport

In this verse from the Bhagavad-gītā it is said that a person who accepts the theory of monism — being always engaged in empiric philosophical discussions about spiritual life — becomes joyful and is relieved from all material lamentation and hankering. At that stage, one is equipoised. He sees all living entities as spiritual beings. After attaining this elevated stage, one can attain pure devotional service. The conclusion is that devotional service mixed with ritualistic fruitive activity is inferior to spiritual service based on empiric philosophic discussion.

Text

prabhu kahe, “eho bāhya, āge kaha āra”
rāya kahe, — “jñāna-śūnyā bhakti — sādhya-sāra”

Synonyms

prabhu kahe — the Lord said; eho — this; bāhya — external; āge — ahead; kaha — speak; āra — further; rāya kahe — Rāmānanda Rāya replied; jñāna-śūnyā bhakti — devotional service independent of logic and empiric philosophy; sādhya-sāra — the essence of the perfection of life.

Translation

After hearing this, the Lord, as usual, rejected it, considering it to be external devotional service. He again asked Rāmānanda Rāya to speak further, and Rāmānanda Rāya replied, “Pure devotional service without any touch of speculative knowledge is the essence of perfection.”

Purport

In his Anubhāṣya commentary, Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura says that this stage — devotional service mixed with speculative knowledge — is also external and not within the jurisdiction of pure devotional service as practiced in Vaikuṇṭhaloka. As soon as there is some conception of materialistic thought — be it positive or negative — the service is not spiritual. It may be free from material contamination, but because there is mental speculation the devotional service is not pure and freed from the contamination of material life. A living entity who wants to be completely pure must be above this material conception. The negation of material existence does not necessarily mean spiritual existence. After material existence is negated, spiritual existence — namely sac-cid-ānanda — still may not be manifested. Until one comes to the stage of actually understanding one’s eternal relationship with the Supreme Lord, he cannot enter into spiritual life. Spiritual life means becoming detached from material life and engaging in the loving service of the Lord. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu therefore asked Rāmānanda Rāya to explain something transcendental to devotional service mixed with speculative knowledge. A pure devotee is completely surrendered to the lotus feet of the Lord, and only by his love does he conquer Kṛṣṇa, who cannot be conquered by anyone. Kṛṣṇa always stands victorious over everything. No one can conquer Him. One can attain the stage of pure devotion simply by fully surrendering. This is next corroborated by Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.14.3), wherein Lord Brahmā, defeated by the potency of Śrī Kṛṣṇa, fully surrendered unto the Lord.

Text

jñāne prayāsam udapāsya namanta eva
jīvanti san-mukharitāṁ bhavadīya-vārtām
sthāne sthitāḥ śruti-gatāṁ tanu-vāṅ-manobhir
ye prāyaśo ’jita jito ’py asi tais tri-lokyām

Synonyms

jñāne — in gaining knowledge; prayāsam — unnecessary endeavor; udapāsya — setting far aside; namantaḥ — completely surrendering; eva — certainly; jīvanti — live; sat-mukharitām — declared by great realized devotees; bhavadīya-vārtām — discussions about You, the Supreme Personality of Godhead; sthāne sthitāḥ — situated in their own positions; śruti-gatām — received aurally; tanu-vāk-manobhiḥ — by the body, words and mind; ye — those who; prāyaśaḥ — almost always; ajita — O my unconquerable Lord (beyond perception and unlimitedly independent); jitaḥ — conquered; api — indeed; asi — You are; taiḥ — by such pure devotees; tri-lokyām — within the three worlds.

Translation

Rāmānanda Rāya continued, “Lord Brahmā said, ‘My dear Lord, those devotees who have thrown away the impersonal conception of the Absolute Truth and have therefore abandoned discussing empiric philosophical truths should hear from self-realized devotees about Your holy name, form, pastimes and qualities. They should completely follow the principles of devotional service and remain free from illicit sex, gambling, intoxication and animal slaughter. Surrendering themselves fully with body, words and mind, they can live in any āśrama or social status. Indeed, You are conquered by such persons, although You are always unconquerable.’ ”

Text

prabhu kahe, “eho haya, āge kaha āra”
rāya kahe, “prema-bhakti — sarva-sādhya-sāra”

Synonyms

prabhu kahe — the Lord said; eho haya — this is all right; āge kaha āra — speak something more; rāya kahe — Rāya replied; prema-bhakti — ecstatic love in devotional service to the Lord; sarva-sādhya-sāra — the essence of all perfection.

Translation

At this point, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu replied, “This is all right, but still you can speak more on the subject.”

Purport

Rāmānanda Rāya then replied, “Ecstatic love for the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the essence of all perfection.”

In his Amṛta-pravāha-bhāṣya, Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura summarizes the conversation up to this point, where Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu says to Rāmānanda Rāya, eho haya, āge kaha āra: “This is the process accepted in devotional service, but there is something more than this. Therefore please explain what is beyond.” Simply executing the duties of all varṇas and āśramas is not as good as offering all the results of one’s activities to the Lord. When one gives up all fruitive activity and fully surrenders to the Lord, he attains sva-dharma-tyāga, wherein he abandons the social order and takes to the renounced order. That is certainly better. However, better than the renounced order is cultivation of knowledge mixed with devotional service. Yet all these activities are external to the activities of the spiritual world. There is no touch of pure devotional service in them. Pure devotional service cannot be attained by empiric philosophy, nor can perfection be attained simply by good association. Devotional service by self-realization is a different subject matter. It is untouched by fruitive activity, for one surrenders the results of activities to the Lord, abandons prescribed duties and accepts the renounced order of life. Such devotional service is situated on a higher platform than that of empiric philosophical speculation with a mixture of bhakti. This is verified by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī in his Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (1.1.11):

anyābhilāṣitā-śūnyaṁjñāna-karmādy-anāvṛtam
ānukūlyena kṛṣṇānu-
śīlanaṁ bhaktir uttamā

“One should render transcendental loving service to the Supreme Lord Kṛṣṇa favorably and without desire for material profit or gain through fruitive activities or philosophical speculation. That is called pure devotional service.”

Devotional activities, however, sometimes appear to be impure in the neophyte stage, but in the mature stage they are completely pure, or free from material activity. Therefore Rāmānanda Rāya replied after hearing the last statement of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu: prema-bhaktisarva-sādhya-sāra. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu actually accepted this verse (jñāne prayāsam) as the basic principle of perfection. One has to practice this principle in order to make further progress. When further progress is actually made, one comes to the platform of ecstatic loving service to the Lord. This first stage is technically called sādhana-bhakti, or devotional service in practice. The result of sādhana-bhakti must be ecstatic love, attachment for the Supreme Personality of Godhead, which is also called prema-bhakti. In the neophyte stage, sādhana-bhakti includes faith, association with devotees, and practicing devotional service. Thus one is freed from all unwanted things. One then becomes fixed in devotional service and increases his desire to act in devotional service. Thus one becomes attached to the Lord and His devotional service.

Text

nānopacāra-kṛta-pūjanam ārta-bandhoḥ
premṇaiva bhakta-hṛdayaṁ sukha-vidrutaṁ syāt
yāvat kṣud asti jaṭhare jaraṭhā pipāsā
tāvat sukhāya bhavato nanu bhakṣya-peye

Synonyms

nānā-upacāra — by varieties of offerings; kṛta — performed; pūjanam — worshiping; ārta-bandhoḥ — of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is the friend of all distressed persons; premṇā — by ecstatic love; eva — indeed; bhakta-hṛdayam — the heart of a devotee; sukha-vidrutam — melted in transcendental bliss; syāt — becomes; yāvat — as long as; kṣut — appetite; asti — there is; jaṭhare — in the stomach; jaraṭhā — strong; pipāsā — thirst; tāvat — so long; sukhāya — for happiness; bhavataḥ — are; nanu — indeed; bhakṣya — eatables; peye — and drinkables.

Translation

Rāmānanda Rāya continued, “ ‘As long as there is hunger and thirst within the stomach, varieties of food and drink make one feel very happy. Similarly, when the Lord is worshiped with pure love, the various activities performed in the course of that worship awaken transcendental bliss in the heart of the devotee.’

Text

kṛṣṇa-bhakti-rasa-bhāvitā matiḥ
krīyatāṁ yadi kuto ’pi labhyate
tatra laulyam api mūlyam ekalaṁ
janma-koṭi-sukṛtair na labhyate

Synonyms

kṛṣṇa-bhakti-rasa-bhāvitā — absorbed in the mellows of executing devotional service to Kṛṣṇa; matiḥ — intelligence; krīyatām — let it be purchased; yadi — if; kutaḥ api — somewhere; labhyate — is available; tatra — there; laulyam — greed; api — indeed; mūlyam — price; ekalam — only; janma-koṭi — of millions of births; sukṛtaiḥ — by pious activities; na — not; labhyate — is obtained.

Translation

“ ‘Pure devotional service in Kṛṣṇa consciousness cannot be had even by pious activity in hundreds and thousands of lives. It can be attained only by paying one price — that is, intense greed to obtain it. If it is available somewhere, one must purchase it without delay.’ ”

Purport

The previous two verses are included in the Padyāvalī (13, 14), an anthology compiled by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī. Verse 69 refers to devotional service in faith, and verse 70 refers to devotional service rendered out of intense greed. The first is devotional service rendered in accordance with the regulative principles, and the second refers to spontaneous loving service of the Lord without extraneous endeavor. Henceforward the basic principle underlying the talks between Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and Rāmānanda Rāya will be spontaneous loving service to the Lord. The regulative principles according to the injunctions of the śāstras are necessary insofar as one’s original dormant Kṛṣṇa consciousness is not spontaneously awakened. An example of spontaneous action is the flowing of rivers into the ocean. Nothing can stop this flow of water. Similarly, when one’s dormant Kṛṣṇa consciousness is awakened, it spontaneously flows to the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa without impediment. Whatever will be spoken henceforth by Rāmānanda Rāya based on spontaneous love will be agreeable to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, and the Lord will ask him more and more about this subject.

Text

prabhu kahe, “eho haya, āge kaha āra”
rāya kahe, “dāsya-prema — sarva-sādhya-sāra”

Synonyms

prabhu kahe — the Lord said; eho haya — this is all right; āge kaha āra — please speak more; rāya kahe — Rāmānanda Rāya replied; dāsya-prema — spontaneous love in the humor of servitude; sarva-sādhya-sāra — the essence of perfection.

Translation

Hearing up to the point of spontaneous love, the Lord said, “This is all right, but if you know more, please tell Me.”

Purport

In reply, Rāmānanda Rāya said, “Spontaneous loving service in servitude — as exchanged by master and servant — is the highest perfection.

Spontaneous loving service to the Lord is called devotional service with an intimate attachment between the servitor and the served. This intimacy is called mamatā. Between the servitor and the served there is a feeling of oneness. This mamatā begins with dāsya-prema, service rendered to the master by the servant. Unless there is such a relationship, the loving affairs between the Lord and His devotee are not actually fixed. When the devotee feels “The Lord is my master” and renders service unto Him, Kṛṣṇa consciousness is awakened. This fixed consciousness is on a higher platform than simple cognizance of love of Godhead.

Text

yan-nāma-śruti-mātreṇa
pumān bhavati nirmalaḥ
tasya tīrtha-padaḥ kiṁ vā
dāsānām avaśiṣyate

Synonyms

yat — of whom; nāma — of the name; śruti-mātreṇa — simply by hearing; pumān — a person; bhavati — becomes; nirmalaḥ — pure; tasya — of Him; tīrtha-padaḥ — of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, at whose lotus feet are all places of pilgrimage; kim — what; — more; dāsānām — of the servants; avaśiṣyate — is remaining.

Translation

“ ‘A man becomes purified simply by hearing the holy name of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, whose lotus feet create the holy places of pilgrimage. Therefore what remains to be attained by those who have become His servants?’

Purport

This is a quotation from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (9.5.16) and is an admission by the great sage Durvāsā Muni. Durvāsā Muni, a caste brāhmaṇa and great yogī, used to hate Mahārāja Ambarīṣa. When he decided to chastise Mahārāja Ambarīṣa through his yogic powers, he was chased by the Sudarśana cakra of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. When things were settled, he said, “When the holy name of the Supreme Personality of Godhead is heard by any person, that person is immediately sanctified. The Supreme Lord is master of the devotees, and the devotees, under His shelter, naturally come to own His opulences.”

Text

bhavantam evānucaran nirantaraḥ
praśānta-niḥśeṣa-mano-rathāntaraḥ
kadāham aikāntika-nitya-kiṅkaraḥ
praharṣayiṣyāmi sa-nātha-jīvitam

Synonyms

bhavantam — You; eva — certainly; anucaran — serving; nirantaraḥ — always; praśānta — pacified; niḥśeṣa — all; manaḥ-ratha — desires; antaraḥ — other; kadā — when; aham — I; aikāntika — exclusive; nitya — eternal; kiṅkaraḥ — servant; praharṣayiṣyāmi — I shall become joyful; sa-nātha — with a fitting master; jīvitam — living.

Translation

“ ‘By serving You constantly, one is freed from all material desires and is completely pacified. When shall I engage as Your permanent eternal servant and always feel joyful to have such a perfect master?’ ”

Purport

This is a statement made by the great saintly devotee Yāmunācārya in his Stotra-ratna (43).

Text

prabhu kahe, “eho haya, kichu āge āra”
rāya kahe, “sakhya-prema — sarva-sādhya-sāra”

Synonyms

prabhu kahe — the Lord said; eho haya — this is also right; kichu — something; āge — ahead; āra — more; rāya kahe — Rāmānanda Rāya replied; sakhya-prema — transcendental loving service in fraternity; sarva-sādhya-sāra — the highest perfectional stage.

Translation

Hearing this from Rāmānanda Rāya, the Lord again requested him to go a step further. In reply, Rāmānanda Rāya said, “Loving service to Kṛṣṇa rendered in fraternity is the highest perfection.

Purport

As long as loving service is rendered to the Lord in the master-servant relationship, there is some fear, for the servant is always afraid of the master, despite the intimacy of self-interest. In this stage the servant is always afraid of the master and respectful of Him. When the devotee is further advanced, he has nothing to fear. He considers the Lord and himself on an equal level. At such a time, the devotee is fully convinced that Lord Kṛṣṇa is a friend and cannot at all be dissatisfied if the devotee lives with Him on an equal level. This understanding is called viśrambha, that is, devoid of a respectful attitude. When this attitude is chosen, it becomes sakhya-prema, or love of Godhead in friendship. On this stage there is developed consciousness of equality between the Lord and the devotee.

Text

itthaṁ satāṁ brahma-sukhānubhūtyā
dāsyaṁ gatānāṁ para-daivatena
māyāśritānāṁ nara-dārakeṇa
sārdhaṁ vijahruḥ kṛta-puṇya-puñjāḥ

Synonyms

ittham — in this way; satām — of persons who prefer the impersonal feature of the Lord; brahma — of the impersonal effulgence; sukha — by the happiness; anubhūtyā — who is realized; dāsyam — the mode of servitude; gatānām — of those who have accepted; para-daivatena — who is the supreme worshipable Deity; māyā-āśritānām — for ordinary persons under the clutches of the external energy; nara-dārakeṇa — with Him, who is like a boy of this material world; sārdham — in friendship; vijahruḥ — played; kṛta-puṇya-puñjāḥ — those who have accumulated volumes of pious activities.

Translation

“ ‘Neither those engaged in the self-realization of appreciating the Brahman effulgence of the Lord, nor those engaged in devotional service while accepting the Supreme Personality of Godhead as master, nor those under the clutches of Māyā, thinking the Lord an ordinary person, can understand that certain exalted personalities, after accumulating volumes of pious activities, are now playing with the Lord in friendship as cowherd boys.’ ”

Purport

This is a statement made by Śukadeva Gosvāmī (Bhāg. 10.12.11), who appreciated the good fortune of the cowherd boys who played with Kṛṣṇa and ate with Him on the banks of the Yamunā.

Text

prabhu kahe, — “eho uttama, āge kaha āra”
rāya kahe, “vātsalya-prema — sarva-sādhya-sāra”

Synonyms

prabhu kahe — the Lord said; eho uttama — it is very good; āge — still further; kaha — speak; āra — more; rāya kahe — Rāya replied; vātsalya-prema — loving service to the Lord in the stage of parental love; sarva-sādhya-sāra — the highest perfectional stage.

Translation

The Lord said, “This statement is very good, but please proceed even further.”

Purport

Rāmānanda Rāya then replied, “Loving service to the Lord in the parental relationship is the highest perfectional stage.”

The stage of loving service to the Lord in parental affection is an advanced stage of love in fraternity. In the fraternal relationship there is a sense of equality, but when that sense of equality is advanced in affection, one attains the platform of parental love. In this connection, the following verse is cited from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.8.46), wherein Mahārāja Parīkṣit voices his appreciation of Nanda Mahārāja’s and mother Yaśodā’s intense love for Kṛṣṇa.

Text

nandaḥ kim akarod brahman
śreya evaṁ mahodayam
yaśodā vā mahā-bhāgā
papau yasyāḥ stanaṁ hariḥ

Synonyms

nandaḥ — Nanda Mahārāja; kim — what; akarot — has performed; brahman — O brāhmaṇa; śreyaḥ — auspicious activities; evam — thus; mahā-udayam — rising to such an exalted position as the father of Kṛṣṇa; yaśodā — mother Yaśodā; — or; mahā-bhāgā — most fortunate; papau — drank; yasyāḥ — of whom; stanam — by the breasts; hariḥ — the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

Translation

Rāmānanda Rāya continued, “ ‘O brāhmaṇa, what pious activities did Nanda Mahārāja perform by which he received the Supreme Personality of Godhead Kṛṣṇa as his son? And what pious activities did mother Yaśodā perform that made the Absolute Supreme Personality of Godhead Kṛṣṇa call her “Mother” and suck her breasts?’

Text

nemaṁ viriñco na bhavo
na śrīr apy aṅga-saṁśrayā
prasādaṁ lebhire gopī
yat tat prāpa vimukti-dāt

Synonyms

na — not; imam — this (love of Godhead); viriñcaḥ — Lord Brahmā; na — not; bhavaḥ — Lord Śiva; na — nor; śrīḥ — the goddess of fortune; api — even; aṅga — on the chest of Viṣṇu; saṁśrayā — who is sheltered; prasādam — favor; lebhire — have obtained; gopī — mother Yaśodā; yat — which; tat — that; prāpa — obtained; vimukti-dāt — from the person who gives liberation.

Translation

“ ‘The favor mother Yaśodā obtained from Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the bestower of liberation, was never obtained even by Lord Brahmā or Lord Śiva, nor even by the goddess of fortune, who always remains on the chest of the Supreme Personality of Godhead Viṣṇu.’ ”

Purport

This is a statement from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.9.20). Kṛṣṇa agreed to be bound by mother Yaśodā after she had given up trying to bind Kṛṣṇa with ropes. This is another appreciation made by Śukadeva Gosvāmī in his narration of the pastimes of Kṛṣṇa before Mahārāja Parīkṣit.

Text

prabhu kahe, “eho uttama, āge kaha āra”
rāya kahe, “kāntā-prema sarva-sādhya-sāra”

Synonyms

prabhu kahe — the Lord replied; eho uttama — this is very good; āge — ahead; kaha — speak; āra — more; rāya kahe — Rāmānanda Rāya replied; kāntā-prema — loving service between husband and wife; sarva-sādhya-sāra — the highest perfectional stage.

Translation

The Lord said, “Your statements are certainly getting better and better one after the other, but surpassing all of them is another transcendental mellow, and you can speak of that as the most sublime.”

Purport

Rāmānanda Rāya then replied, “Conjugal attachment for Kṛṣṇa is the topmost position in love of Godhead.

In general, love of Godhead is devoid of the intimacy of ownership. In the case of love in servitude, there is a want of confidence. There is a want of increased affection in the fraternal relationship, and even when this affection increases in the parental relationship, there is nonetheless a want of complete freedom. However, when one becomes a conjugal lover of Kṛṣṇa, everything lacking in the other relationships is completely manifest. Love of Godhead lacks nothing in the conjugal stage. The summary of this verse is that parental love of Godhead is certainly higher than fraternal love and that conjugal love is higher yet. It was when Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu requested Rāmānanda Rāya to go further that he came to the point of the conjugal relationship, which is the highest perfectional stage of transcendental love.

Text

nāyaṁ śriyo ’ṅga u nitānta-rateḥ prasādaḥ
svar-yoṣitāṁ nalina-gandha-rucāṁ kuto ’nyāḥ
rāsotsave ’sya bhuja-daṇḍa-gṛhīta-kaṇṭha-
labdhāśiṣāṁ ya udagād vraja-sundarīṇām

Synonyms

na — not; ayam — this; śriyaḥ — of the goddess of fortune; aṅge — on the chest; u — alas; nitānta-rateḥ — who is very intimately related; prasādaḥ — the favor; svaḥ — of the heavenly planets; yoṣitām — of women; nalina — of the lotus flower; gandha — having the aroma; rucām — and bodily luster; kutaḥ — much less; anyāḥ — others; rāsa-utsave — in the festival of the rāsa dance; asya — of Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa; bhuja-daṇḍa — by the arms; gṛhīta — embraced; kaṇṭha — their necks; labdha-āśiṣām — who achieved such a blessing; yaḥ — which; udagāt — became manifest; vraja-sundarīṇām — of the beautiful gopīs, the transcendental girls of Vrajabhūmi.

Translation

“ ‘When Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa was dancing with the gopīs in the rāsa-līlā, the gopīs were embraced around the neck by the Lord’s arms. This transcendental favor was never bestowed upon the goddess of fortune or the other consorts in the spiritual world. Nor was such a thing ever imagined by the most beautiful girls in the heavenly planets, girls whose bodily luster and aroma resemble the beauty and fragrance of lotus flowers. And what to speak of worldly women, who may be very, very beautiful according to material estimation?’

Purport

This verse (Bhāg. 10.47.60) was spoken by Uddhava when he visited Śrī Vṛndāvana to deliver a message from Kṛṣṇa to the gopīs. Uddhava remained in Vṛndāvana to observe the activities of the gopīs there. When he saw the ecstatic love for Kṛṣṇa in separation manifested by the gopīs, he appreciated their supreme love and therefore expressed his feelings in this verse. He admitted that the fortune of the gopīs could not be compared even to the fortune of the goddess of fortune, to say nothing of the beautiful girls in the heavenly planets.

Text

tāsām āvirabhūc chauriḥ
smayamāna-mukhāmbujaḥ
pītāmbara-dharaḥ sragvī
sākṣān manmatha-manmathaḥ

Synonyms

tāsām — among them; āvirabhūt — appeared; śauriḥ — Lord Kṛṣṇa; smayamāna — smiling; mukha-ambujaḥ — with a face like a lotus flower; pīta-ambara-dharaḥ — wearing yellow garments; sragvī — garlanded with flowers; sākṣāt — directly; manmatha — of Cupid; manmathaḥ — the bewilderer.

Translation

“ ‘Suddenly, due to their feelings of separation, Lord Kṛṣṇa appeared among the gopīs dressed in yellow garments and wearing a flower garland. His lotus face was smiling, and He was directly attracting the mind of Cupid.’

Purport

This verse is from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.32.2). When the rāsa dance was going on, Kṛṣṇa suddenly disappeared, and the gopīs became so overwhelmed, due to His separation and their intense love for Him, that Kṛṣṇa was obliged to appear again.

Text

kṛṣṇa-prāptira upāya bahu-vidha haya
kṛṣṇa-prāpti-tāratamya bahuta āchaya

Synonyms

kṛṣṇa-prāptira — of achieving the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa; upāya — means; bahu-vidha — various; haya — there are; kṛṣṇa-prāpti — of achieving the favor of Lord Kṛṣṇa; tāratamya — comparisons; bahuta — various; āchaya — there are.

Translation

“There are various means and processes by which one may attain the favor of Lord Kṛṣṇa. All those transcendental processes will be studied from the viewpoint of comparative importance.

Text

kintu yāṅra yei rasa, sei sarvottama
taṭa-stha hañā vicārile, āche tara-tama

Synonyms

kintu — nevertheless; yāṅra — of some devotees; yei rasa — whatever the mellow of exchanges of love; sei — that; sarva-uttama — the best; taṭa-stha — neutral; hañā — being; vicārile — if considering; āche — there is; tara-tama — lower and higher levels.

Translation

“It is true that whatever relationship a particular devotee has with the Lord is the best for him; still, when we study all the different methods from a neutral position, we can understand that there are higher and lower degrees of love.

Purport

In this regard, Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura explains that this verse does not advocate the whimsical invention of some methods of love of Godhead. Such inventions cannot be accepted as topmost. Indeed, such concoctions are not recommended in these verses. Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī has said in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (1.2.101):

śruti-smṛti-purāṇādi-pañcarātra-vidhiṁ vinā
aikāntikī harer bhaktir
utpātāyaiva kalpate

He clearly mentions in this verse that one must refer to the Vedic literatures and other, supplementary literatures and follow the conclusion of the Vedas. An invented devotional attitude simply creates disturbances in the transcendental realm. If a person overly addicted to family life takes to Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam or Kṛṣṇa consciousness to earn a livelihood, his activity is certainly offensive. One should not become a caste guru and sell mantras for the benefit of mundane customers, nor should one make disciples for a livelihood. All these activities are offensive. One should not make a livelihood by forming a professional band to carry out congregational chanting, nor should one perform devotional service when one is attached to mundane society, friendship and love. Nor should one be dependent on so-called social etiquette. All of this is mental speculation. None of these things can be compared to unalloyed devotional service. No one can compare unalloyed devotional service, Kṛṣṇa consciousness, to mundane activities. There are many unauthorized parties pretending to belong to the Śrī Caitanya cult, and some are known as āula, bāula, kartābhajā, neḍā, daraveśa, sāṅi, sahajiyā sakhībhekī, smārta, jāta-gosāñi, ativāḍī, cūḍādhārī and gaurāṅga-nāgarī.

Moreover, there are those who take the caste gosvāmīs’ opinions of such parties as bona fide, comparing these opinions to those of the six Gosvāmīs, headed by Śrī Rūpa and Śrī Sanātana. This is simply another cheating process. There are also nondevotees who compose unauthorized songs, who establish different temples for money, who worship the Deity as priests for salaries, who accept caste brahmanism as all in all, and who do not know the value of a pure Vaiṣṇava. Actually the caste brāhmaṇas of the smārta community are opposed to the principles of the Sātvata-pañcarātra. Furthermore, there are many Māyāvādīs and those overly addicted to material sense enjoyment. None of these can be compared to a person who is purely engaged in preaching Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Every Kṛṣṇa conscious person is constantly endeavoring to utilize different transcendental devices in the service of the Lord. Such a devotee renounces all material enjoyment and completely dedicates himself to the service of his spiritual master and Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. He may be a perfect celibate, a restrained householder, a regulated vānaprastha or a tridaṇḍi-sannyāsī in the renounced order. It doesn’t matter. The pseudo transcendentalists and the pure devotees cannot be compared, nor can one argue that a person can invent his own way of worship.

The purport in presenting this verse necessitates explaining the comparative positions of the transcendental mellows known as śānta, dāsya, sakhya, vātsalya and mādhurya. All these rasas, or mellows, are situated on the transcendental platform. Pure devotees take shelter of one of them and thus progress in spiritual life. Actually one can take shelter of such spiritual mellows only when one is completely uncontaminated by material attachment. When one is completely free from material attachment, the feelings of the transcendental mellows are awakened in the heart of the devotee. That is svarūpa-siddhi, the perfection of one’s eternal relationship with the Supreme Lord. Svarūpa-siddhi, the eternal relationship with the Supreme Lord, may be situated in any one of the transcendental mellows. Each and every one of them is as perfect as the others. But by comparative study an unbiased person can realize that the mellow of servitorship is better than the mellow of neutrality, that the mellow of fraternity is better than the mellow of servitorship, that the parental mellow is better than that of fraternity, and that above all other mellows is the mellow of conjugal love. However, these are all spiritually situated on the same platform because all these relationships of perfection in love are based on a central point — Kṛṣṇa.

These mellows cannot be compared to the feelings one derives from demigod worship. Kṛṣṇa is one, but the demigods are different. They are material. Love for Kṛṣṇa cannot be compared to material love for different demigods. Because Māyāvādīs are on the material platform, they recommend the worship of Śiva or Durgā and say that worship of Kālī and Kṛṣṇa are the same. However, on the spiritual platform there is no demigod worship. The only worshipable object is Kṛṣṇa. Therefore although there is no difference between a devotee in śānta-rasa or dāsya-rasa, vātsalya-rasa or mādhurya-rasa, one can still make a comparative study of the intensity of love in these different transcendental positions. For example, it may be said that dāsya-rasa is better than śānta-rasa, yet transcendental love of God is there in both of them. Similarly, we can judge that love of Godhead in fraternity is better than love of Godhead in neutrality and servitorship. Similarly, love of Godhead in parental affection is better than love in fraternity. And, as stated before, love of God in the conjugal rasa is superior to that in the parental rasa.

The analysis of different types of love of Godhead has been made by expert ācāryas who know all about devotional service on the transcendental platform. Unfortunately, inexperienced and unauthorized persons in the mundane world, not understanding the transcendental position of pure love, try to find some material fault in the transcendental process. This is simply impudence on the part of spiritually inexperienced people. Such faultfinding is symptomatic of unfortunate mundane wranglers.

Text

yathottaram asau svāda-
viśeṣollāsa-mayy api
ratir vāsanayā svādvī
bhāsate kāpi kasyacit

Synonyms

yathā uttaram — one after another; asau — that; svāda-viśeṣa — of particular tastes; ullāsa — pleasing; mayī — empowered with; api — although; ratiḥ — love; vāsanayā — by desire; svādvī — sweet; bhāsate — appears; api — someone; kasyacit — one of them.

Translation

“ ‘Increasing love is experienced in various tastes, one above another. But that love which has the highest taste in the gradual succession of desires manifests itself in the form of conjugal love.’

Purport

This verse is from Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī’s Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (2.5.38), and it also appears in Ādi-līlā, chapter four, verse 45.

Text

pūrva-pūrva-rasera guṇa — pare pare haya
dui-tina gaṇane pañca paryanta bāḍaya

Synonyms

pūrva-pūrva — of each previous; rasera — of the mellow; guṇa — the qualities; pare pare — in each subsequent; haya — there are; dui-tina — two and then three; gaṇane — in counting; pañca — five; paryanta — up to; bāḍaya — increases.

Translation

“There is a gradual order of improvement in transcendental mellows from the initial ones to the later ones. In each subsequent mellow the qualities of the previous mellows are manifested, counting from two, then three, and up to the point of five complete qualities.

Text

guṇādhikye svādādhikya bāḍe prati-rase
śānta-dāsya-sakhya-vātsalyera guṇa madhurete vaise

Synonyms

guṇa-ādhikye — by the increase of transcendental qualities; svāda-ādhikya — increase of taste; bāḍe — increases; prati-rase — in each mellow; śānta — of neutrality; dāsya — of servitude; sakhya — of fraternity; vātsalyera — and of parental affection; guṇa — the qualities; madhurete — in the conjugal mellow; vaise — appear.

Translation

“As the qualities increase, so the taste also increases in each and every mellow. Therefore the qualities found in śānta-rasa, dāsya-rasa, sakhya-rasa and vātsalya-rasa are all manifested in conjugal love [mādhurya-rasa].

Text

ākāśādira guṇa yena para-para bhūte
dui-tina krame bāḍe pañca pṛthivīte

Synonyms

ākāśa-ādira — of the sky, air and so on; guṇa — the qualities; yena — just as; para-para — one after another; bhūte — in the material elements; dui-tina — two and then three; krame — by gradations; bāḍe — increase; pañca — all five; pṛthivīte — in earth.

Translation

“The qualities in the material elements — sky, air, fire, water and earth — increase one after another by a gradual process of one, two and three, and at the last stage, in the element earth, all five qualities are completely visible.

Text

paripūrṇa-kṛṣṇa-prāpti ei ‘premā’ haite
ei premāra vaśa kṛṣṇa — kahe bhāgavate

Synonyms

paripūrṇa — completely full; kṛṣṇa-prāpti — achievement of the lotus feet of Lord Kṛṣṇa; ei — this; premā — love of Godhead; haite — from; ei premāra — of this type of love of Godhead; vaśa — under the control; kṛṣṇa — Lord Kṛṣṇa; kahe — it is said; bhāgavate — in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.

Translation

“Complete attainment of the lotus feet of Lord Kṛṣṇa is made possible by love of Godhead, specifically mādhurya-rasa, or conjugal love. Lord Kṛṣṇa is indeed captivated by this standard of love. This is stated in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.

Purport

To explain the topmost quality of conjugal love, Śrīla Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī gives the example of the material elements — sky, air, fire, water and earth. In the sky (space) there is the quality of sound. Similarly, in air there are the qualities of sound and touch. In fire, there are three qualities — sound, touch and form. In water there are four qualities — sound, touch, form and taste. Finally, in earth there are all five qualities — sound, touch, form, taste and also smell. Now, one can see that the quality of the sky is in all — namely in air, fire, water and earth. In earth we can find all the qualities of material nature. The same can be applied to the rasa known as mādhurya-rasa, or conjugal love. In conjugal love there are the qualities of neutrality, servitorship, fraternity and parental affection, as well as those of conjugal love itself. The conclusion is that through conjugal love the Lord is completely satisfied.

Conjugal love (mādhurya-rasa) is also known as śṛṅgāra-rasa. It is the conclusion of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam that in the complete combination of loving service to the Lord — namely in conjugal love — the Supreme Lord fully agrees to be under the control of the devotee. The highest form of conjugal love is represented by Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; therefore in the pastimes of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa we can see that Kṛṣṇa is always subjugated by Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s influence.

Text

mayi bhaktir hi bhūtānām
amṛtatvāya kalpate
diṣṭyā yad āsīn mat-sneho
bhavatīnāṁ mad-āpanaḥ

Synonyms

mayi — unto Me; bhaktiḥ — devotional service; hi — certainly; bhūtānām — of all living entities; amṛtatvāya — for becoming eternal; kalpate — is meant; diṣṭyā — fortunately; yat — what; āsīt — there is; mat-snehaḥ — affection for Me; bhavatīnām — of all of you; mat-āpanaḥ — the means of getting My favor.

Translation

“Lord Kṛṣṇa told the gopīs, ‘The means of attaining My favor is loving service unto Me, and fortunately you are all thus engaged. Those living beings who render service unto Me are eligible to be transferred to the spiritual world and attain eternal life with knowledge and bliss.’

Purport

The fulfillment of human life is summarized in this verse from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.82.44). There are two important words in this verse: bhakti (devotional service) and amṛtatva (eternal life). The aim of human life is to attain the natural position of eternal life. This eternal life can be achieved only by devotional service.

Text

kṛṣṇera pratijñā dṛḍha sarva-kāle āche
ye yaiche bhaje, kṛṣṇa tāre bhaje taiche

Synonyms

kṛṣṇera — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; pratijñā — the promise; dṛḍha — firm; sarva-kāle — in all times; āche — there is; ye — anyone; yaiche — just as; bhaje — renders service; kṛṣṇa — Lord Kṛṣṇa; tāre — him; bhaje — reciprocates with; taiche — so for all time.

Translation

“Lord Kṛṣṇa has made a firm promise for all time. If one renders service unto Him, Kṛṣṇa correspondingly gives him an equal amount of success in devotional service to the Lord.

Purport

It is a completely mistaken idea that one can worship Kṛṣṇa in any form or in any way and still attain the ultimate result of receiving the favor of the Lord. This is a decision made by gross materialists. Generally such men say that you can manufacture your own way of worshiping the Supreme Lord and that any type of worship is sufficient to approach the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Certainly there are different means for attaining different results in fruitive activity, speculative knowledge, mystic yoga and austerity. Crude men therefore say that one who adopts any of these methods achieves the Supreme Personality of Godhead’s favor. They claim that it doesn’t matter what kind of method one adopts. A general example is given: If one wishes to arrive at a certain place, there are many roads leading there, and one can go to that place by any one of these roads. Similarly, these gross materialists say, there are different ways to attain the favor of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. They claim that one can conceive of the Supreme Personality of Godhead as goddess Durgā, goddess Kālī, Lord Śiva, demigod Gaṇeśa, Lord Rāmacandra, Kṛṣṇa, the impersonal Brahman or whatever, and one can chant the Lord’s name in any way and in any form. Such materialists claim that since ultimately all these names and forms are one, the result is the same. They also give the example that a man who has different names will answer if called by any one of them. Therefore, they claim, there is no need to chant the Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra. If one chants the name of Kālī, Durgā, Śiva, Gaṇeśa or anyone else, the result will be the same.

Such claims made by mental speculators are no doubt very pleasing to mental speculators, but those who are actually in knowledge do not admit such conclusions, which are against the authority of the śāstras. A bona fide ācārya will certainly not accept such a conclusion. As Kṛṣṇa clearly states in the Bhagavad-gītā (9.25):

yānti deva-vratā devānpitṝn yānti pitṛ-vratāḥ
bhūtāni yānti bhūtejyā
yānti mad-yājino ’pi mām

“Those who worship the demigods will take birth among the demigods, those who worship the ancestors go to the ancestors, those who worship ghosts and spirits will take birth among such beings, and those who worship Me will live with Me.”

Only the devotees of the Lord can be admitted to His kingdom — not the demigod worshipers, karmīs, yogīs or anyone else. A person who desires elevation to the heavenly planets worships various demigods, and material nature may be pleased to offer such devotees their desired positions. The material nature gives a person his own nature, by which he increases affection for different types of demigods. However, the Bhagavad-gītā (7.20) says that demigod worship is meant for men who have lost all their intelligence:

kāmais tais tair hṛta-jñānāḥprapadyante ’nya-devatāḥ
taṁ taṁ niyamam āsthāya
prakṛtyā niyatāḥ svayā

“Those whose intelligence has been stolen by material desires surrender unto demigods and follow the particular rules and regulations of worship according to their own natures.”

Although one may be elevated to the heavenly planets, the results of such a benediction are limited:

anta-vat tu phalaṁ teṣāṁtad bhavaty alpa-medhasām
devān deva-yajo yānti
mad-bhaktā yānti mām api

“Men of small intelligence worship the demigods, and their fruits are limited and temporary. Those who worship the demigods go to the planets of the demigods, but My devotees ultimately reach My supreme planet.” (Bg. 7.23)

Being elevated to the heavenly planets or other material planets does not mean attaining an eternal life of knowledge and bliss. At the end of the material world, all attainments of material elevation will also end. Again, according to Kṛṣṇa in the Bhagavad-gītā (18.55), only those who engage in His loving devotional service will be admitted to the spiritual world and return to Godhead, not others:

bhaktyā mām abhijānātiyāvān yaś cāsmi tattvataḥ
tato māṁ tattvato jñātvā
viśate tad-anantaram

“One can understand Me as I am, as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, only by devotional service. And when one is in full consciousness of Me by such devotion, he can enter into the kingdom of God.”

Impersonalists cannot understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead; therefore it is not possible for them to enter into the spiritual kingdom of God and return home, back to Godhead. Actually one attains different results by different means. It is not that all achievements are one and the same. Those interested in the four principles of dharma, artha, kāma and mokṣa cannot be compared to those interested in the unalloyed devotional service of the Lord. Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (1.1.2) therefore says:

dharmaḥ projjhita-kaitavo ’tra paramo nirmatsarāṇāṁ satāṁ
vedyaṁ vāstavam atra vastu śiva-daṁ tāpa-trayonmūlanam
śrīmad-bhāgavate mahā-muni-kṛte kiṁ vā parair īśvaraḥ
sadyo hṛdy avarudhyate ’tra kṛtibhiḥ śuśrūṣubhis tat-kṣaṇāt

“Completely rejecting all religious activities which are materially motivated, this Bhāgavata Purāṇa propounds the highest truth, which is understandable by those devotees who are pure in heart. The highest truth is reality distinguished from illusion for the welfare of all. Such truth uproots the threefold miseries. This beautiful Bhāgavatam, compiled by the great sage Śrī Vyāsadeva, is sufficient in itself for God realization. As soon as one attentively and submissively hears the message of Bhāgavatam, he becomes attached to the Supreme Lord.”

Those who aspire after liberation attempt to merge into the impersonal Brahman. To this end they execute ritualistic religious ceremonies, but Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam considers this a cheating process. Indeed, such people can never dream of returning home, back to Godhead. There is a gulf of difference between the goal of dharma, artha, kāma and mokṣa and the goal of devotional service.

The goddess Durgā is the superintending deity of this material world, which is made of material elements. The demigods are simply different directors engaged in operating the departments of material activities, and they are under the influence of the same material energy. Kṛṣṇa’s internal potencies, however, have nothing to do with the creation of this cosmic material world. The spiritual world and all spiritual activities are under the direction of the internal, spiritual energy, and such activities are performed by Yogamāyā, the spiritual energy. Yogamāyā is the spiritual or internal energy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Those who are interested in being promoted to the spiritual world and engaging in the service of the Lord attain spiritual perfection under the control of Yogamāyā. Those who are interested in material promotion engage in ritualistic religious ceremonies and economic development to develop sense gratification. They ultimately attempt to merge into the impersonal existence of the Lord. Such people generally become impersonalists. They are interested in worshiping Lord Śiva or goddess Durgā, but their return is one hundred percent materialistic.

Following the example of the gopīs, the devotees sometimes worship the goddess Kātyāyanī, but they understand that Kātyāyanī is an incarnation of Yogamāyā. The gopīs worshiped Kātyāyanī, Yogamāyā, to attain Kṛṣṇa as their husband. On the other hand, it is stated in the Sapta-śatī scripture that a kṣatriya king named Suratha and a rich vaiśya named Samādhi worshiped material nature in the form of goddess Durgā to attain material perfection. If one tries to mingle the worship of Yogamāyā with that of Mahāmāyā, considering them one and the same, he does not really show very high intelligence. The idea that everything is one is a kind of foolishness indulged in by those with less brain substance. Fools and rascals say that the worship of Yogamāyā and the worship of Mahāmāyā are the same. This conclusion is simply the result of mental speculation, and it has no practical effect. In the material world, sometimes one gives an exalted title to an utterly worthless thing; in Bengal this is known as giving a blind child a name like Padmalocana, which means “lotus-eyed.” One may foolishly call a blind child Padmalocana, but such an appellation does not bear any meaning.

In the spiritual world the Absolute Lord is always identical with His name, fame, form, qualities and pastimes. Such identity is impossible in the material world, where the name of a person is different from the person himself. The Supreme Lord has many holy names like Paramātmā, Brahman and “the creator,” but one who worships the Lord as the creator cannot understand the relationship between a devotee and the Lord in the five types of transcendental mellows, nor can he understand the conception of Kṛṣṇa. One cannot understand the six transcendental opulences of the Lord simply by understanding the Supreme Personality of Godhead as impersonal Brahman.

Impersonal realization of the Absolute Truth is certainly transcendental, but this does not mean that one who has attained this realization can understand the sac-cid-ānanda form of the Lord. Similarly, Paramātmā realization — realization of the plenary expansion of the Absolute Truth within everyone’s heart — is also an incomplete understanding of the Absolute Truth. Even a devotee of the Personality of Godhead Nārāyaṇa cannot actually understand the transcendental attractive features of Kṛṣṇa. Indeed, a devotee of Kṛṣṇa who is attached to the sublime attractive features of the Lord does not consider Nārāyaṇa very important. When the gopīs sometimes saw Kṛṣṇa in the form of Nārāyaṇa, they were not very much attracted to Him. The gopīs never addressed Kṛṣṇa as Rukmiṇī-ramaṇa. Kṛṣṇa’s devotees in Vṛndāvana address Him as Rādhāramaṇa, Nandanandana and Yaśodānandana, but not as Vasudeva-nandana or Devakī-nandana. Although according to the material conception Nārāyaṇa, Rukmiṇī-ramaṇa and Kṛṣṇa are one and the same, in the spiritual world one cannot use the name Rukmiṇī-ramaṇa or Nārāyaṇa in place of the name Kṛṣṇa. If one does so out of a poor fund of knowledge, his mellow with the Lord becomes spiritually faulty and is called rasābhāsa, an overlapping of transcendental mellows. The advanced devotee who has actually realized the transcendental features of the Lord will not commit the mistake of creating a rasābhāsa situation by using one name for another. Because of the influence of Kali-yuga, there is much rasābhāsa in the name of extravagance and liberal-mindedness. Such fanaticism is not very much appreciated by pure devotees.

Text

ye yathā māṁ prapadyante
tāṁs tathaiva bhajāmy aham
mama vartmānuvartante
manuṣyāḥ pārtha sarvaśaḥ

Synonyms

ye — they; yathā — as; mām — unto Me; prapadyante — surrender; tān — unto them; tathā eva — in the same proportion; bhajāmi — bestow My favor; aham — I; mama — My; vartma — way; anuvartante — follow; manuṣyāḥ — men; pārtha — My dear Arjuna; sarvaśaḥ — in all respects.

Translation

“[According to Lord Kṛṣṇa in the Bhagavad-gītā (4.11):] ‘As all surrender unto Me, I reward them accordingly. Everyone follows My path in all respects, O son of Pṛthā.’

Text

ei ‘preme’ra anurūpa nā pāre bhajite
ataeva ‘ṛṇī’ haya — kahe bhāgavate

Synonyms

ei — this; premera — of love of God; anurūpa — exactly to the proportion; — not; pāre — is able; bhajite — to reciprocate; ataeva — therefore; ṛṇī — debtor; haya — becomes; kahe — is stated; bhāgavate — in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.

Translation

 ‘In Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.32.22] it is said that Lord Kṛṣṇa cannot proportionately reciprocate devotional service in the mādhurya-rasa; therefore He always remains a debtor to such devotees.

Text

na pāraye ’haṁ niravadya-saṁyujāṁ
sva-sādhu-kṛtyaṁ vibudhāyuṣāpi vaḥ
yā mābhajan durjara-geha-śṛṅkhalāḥ
saṁvṛścya tad vaḥ pratiyātu sādhunā

Synonyms

na — not; pāraye — am able; aham — I; niravadya — without duplicity; saṁyujām — meeting; sva-sādhu-kṛtyam — your own honest activities; vibudha-āyuṣā api — even with a duration of life like that of the demigods; vaḥ — you; — who; — Me; abhajan — have worshiped; durjara — difficult to surmount; geha — of household life; śṛṅkhalāḥ — the chains; saṁvṛścya — cutting off; tat — that; vaḥ — your; pratiyātu — let there be a return; sādhunā — by pious activities.

Translation

“ ‘When the gopīs were overwhelmed with dissatisfaction due to Lord Kṛṣṇa’s absence from the rāsa-līlā, Kṛṣṇa returned to them and told them, ‘My dear gopīs, our meeting is certainly free of all material contamination. I must admit that in many lives it would be impossible for Me to repay My debt to you because you have cut off the bondage of family life just to search for Me. Consequently I am unable to repay you. Therefore please be satisfied with your honest activities in this regard.’

Text

yadyapi kṛṣṇa-saundarya — mādhuryera dhurya
vraja-devīra saṅge tāṅra bāḍaye mādhurya

Synonyms

yadyapi — although; kṛṣṇa-saundarya — the beauty of Lord Kṛṣṇa; mādhuryera — of sweetness; dhurya — the supermost; vraja-devīra — the gopīs; saṅge — in company with; tāṅra — His; bāḍaye — increases; mādhurya — the sweetness.

Translation

“Although Kṛṣṇa’s unparalleled beauty is the topmost sweetness of love of Godhead, His sweetness increases unlimitedly when He is in the company of the gopīs. Consequently Kṛṣṇa’s exchange of love with the gopīs is the topmost perfection of love of Godhead.

Purport

Kṛṣṇa and His devotees become perfectly intimate in conjugal love of Godhead. In other mellows, the Lord and the devotees do not enjoy transcendental bliss as perfectly. The next verse (Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam 10.33.6) will illustrate this point.

Text

tatrātiśuśubhe tābhir
bhagavān devakī-sutaḥ
madhye maṇīnāṁ haimānāṁ
mahā-marakato yathā

Synonyms

tatra — there; ati-śuśubhe — was very beautiful; tābhiḥ — by them; bhagavān — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; devakī-sutaḥ — son of Devakī; madhye — in the midst; maṇīnām — of valuable jewels; haimānām — lined with gold; mahā-marakataḥ — the jewel of the name marakata; yathā — as.

Translation

“ ‘Although the son of Devakī, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is the reservoir of all kinds of beauty, when He is among the gopīs He nonetheless becomes more beautiful, for He resembles a marakata jewel surrounded by gold and other jewels.’ ”

Text

prabhu kahe, — ei ‘sādhyāvadhi’ suniścaya
kṛpā kari’ kaha, yadi āge kichu haya

Synonyms

prabhu kahe — Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu replied; ei — this; sādhya-avadhi — the highest limit of perfection; su-niścaya — certainly; kṛpā kari’ — being merciful to Me; kaha — please speak; yadi — if; āge — further; kichu haya — there is something.

Translation

Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu replied, “This is certainly the limit of perfection, but please be merciful to Me and speak more if there is more.”

Text

rāya kahe, — ihāra āge puche hena jane
eta-dina nāhi jāni, āchaye bhuvane

Synonyms

rāya kahe — Rāmānanda Rāya replied; ihāra āge — beyond this point; puche — inquires; hena — such; jane — a person; eta-dina — until this day; nāhi jāni — I did not know; āchaye — there is; bhuvane — within this material world.

Translation

Rāya Rāmānanda replied, “Until this day I did not know anyone within this material world who could inquire beyond this perfectional stage of devotional service.

Text

iṅhāra madhye rādhāra prema — ‘sādhya-śiromaṇi’
yāṅhāra mahimā sarva-śāstrete vākhāni

Synonyms

iṅhāra madhye — among the loving affairs of the gopīs; rādhāra prema — the love of Godhead of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; sādhya-śiromaṇi — the topmost perfection; yāṅhāra — of which; mahimā — the glories; sarva- śāstrete — in every scripture; vākhāni — description.

Translation

“Among the loving affairs of the gopīs,” Rāmānanda Rāya continued, “Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s love for Śrī Kṛṣṇa is topmost. Indeed, the glories of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī are highly esteemed in all revealed scriptures.

Text

yathā rādhā priyā viṣṇos
tasyāḥ kuṇḍaṁ priyaṁ tathā
sarva-gopīṣu saivaikā
viṣṇor atyanta-vallabhā

Synonyms

yathā — just as; rādhā — Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; priyā — very dear; viṣṇoḥ — to Lord Kṛṣṇa; tasyāḥ — Her; kuṇḍam — bathing place; priyam — very dear; tathā — so also; sarva-gopīṣu — among all the gopīs; — She; eva — certainly; ekā — alone; viṣṇoḥ — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; atyanta-vallabhā — very dear.

Translation

“ ‘Just as Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is most dear to Śrī Kṛṣṇa, Her bathing place [Rādhā-kuṇḍa] is also dear to Him. Among all the gopīs, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is supermost and very dear to Lord Kṛṣṇa.’

Purport

This verse is from the Padma Purāṇa and is included in the Laghu-bhāgavatāmṛta (2.1.45), by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī. It also appears in the Ādi-līlā, chapter four, verse 215, and again in the Madhya-līlā, chapter eighteen, verse 8.

Text

anayārādhito nūnaṁ
bhagavān harir īśvaraḥ
yan no vihāya govindaḥ
prīto yām anayad rahaḥ

Synonyms

anayā — by Her; ārādhitaḥ — worshiped; nūnam — indeed; bhagavān — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; hariḥ — Kṛṣṇa; īśvaraḥ — the Lord; yat — from which; naḥ — us; vihāya — rejecting; govindaḥ — Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa; prītaḥ — satisfied; yām — whom; anayat — brought; rahaḥ — a secluded place.

Translation

“[When the gopīs began to talk among themselves, they said:] ‘Dear friends, the gopī who has been taken away by Kṛṣṇa to a secluded place must have worshiped the Lord more than anyone else.’ ”

Purport

The name Rādhā is derived from this verse (Bhāg. 10.30.28), from the words anayārādhitaḥ, meaning “by Her the Lord is worshiped.” Sometimes the critics of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam find it difficult to find Rādhārāṇī’s holy name in that book, but the secret is disclosed here in the word ārādhita, from which the name Rādhā has come. Of course, the name of Rādhārāṇī is directly mentioned in other Purāṇas. This gopī’s worship of Kṛṣṇa is topmost, and therefore Her name is Rādhā, or “the topmost worshiper.”

Text

prabhu kahe — āge kaha, śunite pāi sukhe
apūrvāmṛta-nadī vahe tomāra mukhe

Synonyms

prabhu kahe — the Lord said; āge — ahead; kaha — please speak; śunite — to hear; pāi — I get; sukhe — happiness; apūrva-amṛta — of unprecedented nectar; nadī — a river; vahe — flows; tomāra mukhe — from your mouth.

Translation

Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu said, “Please speak on. I am very happy to hear you because a river of unprecedented nectar is flowing from your mouth.

Text

curi kari’ rādhāke nila gopī-gaṇera ḍare
anyāpekṣā haile premera gāḍhatā nā sphure

Synonyms

curi kari’ — stealing; rādhāke — Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; nila — took away; gopī-gaṇera — of the gopīs; ḍare — out of fear; anya-apekṣā — dependence on others; haile — if there is; premera — of love; gāḍhatā — the intensity; — not; sphure — manifests.

Translation

“During the rāsa dance Śrī Kṛṣṇa did not exchange loving affairs with Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī due to the presence of the other gopīs. Because of the dependence of the others, the intensity of love between Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa was not manifest. Therefore He stole Her away.

Purport

Out of fear of the other gopīs, Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa took Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī to a secluded place. In this regard, the verse kaṁsārir api (verse 106 in this chapter) will be quoted from the Gīta-govinda of Jayadeva Gosvāmī.

Text

rādhā lāgi’ gopīre yadi sākṣāt kare tyāga
tabe jāni, — rādhāya kṛṣṇera gāḍha-anurāga

Synonyms

rādhā lāgi’ — for the sake of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; gopīre — the gopīs; yadi — if; sākṣāt — directly; kare — does; tyāga — rejection; tabe — then; jāni — we can understand; rādhāya — in Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; kṛṣṇera — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; gāḍha — intense; anurāga — affection.

Translation

“If Lord Kṛṣṇa rejected the company of the other gopīs for Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, we can understand that Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa has intense affection for Her.”

Text

rāya kahe, — tabe śuna premera mahimā
tri-jagate rādhā-premera nāhika upamā

Synonyms

rāya kahe — Rāmānanda Rāya replied; tabe — then; śuna — please hear; premera — of that love; mahimā — the glories; tri-jagate — within the three worlds; rādhā-premera — of the loving affairs of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; nāhika — there is not; upamā — comparison.

Translation

Rāmānanda Rāya continued, “Please therefore hear from me about the glories of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s loving affairs. They are beyond compare within these three worlds.

Text

gopī-gaṇera rāsa-nṛtya-maṇḍalī chāḍiyā
rādhā cāhi’ vane phire vilāpa kariyā

Synonyms

gopī-gaṇera — of the gopīs; rāsa-nṛtya — of rāsa dancing; maṇḍalī — the circle; chāḍiyā — rejecting; rādhā — Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; cāhi’ — desiring; vane — in the forest; phire — wanders; vilāpa — lamentation; kariyā — doing.

Translation

“Finding Herself treated equally with all the other gopīs, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī displayed Her tricky behavior and left the circle of the rāsa dance. Missing Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s presence, Kṛṣṇa became very unhappy and began to lament and wander throughout the forest to search Her out.

Text

kaṁsārir api saṁsāra-
vāsanā-baddha-śṛṅkhalām
rādhām ādhāya hṛdaye
tatyāja vraja-sundarīḥ

Synonyms

kaṁsa-ariḥ — the enemy of Kaṁsa; api — moreover; saṁsāra-vāsanā — desirous of the essence of enjoyment (rāsa-līlā); baddha-śṛṅkhalām — being perfectly attracted to such activities; rādhām — Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; ādhāya — taking; hṛdaye — within the heart; tatyāja — left aside; vraja-sundarīḥ — the other beautiful gopīs.

Translation

“ ‘Lord Kṛṣṇa, the enemy of Kaṁsa, took Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī within His heart, for He desired to dance with Her. Thus He left the arena of the rāsa dance and the company of all the other beautiful damsels of Vraja.

Text

itas tatas tām anusṛtya rādhikām
anaṅga-bāṇa-vraṇa-khinna-mānasaḥ
kṛtānutāpaḥ sa kalinda-nandinī
taṭānta-kuñje viṣasāda mādhavaḥ

Synonyms

itaḥ tataḥ — hither and thither; tām — Her; anusṛtya — searching out; rādhikām — Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; anaṅga — of Cupid; bāṇa-vraṇa — by a wound from the arrow; khinna-mānasaḥ — whose heart is injured; kṛta-anutāpaḥ — repentant for misbehavior; saḥ — He (Lord Kṛṣṇa); kalinda-nandinī — of the river Yamunā; taṭa-anta — on the edge of the bank; kuñje — in the bushes; viṣasāda — lamented; mādhavaḥ — Lord Kṛṣṇa.

Translation

“ ‘Being afflicted by the arrow of Cupid and unhappily regretting His mistreating Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, Mādhava, Lord Kṛṣṇa, began to search for Her along the banks of the Yamunā River. When He failed to find Her, He entered the bushes of Vṛndāvana and began to lament.’

Purport

These two verses are from the Gīta-govinda (3.1-2), written by Jayadeva Gosvāmī.

Text

ei dui-ślokera artha vicārile jāni
vicārite uṭhe yena amṛtera khani

Synonyms

ei — these; dui — two; ślokera — of the verses; artha — the meanings; vicārile — if considering; jāni — I can understand; vicārite — while considering; uṭhe — arises; yena — like; amṛtera — of nectar; khani — a mine.

Translation

“Simply by considering these two verses one can understand what nectar there is in such dealings. It is exactly like freeing a mine of nectar.

Text

śata-koṭi gopī-saṅge rāsa-vilāsa
tāra madhye eka-mūrtye rahe rādhā-pāśa

Synonyms

śata-koṭi — hundreds of thousands; gopī-saṅge — with the gopīs; rāsa-vilāsa — dancing in the rāsa dance; tāra madhye — among them; eka-mūrtye — by one of His transcendental forms; rahe — remains; rādhā-pāśa — by the side of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.

Translation

“Although Kṛṣṇa was in the midst of hundreds of thousands of gopīs during the rāsa dance, He still kept Himself in one of His transcendental forms by the side of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.

Text

sādhāraṇa-preme dekhi sarvatra ‘samatā’
rādhāra kuṭila-preme ha-ila ‘vāmatā’

Synonyms

sādhāraṇa-preme — in general love of Godhead; dekhi — we see; sarvatra — everywhere; samatā — equality; rādhāra — of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; kuṭila-preme — in the crooked love of Godhead; ha-ila — there was; vāmatā — opposition.

Translation

“Lord Kṛṣṇa is equal to everyone in His general dealings, but due to the conflicting ecstatic love of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, there were opposing elements.

Text

aher iva gatiḥ premṇaḥ
svabhāva-kuṭilā bhavet
ato hetor ahetoś ca
yūnor māna udañcati

Synonyms

aheḥ — of the snake; iva — like; gatiḥ — the movement; premṇaḥ — of the loving affairs; svabhāva — by nature; kuṭilā — crooked; bhavet — is; ataḥ — therefore; hetoḥ — from some cause; ahetoḥ — from the absence of a cause; ca — and; yūnoḥ — of the young couple; mānaḥ — anger; udañcati — appears.

Translation

“ ‘The progress of loving affairs between a young boy and a young girl is like the movement of a snake. On account of this, two types of anger arise between a young boy and girl — anger with cause and anger without cause.’

Purport

During the rāsa dance, one form of Kṛṣṇa was between every two gopīs. But by the side of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī there was only one Kṛṣṇa. Although this was the case, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī still manifested disagreement with Kṛṣṇa. This verse is from the Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi (Śṛṅgāra-bheda-kathana 102), written by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī.

Text

krodha kari’ rāsa chāḍi’ gelā māna kari’
tāṅre nā dekhiyā vyākula haila śrī-hari

Synonyms

krodha kari’ — becoming angry; rāsa chāḍi’ — leaving the rāsa dance; gelā — went; māna kari’ — being resentful; tāṅre — Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; dekhiyā — not seeing; vyākula — very anxious; haila — became; śrī-hari — Lord Kṛṣṇa.

Translation

“When Rādhārāṇī left the rāsa dance out of anger and resentment, Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa became very anxious because He could not see Her.

Text

samyak-sāra vāsanā kṛṣṇera rāsa-līlā
rāsa-līlā-vāsanāte rādhikā śṛṅkhalā

Synonyms

samyak-sāra — the complete and essential; vāsanā — desire; kṛṣṇera — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; rāsa-līlā — the dancing in the rāsa-līlā; rāsa-līlā-vāsanāte — in the desire to dance the rāsa dance; rādhikā — Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; śṛṅkhalā — the medium of bondage.

Translation

“Lord Kṛṣṇa’s desire in the rāsa-līlā circle is perfectly complete, but Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is the binding link in that desire.

Text

tāṅhā vinu rāsa-līlā nāhi bhāya citte
maṇḍalī chāḍiyā gelā rādhā anveṣite

Synonyms

tāṅhā vinu — without Her; rāsa-līlā — the rāsa dance; nāhi — not; bhāya — illuminates; citte — within the heart; maṇḍalī chāḍiyā — leaving the circle of the rāsa dance; gelā — went; rādhā — Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; anveṣite — to search for.

Translation

“The rāsa dance does not shine in the heart of Kṛṣṇa without Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. Therefore, He also gave up the circle of the rāsa dance and went out to search for Her.

Text

itas-tataḥ bhrami’ kāhāṅ rādhā nā pāñā
viṣāda karena kāma-bāṇe khinna hañā

Synonyms

itaḥ-tataḥ — here and there; bhrami’ — wandering; kāhāṅ — anywhere; rādhā — Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; — not; pāñā — finding; viṣāda — lamentation; karena — does; kāma-bāṇe — by the arrow of Cupid; khinna — hurt; hañā — becoming.

Translation

“When Kṛṣṇa went out to search for Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, He wandered here and there. Not finding Her, He became afflicted by the arrow of Cupid and began to lament.

Text

śata-koṭi-gopīte nahe kāma-nirvāpaṇa
tāhātei anumāni śrī-rādhikāra guṇa

Synonyms

śata-koṭi — hundreds of thousands; gopīte — in the midst of gopīs; nahe — there is not; kāma-nirvāpaṇa — satisfaction of lust; tāhātei — by that way; anumāni — we can imagine; śrī-rādhikāra guṇa — the transcendental quality of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.

Translation

“Since Kṛṣṇa’s lusty desires were not satisfied even in the midst of hundreds of thousands of gopīs and He was thus searching after Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, we can easily imagine how transcendentally qualified She is.”

Text

prabhu kahe — ye lāgi’ āilāma tomā-sthāne
sei saba tattva-vastu haila mora jñāne

Synonyms

prabhu kahe — the Lord said; ye lāgi’ — for the matter of which; āilāma — I have come; tomā-sthāne — to your place; sei saba — all those; tattva-vastu — objects of truth; haila — were; mora — My; jñāne — in knowledge.

Translation

After hearing this, Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu said to Rāmānanda Rāya, “That for which I have come to your residence has now become an object of truth in My knowledge.

Text

ebe se jāniluṅ sādhya-sādhana-nirṇaya
āge āra āche kichu, śunite mana haya

Synonyms

ebe — now; se — that; jāniluṅ — I have understood; sādhya — of the ultimate goal; sādhana — and of the process; nirṇaya — the ascertainment; āge — ahead; āra — more; āche — there is; kichu — something; śunite — to hear; mana — the mind; haya — it is.

Translation

“Now I have come to understand the sublime goal of life and the process of achieving it. Nevertheless, I think that there is something more ahead, and My mind is desiring to have it.

Text

‘kṛṣṇera svarūpa’ kaha ‘rādhāra svarūpa’
‘rasa’ kon tattva, ‘prema’ — kon tattva-rūpa

Synonyms

kṛṣṇera — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; svarūpa — the transcendental features; kaha — speak; rādhāra — of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; svarūpa — the transcendental features; rasa — mellows; kon — what; tattva — that truth; prema — love of Godhead; kon — what; tattva-rūpa — actual form.

Translation

“Kindly explain the transcendental features of Kṛṣṇa and Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. Also explain the truth of transcendental mellows and the transcendental form of love of Godhead.

Text

kṛpā kari’ ei tattva kaha ta’ āmāre
tomā-vinā keha ihā nirūpite nāre

Synonyms

kṛpā kari’ — showing your mercy; ei tattva — all these truths; kaha — explain; ta’ — certainly; āmāre — unto Me; tomā-vinā — except for you; keha — someone; ihā — this; nirūpite — to ascertain; nāre — not able.

Translation

“Kindly explain all these truths to Me. But for yourself, no one can ascertain them.”

Text

rāya kahe, — ihā āmi kichui nā jāni
tumi yei kahāo, sei kahi āmi vāṇī

Synonyms

rāya kahe — Rāmānanda Rāya said; ihā — this; āmi — I; kichui — something; — not; jāni — know; tumi — You; yei — whatever; kahāo — make me say; sei — those; kahi — speak; āmi — I; vāṇī — words.

Translation

Śrī Rāmānanda Rāya replied, “I do not know anything about this. I simply vibrate the sound You make me speak.

Text

tomāra śikṣāya paḍi yena śuka-pāṭha
sākṣāt īśvara tumi, ke bujhe tomāra nāṭa

Synonyms

tomāra śikṣāya — by Your instruction; paḍi — I recite; yena — like; śuka-pāṭha — the reciting of a parrot; sākṣāt — directly; īśvara — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; tumi — You; ke — who; bujhe — can understand; tomāra — Your; nāṭa — dramatic performance.

Translation

“I simply repeat like a parrot whatever instructions You have given me. You are the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself. Who can understand Your dramatic performances?

Text

hṛdaye preraṇa kara, jihvāya kahāo vāṇī
ki kahiye bhāla-manda, kichui nā jāni

Synonyms

hṛdaye — within the heart; preraṇa — direction; kara — You give; jihvāya — on the tongue; kahāo — You make me speak; vāṇī — words; ki — what; kahiye — I am speaking; bhāla-manda — good or bad; kichui — something; — not; jāni — I know.

Translation

“You inspire me within the heart and make me speak with the tongue. I do not know whether I am speaking well or badly.”

Text

prabhu kahe, — māyāvādī āmi ta’ sannyāsī
bhakti-tattva nāhi jāni, māyāvāde bhāsi

Synonyms

prabhu kahe — the Lord said; māyāvādī — a follower of the Māyāvāda philosophy; āmi — I; ta’ — certainly; sannyāsī — one in the renounced order of life; bhakti-tattva — the truths of transcendental loving service; nāhi — not; jāni — I know; māyāvāde — in the philosophy of impersonalism; bhāsi — I float.

Translation

Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu said, “I am a Māyāvādī in the renounced order of life, and I do not even know what transcendental loving service to the Lord is. I simply float in the ocean of Māyāvāda philosophy.

Text

sārvabhauma-saṅge mora mana nirmala ha-ila
‘kṛṣṇa-bhakti-tattva kaha,’ tāṅhāre puchila

Synonyms

sārvabhauma-saṅge — in the company of Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya; mora — My; mana — mind; nirmala — clarified; ha-ila — became; kṛṣṇa-bhakti-tattva — the truths of transcendental loving service to Kṛṣṇa; kaha — please explain; tāṅhāre — to him; puchila — I inquired.

Translation

“Due to the association of Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya, My mind became enlightened. Therefore I asked him about the truths of transcendental loving service to Kṛṣṇa.

Text

teṅho kahe — āmi nāhi jāni kṛṣṇa-kathā
sabe rāmānanda jāne, teṅho nāhi ethā

Synonyms

teṅho kahe — he replied; āmi — I; nāhi — not; jāni — know; kṛṣṇa-kathā — topics of Lord Kṛṣṇa; sabe — all; rāmānanda — Rāmānanda Rāya; jāne — knows; teṅho — he; nāhi — not; ethā — here.

Translation

“Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya told me, ‘I do not actually know about the topics of Lord Kṛṣṇa. They are all known only to Rāmānanda Rāya, but he is not present here.’ ”

Text

tomāra ṭhāñi āilāṅa tomāra mahimā śuniyā
tumi more stuti kara ‘sannyāsī’ jāniyā

Synonyms

tomāra ṭhāñi — to your presence; āilāṅa — I have come; tomāra — your; mahimā — glories; śuniyā — hearing; tumi — you; more — Me; stuti — praising; kara — do; sannyāsī — a person in the renounced order of life; jāniyā — knowing as.

Translation

Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu continued, “After hearing about your glories, I have come to your place. But you are offering Me words of praise out of respect for a sannyāsī, one in the renounced order of life.

Purport

Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura explains that a mundane person, being enriched by mundane opulences, must always know that the transcendental opulences of the advanced devotees are far more important than the materialistic opulences of a person like himself. A materialistic person with material opulences should not be very proud or puffed up before a transcendental devotee. If one approaches a transcendental devotee on the strength of one’s material heritage, opulence, education and beauty and does not offer respect to the advanced devotee of the Lord, the Vaiṣṇava devotee may offer formal respects to such a materially puffed-up person, but he may not deliver transcendental knowledge to him. Indeed, the devotee sees him as a non-brāhmaṇa or śūdra. Such a puffed-up person cannot understand the science of Kṛṣṇa. A proud person is deceived in transcendental life and, despite having attained a human form, will again glide into hellish conditions. By His personal example, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu explains how one should be submissive and humble before a Vaiṣṇava, even though one may be situated on a high platform. Such is the teaching of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu as the ācārya of the world, the supreme spiritual master and teacher.

Text

kibā vipra, kibā nyāsī, śūdra kene naya
yei kṛṣṇa-tattva-vettā, sei ‘guru’ haya

Synonyms

kibā — whether; vipra — a brāhmaṇa; kibā — whether; nyāsī — a sannyāsī; śūdra — a śūdra; kene — why; naya — not; yei — anyone who; kṛṣṇa-tattva-vettā — a knower of the science of Kṛṣṇa; sei — that person; guru — the spiritual master; haya — is.

Translation

“Whether one is a brāhmaṇa, a sannyāsī or a śūdra — regardless of what he is — he can become a spiritual master if he knows the science of Kṛṣṇa.”

Purport

This verse is very important to the Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement. In his Amṛta-pravāha-bhāṣya, Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura explains that one should not think that because Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was born a brāhmaṇa and was situated in the topmost spiritual order as a sannyāsī, it was improper for Him to receive instructions from Śrīla Rāmānanda Rāya, who belonged to the śūdra caste. To clarify this matter, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu informed Rāmānanda Rāya that knowledge of Kṛṣṇa consciousness is more important than caste. In the system of varṇāśrama-dharma there are various duties for the brāhmaṇas, kṣatriyas, vaiśyas and śūdras. Actually the brāhmaṇa is supposed to be the spiritual master of all other varṇas, or classes, but as far as Kṛṣṇa consciousness is concerned, everyone is capable of becoming a spiritual master because knowledge in Kṛṣṇa consciousness is on the platform of the spirit soul. To spread Kṛṣṇa consciousness, one need only be cognizant of the science of the spirit soul. It does not matter whether one is a brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya, śūdra, sannyāsī, gṛhastha or whatever. If one simply understands this science, he can become a spiritual master.

It is stated in the Hari-bhakti-vilāsa that one should not accept initiation from a person who is not in the brahminical order if there is a fit person in the brahminical order present. This instruction is meant for those who are overly dependent on the mundane social order and is suitable for those who want to remain in mundane life. If one understands the truth of Kṛṣṇa consciousness and seriously desires to attain transcendental knowledge for the perfection of life, he can accept a spiritual master from any social status, provided the spiritual master is fully conversant with the science of Kṛṣṇa. Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura also states that although one is situated as a brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya, śūdra, brahmacārī, vānaprastha, gṛhastha or sannyāsī, if he is conversant in the science of Kṛṣṇa he can become a spiritual master as vartma-pradarśaka-guru, dīkṣā-guru or śikṣā-guru. The spiritual master who first gives information about spiritual life is called the vartma-pradarśaka-guru, the spiritual master who initiates according to the regulations of the śāstras is called the dīkṣā-guru, and the spiritual master who gives instructions for elevation is called the śikṣā-guru. Factually the qualifications of a spiritual master depend on his knowledge of the science of Kṛṣṇa. It does not matter whether he is a brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, sannyāsī or śūdra. This injunction given by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu is not at all against the injunctions of the śāstras. In the Padma Purāṇa it is said:

na śūdrā bhagavad-bhaktāste ’pi bhāgavatottamāḥ
sarva-varṇeṣu te śūdrā
ye na bhaktā janārdane

One who is actually advanced in spiritual knowledge of Kṛṣṇa is never a śūdra, even though he may have been born in a śūdra family. However, even if a vipra, or brāhmaṇa, is very expert in the six brahminical activities (paṭhana, pāṭhana, yajana, yājana, dāna, pratigraha) and is also well versed in the Vedic hymns, he cannot become a spiritual master unless he is a Vaiṣṇava. But if one is born in the family of caṇḍālas yet is well versed in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, he can become a guru. These are the śāstric injunctions, and strictly following these injunctions, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, as a gṛhastha named Śrī Viśvambhara, was initiated by a sannyāsī-guru named Īśvara Purī. Similarly, Śrī Nityānanda Prabhu was initiated by Mādhavendra Purī, a sannyāsī. According to others, however, He was initiated by Lakṣmīpati Tīrtha. Advaita Ācārya, although a gṛhastha, was initiated by Mādhavendra Purī, and Śrī Rasikānanda, although born in a brāhmaṇa family, was initiated by Śrī Śyāmānanda Prabhu, who was not born in a caste brāhmaṇa family. There are many instances in which a born brāhmaṇa took initiation from a person who was not born in a brāhmaṇa family. The brahminical symptoms are explained in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (7.11.35), wherein it is stated:

yasya yal-lakṣaṇaṁ proktaṁpuṁso varṇābhivyañjakam
yad anyatrāpi dṛśyeta
tat tenaiva vinirdiśet

If a person is born in a śūdra family but has all the qualities of a spiritual master, he should be accepted not only as a brāhmaṇa but as a qualified spiritual master also. This is also the instruction of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura therefore introduced the sacred thread ceremony for all Vaiṣṇavas according to the rules and regulations.

Sometimes a Vaiṣṇava who is a bhajanānandī does not take the sāvitra-saṁskāra (sacred thread initiation), but this does not mean that this system should be used for preaching work. There are two kinds of Vaiṣṇavas — bhajanānandī and goṣṭhy-ānandī. A bhajanānandī is not interested in preaching work, but a goṣṭhy-ānandī is interested in spreading Kṛṣṇa consciousness to benefit the people and increase the number of Vaiṣṇavas. A Vaiṣṇava is understood to be above the position of a brāhmaṇa. As a preacher, he should be recognized as a brāhmaṇa; otherwise there may be a misunderstanding of his position as a Vaiṣṇava. However, a Vaiṣṇava brāhmaṇa is not selected on the basis of his birth but according to his qualities. Unfortunately, those who are unintelligent do not know the difference between a brāhmaṇa and a Vaiṣṇava. They are under the impression that unless one is a brāhmaṇa he cannot be a spiritual master. For this reason only, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu makes the statement in this verse:

kibā vipra, kibā nyāsī, śūdra kene naya
yei kṛṣṇa-tattva-vettā, sei ‘guru’ haya

If one becomes a guru, he is automatically a brāhmaṇa. Sometimes a caste guru says that ye kṛṣṇa-tattva-vettā, sei guru haya means that one who is not a brāhmaṇa may become a śikṣā-guru or a vartma-pradarśaka-guru but not an initiator guru. According to such caste gurus, birth and family ties are considered foremost. However, the hereditary consideration is not acceptable to Vaiṣṇavas. The word guru is equally applicable to the vartma-pradarśaka-guru, śikṣā-guru and dīkṣā-guru. Unless we accept the principle enunciated by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement cannot spread all over the world. According to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s intentions, pṛthivīte āche yata nagarādi-grāma sarvatra pracāra haibe mora nāma. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s cult must be preached all over the world. This does not mean that people should take to His teachings and remain śūdras or caṇḍālas. As soon as one is trained as a pure Vaiṣṇava, he must be accepted as a bona fide brāhmaṇa. This is the essence of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s instructions in this verse.

Text

‘sannyāsī’ baliyā more nā kariha vañcana
kṛṣṇa-rādhā-tattva kahi’ pūrṇa kara mana

Synonyms

sannyāsī — a person in the renounced order of life; baliyā — taking as; more — Me; kariha — do not do; vañcana — cheating; kṛṣṇa-rādhā-tattva — the truth about Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa; kahi’ — describing; pūrṇa — complete; kara — make; mana — My mind.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu continued, “Please do not try to cheat Me, thinking of Me as a learned sannyāsī. Please satisfy My mind by just describing the truth of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa.”

Text

yadyapi rāya — premī, mahā-bhāgavate
tāṅra mana kṛṣṇa-māyā nāre ācchādite
tathāpi prabhura icchā — parama prabala
jānileha rāyera mana haila ṭalamala

Synonyms

yadyapi — although; rāya — Rāmānanda Rāya; premī — a great lover of Kṛṣṇa; mahā-bhāgavate — a topmost devotee; tāṅra — his; mana — mind; kṛṣṇa-māyā — the illusory energy of Kṛṣṇa; nāre — not able; ācchādite — to cover; tathāpi — still; prabhura icchā — the Lord’s desire; parama prabala — very intense; jānileha — even though it was known; rāyera mana — the mind of Rāmānanda Rāya; haila — there was; ṭalamala — agitation.

Translation

Śrī Rāmānanda Rāya was a great devotee of the Lord and a lover of God, and although his mind could not be covered by Kṛṣṇa’s illusory energy, and although he could understand the mind of the Lord, which was very strong and intense, Rāmānanda’s mind became a little agitated.

Purport

The perfect devotee always acts according to the desires of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. But a materialistic man is carried away by the waves of the material energy. Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura has said, māyāra vaśe, yāccha bhese, khāccha hābuḍubu, bhāi. A person under the grip of the material energy is carried away by the waves of that illusory energy. In other words, a person in the material world is a servant of māyā. However, a person in the spiritual energy is a servant of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Although Rāmānanda Rāya knew that nothing was unknown to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, he nonetheless began to speak further on the subject because the Lord desired it.

Text

rāya kahe, — “āmi — naṭa, tumi — sūtra-dhāra
yei mata nācāo, taiche cāhi nācibāra

Synonyms

rāya kahe — Rāmānanda Rāya replied; āmi — I; naṭa — dancer; tumi — You; sūtra-dhāra — the puller of the strings; yei — whatever; mata — way; nācāo — You make me dance; taiche — in that way; cāhi — I want; nācibāra — to dance.

Translation

Śrī Rāmānanda Rāya said, “I am just a dancing puppet, and You pull the strings. Whichever way You make me dance, I will dance.

Text

mora jihvā — vīṇā-yantra, tumi — vīṇā-dhārī
tomāra mane yei uṭhe, tāhāi uccāri

Synonyms

mora jihvā — my tongue; vīṇā-yantra — a stringed instrument; tumi — You; vīṇā-dhārī — the player of the stringed instrument; tomāra mane — in Your mind; yei uṭhe — whatever arises; tāhāi — that; uccāri — I vibrate.

Translation

“My dear Lord, my tongue is just like a stringed instrument, and You are its player. Therefore I simply vibrate whatever arises in Your mind.”

Text

parama īśvara kṛṣṇa — svayaṁ bhagavān
sarva-avatārī, sarva-kāraṇa-pradhāna

Synonyms

parama — supreme; īśvara — controller; kṛṣṇa — Lord Kṛṣṇa; svayam — personally; bhagavān — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; sarva-avatārī — the source of all incarnations; sarva-kāraṇa-pradhāna — the supreme cause of all causes.

Translation

Rāmānanda Rāya then began to speak on kṛṣṇa-tattva. “Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme Personality of Godhead,” he said. “He is personally the original Godhead, the source of all incarnations and the cause of all causes.

Text

ananta vaikuṇṭha, āra ananta avatāra
ananta brahmāṇḍa ihāṅ, — sabāra ādhāra

Synonyms

ananta vaikuṇṭha — innumerable Vaikuṇṭha planets; āra — and; ananta avatāra — innumerable incarnations; ananta brahmāṇḍa — innumerable universes; ihāṅ — in this material world; sabāra — of all of them; ādhāra — the resting place.

Translation

“There are innumerable Vaikuṇṭha planets, as well as innumerable incarnations. In the material world also there are innumerable universes, and Kṛṣṇa is the supreme resting place for all of them.

Text

sac-cid-ānanda-tanu, vrajendra-nandana
sarvaiśvarya-sarvaśakti-sarvarasa-pūrṇa

Synonyms

sat-cit-ānanda-tanu — Kṛṣṇa’s body is transcendental, full of knowledge, bliss and eternity; vrajendra-nandana — the son of Mahārāja Nanda; sarva-aiśvarya — all opulences; sarva-śakti — all potencies; sarva-rasa-pūrṇa — the reservoir of all transcendental mellows.

Translation

“The transcendental body of Śrī Kṛṣṇa is eternal and full of bliss and knowledge. He is the son of Nanda Mahārāja. He is full of all opulences and potencies, as well as all spiritual mellows.

Text

īśvaraḥ paramaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ
sac-cid-ānanda-vigrahaḥ
anādir ādir govindaḥ
sarva-kāraṇa-kāraṇam

Synonyms

īśvaraḥ — the controller; paramaḥ — supreme; kṛṣṇaḥ — Lord Kṛṣṇa; sat — eternal existence; cit — absolute knowledge; ānanda — absolute bliss; vigrahaḥ — whose form; anādiḥ — without beginning; ādiḥ — the origin of everything; govindaḥ — a name of Lord Kṛṣṇa; sarva — all; kāraṇa — of causes; kāraṇam — He is the original cause.

Translation

“ ‘Kṛṣṇa, who is known as Govinda, is the supreme controller. He has an eternal, blissful, spiritual body. He is the origin of all. He has no other origin, for He is the prime cause of all causes.’

Purport

This verse is from the Brahma-saṁhitā (5.1).

Text

vṛndāvane ‘aprākṛta navīna madana’
kāma-gāyatrī kāma-bīje yāṅra upāsana

Synonyms

vṛndāvane — in Vṛndāvana; aprākṛta — spiritual; navīna — new; madana — Cupid; kāma-gāyatrī — hymns of desire; kāma-bīje — by the spiritual seed of desire called klīm; yāṅra — of whom; upāsana — the worship.

Translation

“In the spiritual realm of Vṛndāvana, Kṛṣṇa is the spiritual, ever-fresh Cupid. He is worshiped by the chanting of the Kāma-gāyatrī mantra, with the spiritual seed klīm.

Purport

Vṛndāvana is described in the Brahma-saṁhitā (5.56) in this way:

śriyaḥ kāntāḥ kāntaḥ parama-puruṣaḥ kalpa-taravo
drumā bhūmiś cintāmaṇi-gaṇa-mayī toyam amṛtam
kathā gānaṁ nāṭyaṁ gamanam api vaṁśī priya-sakhī
cid-ānandaṁ jyotiḥ param api tad āsvādyam api ca
sa yatra kṣīrābdhiḥ sravati surabhībhyaś ca su-mahān
nimeṣārdhākhyo vā vrajati na hi yatrāpi samayaḥ
bhaje śvetadvīpaṁ tam aham iha golokam iti yaṁ
vidantas te santaḥ kṣiti-virala-cārāḥ katipaye

The spiritual realm of Vṛndāvana is always spiritual. The goddess of fortune and the gopīs are always present there. They are Kṛṣṇa’s beloveds, and all of them are as spiritual as Kṛṣṇa. In Vṛndāvana, Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme Person and is the husband of all the gopīs and the goddess of fortune. The trees in Vṛndāvana are wish-fulfilling trees. The land is made of touchstone, and the water is nectar. Words are musical vibrations, and all movements are dancing. The flute is the Lord’s constant companion. The planet Goloka Vṛndāvana is self-luminous like the sun and is full of spiritual bliss. The perfection of life lies in tasting that spiritual existence; therefore everyone should cultivate its knowledge. In Vṛndāvana, spiritual cows are always supplying spiritual milk. Not a single moment is wasted there — in other words, there is no past, present or future. Not a single particle of time is wasted. Within this material universe, the devotees worship that transcendental abode as Goloka Vṛndāvana. Lord Brahmā himself said, “Let me worship that spiritual land where Kṛṣṇa is present.” This transcendental Vṛndāvana is not appreciated by those who are not devotees or self-realized souls because this Vṛndāvana-dhāma is all spiritual. The pastimes of the Lord there are also spiritual. None are material. According to a prayer by Śrīla Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura (Prārthanā 1):

āra kabe nitāi-cāṅdera karuṇā karibe
saṁsāra-vāsanā mora kabe tuccha ha’be

“When will Lord Nityānanda have mercy upon me so that I can realize the uselessness of material pleasure?”

viṣaya chāḍiyā kabe śuddha ha’be mana
kabe hāma heraba śrī-vṛndāvana

“When will my mind be cleansed of all material dirt so that I will be able to feel the presence of spiritual Vṛndāvana?”

rūpa-raghunātha-pade haibe ākuti
kabe hāma bujhaba se yugala-pirīti

“When will I be attracted to the instructions of the Gosvāmīs so that I will be able to understand what is Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa and what is Vṛndāvana?”

These verses indicate that one first has to be purified of all material desires and all attraction for fruitive activity and speculative knowledge if one wishes to understand Vṛndāvana.

In reference to the words aprākṛta navīna madana, aprākṛta refers to that which is the very opposite of the material conception. The Māyāvādīs consider this to be zero or impersonal, but that is not the case. Everything in the material world is dull, but in the spiritual world everything is alive. The desire for enjoyment is present both in Kṛṣṇa and in His parts and parcels, the living entities. In the spiritual world, such desires are also spiritual. No one should mistakenly consider such desires to be material. In the material world, if one is sexually inclined and enjoys sex life, he enjoys something temporary. His enjoyment vanishes after a few minutes. However, in the spiritual world the same enjoyment may be there, but it never vanishes. It is continuously enjoyed. In the spiritual world such sex pleasure appears to the enjoyer to be more and more relishable with each new feature. In the material world, however, sex enjoyment becomes distasteful after a few minutes only, and it is never permanent. Because Kṛṣṇa appears very much sexually inclined, He is called the new Cupid in the spiritual world. There is no material inebriety in such desire, however.

Gāyantaṁ trāyate yasmād gāyatrī tvaṁ tataḥ smṛtā: one who chants the Gāyatrī mantra is gradually delivered from the material clutches. In other words, that which delivers one from material entanglement is called Gāyatrī. An explanation of the Gāyatrī mantra can be found in the Madhya-līlā, chapter twenty-one, text 125:

kāma-gāyatrī-mantra-rūpa,haya kṛṣṇera svarūpa,
sārdha-cabbiśa akṣara tāra haya
se akṣara ‘candra’ haya,
kṛṣṇe kari’ udaya,
trijagat kailā kāmamaya

The Kāma-gāyatrī mantra is just like a Vedic hymn, but it is the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself. There is no difference between the Kāma-gāyatrī and Kṛṣṇa. Both are composed of twenty-four and a half transcendental syllables (see Madhya 21.125-29). The mantra depicted in letters is also Kṛṣṇa, and the mantra rises just like the moon. Due to this, there is a perverted reflection of desire in human society and among all kinds of living entities. In the mantra klīṁ kāma-devāya vidmahe puṣpa-bāṇāya dhīmahi tan no ’naṅgaḥ pracodayāt, Kṛṣṇa is called Kāma-deva, Puṣpa-bāṇa and Anaṅga. Kāma-deva is Madana-mohana, the Deity who establishes our relationship with Kṛṣṇa; Puṣpa-bāṇa (“He who carries an arrow made of flowers”) is Govinda, the Personality of Godhead who accepts our devotional service; and Anaṅga is Gopījana-vallabha, who satisfies all the gopīs and is the ultimate goal of life. This Kāma-gāyatrī (klīṁ kāma-devāya vidmahe puṣpa-bāṇāya dhīmahi tan no ’naṅgaḥ pracodayāt) simply does not belong to this material world. When one is advanced in spiritual understanding, he can worship the Supreme Personality of Godhead with his spiritually purified senses and fulfill the desires of the Lord.

man-manā bhava mad-bhaktomad-yājī māṁ namaskuru
mām evaiṣyasi satyaṁ te
pratijāne priyo ’si me

“Always think of Me and become My devotee. Worship Me and offer your homage unto Me. Thus you will come to Me without fail. I promise you this because you are My very dear friend.” (Bg. 18.65)

In the Brahma-saṁhitā (5.27-28) it is stated:

atha veṇu-ninādasyatrayī-mūrti-mayī gatiḥ
sphurantī praviveśāśu
mukhābjāni svayambhuvaḥ
gāyatrīṁ gāyatas tasmādadhigatya saroja-jaḥ
saṁskṛtaś cādi-guruṇā
dvijatām agamat tataḥ
trayyā prabuddho ’tha vidhirvijñāta-tattva-sāgaraḥ
tuṣṭāva veda-sāreṇa
stotreṇānena keśavam

“Then Gāyatrī, mother of the Vedas, having been manifested by the divine sound of Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s flute, entered the lotus mouth of Brahmā, the self-born, through his eight earholes. Thus the lotus-born Brahmā received the Gāyatrī mantra, which had sprung from the song of Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s flute. In this way he attained twice-born status, having been initiated by the supreme, primal preceptor, Godhead Himself. Enlightened by the recollection of that Gāyatrī, which embodies the three Vedas, Brahmā became acquainted with the expanse of the ocean of truth. Then he worshiped Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the essence of all the Vedas, with a hymn.”

The vibration of Kṛṣṇa’s flute is the origin of the Vedic hymns. Lord Brahmā, who is seated on a lotus flower, heard the sound vibration of Kṛṣṇa’s flute and was thereby initiated by the Gāyatrī mantra.

Text

puruṣa, yoṣit, kibā sthāvara-jaṅgama
sarva-cittākarṣaka, sākṣāt manmatha-madana

Synonyms

puruṣa — a male; yoṣit — a female; kibā — all; sthāvara-jaṅgama — living entities who cannot move and living entities who can move; sarva — of everyone; citta-ākarṣaka — the attractor of the minds; sākṣāt — directly; manmatha-madana — captivator of Cupid himself.

Translation

“The very name Kṛṣṇa means that He attracts even Cupid. He is therefore attractive to everyone — male and female, moving and inert living entities. Indeed, Kṛṣṇa is known as the all-attractive one.

Purport

Just as there are many orbs in the material world called stars or planets, in the spiritual world there are many spiritual planets called Vaikuṇṭhalokas. The spiritual universe, however, is situated far, far away from the cluster of material universes. Material scientists cannot even estimate the number of planets and stars within this universe. They are also incapable of traveling to other stars by spaceship. According to the Bhagavad-gītā (8.20), there is also a spiritual world:

paras tasmāt tu bhāvo ’nyo’vyakto ’vyaktāt sanātanaḥ
yaḥ sa sarveṣu bhūteṣu
naśyatsu na vinaśyati

“Yet there is another unmanifested nature, which is eternal and is transcendental to this manifested and unmanifested matter. It is supreme and is never annihilated. When all in this world is annihilated, that part remains as it is.”

Thus there is another nature, which is superior to material nature. The word bhāva or svabhāva refers to nature. The spiritual nature is eternal, and even when all the material universes are destroyed, the planets in the spiritual world abide. They remain exactly as the spirit soul remains even after the annihilation of the material body. That spiritual world is called the aprākṛta (antimaterial) world. In this transcendental, spiritual world or universe, the highest planetary system is known as Goloka Vṛndāvana. That is the abode of Lord Kṛṣṇa Himself, who is also all-spiritual. Kṛṣṇa is known there as Aprākṛta-madana. The name Madana refers to Cupid, but Kṛṣṇa is the spiritual Madana. His body is not material like the body of Cupid in this material universe. Kṛṣṇa’s body is all-spiritual — sac-cid-ānanda-vigraha. Therefore He is called Aprākṛta-madana. He is also known as Manmatha-madana, which means that He is attractive even to Cupid. Sometimes Kṛṣṇa’s activities and attractive features are misinterpreted by gross materialists who accuse Him of being immoral because He danced with the gopīs, but such an accusation results from not knowing that Kṛṣṇa is beyond this material world. His body is sac-cid-ānanda-vigraha, completely spiritual. There is no material contamination in His body, and one should not consider His body a lump of flesh and bones. The Māyāvādī philosophers conceive of Kṛṣṇa’s body as material, and this is an abominable, grossly materialistic conception. Just as Kṛṣṇa is completely spiritual, the gopīs are also spiritual, and this is confirmed in the Brahma-saṁhitā (5.37):

ānanda-cin-maya-rasa-pratibhāvitābhis
tābhir ya eva nija-rūpatayā kalābhiḥ
goloka eva nivasaty akhilātma-bhūto
govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi

“I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord. He resides in His own realm, Goloka, with Rādhā, who resembles His own spiritual figure and who embodies the ecstatic potency (hlādinī). Their companions are Her confidantes, who embody extensions of Her bodily form and who are imbued and permeated with ever-blissful spiritual rasa.

The gopīs are also of the same spiritual quality (nija-rūpatayā) because they are expansions of Kṛṣṇa’s pleasure potency. Neither Kṛṣṇa nor the gopīs have anything to do with lumps of matter or the material conception. In the material world the living entity is encaged within a material body, and due to ignorance he thinks that he is the body. Therefore here the enjoyment of lusty desires between male and female is all material. One cannot compare the lusty desires of a materialistic man to the transcendental lusty desires of Kṛṣṇa. Unless one is advanced in spiritual science, he cannot understand the lusty desires between Kṛṣṇa and the gopīs. In the Caitanya-caritāmṛta the lusty desire of the gopīs is compared to gold. The lusty desires of a materialistic man, on the other hand, are compared to iron. At no stage can iron and gold be equal. The living entities — moving and nonmoving — are part and parcel of Kṛṣṇa; therefore they originally have the same kind of lusty desire as His. But when this lusty desire is expressed through matter, it is abominable. When a living entity is spiritually advanced and liberated from material bondage, he can understand Kṛṣṇa in truth. As stated in the Bhagavad-gītā (4.9):

janma karma ca me divyamevaṁ yo vetti tattvataḥ
tyaktvā dehaṁ punar janma
naiti mām eti so ’rjuna

“One who knows the transcendental nature of My appearance and activities does not, upon leaving the body, take his birth again in this material world but attains My eternal abode, O Arjuna.”

When one can understand the body of Kṛṣṇa as well as the Lord’s lusty desires, one is immediately liberated. A conditioned soul encaged within the material body cannot understand Kṛṣṇa. As stated in the Bhagavad-gītā (7.3):

manuṣyāṇāṁ sahasreṣukaścid yatati siddhaye
yatatām api siddhānāṁ
kaścin māṁ vetti tattvataḥ

“Out of many thousands among men, one may endeavor for perfection, and of those who have achieved perfection, hardly one knows Me in truth.”

The word siddhaye indicates liberation. Only after being liberated from material conditioning can one understand Kṛṣṇa. When one can understand Kṛṣṇa as He is (tattvataḥ), one actually lives in the spiritual world, although apparently living within the material body. This technical science can be understood when one is actually spiritually advanced.

In his Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (1.2.187), Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī says:

īhā yasya harer dāsyekarmaṇā manasā girā
nikhilāsv apy avasthāsu
jīvan-muktaḥ sa ucyate

When a person in this material world desires only to serve Kṛṣṇa with love and devotion, he is liberated, even though functioning within this material world. As the Bhagavad-gītā (14.26) confirms:

māṁ ca yo ’vyabhicāreṇabhakti-yogena sevate
sa guṇān samatītyaitān
brahma-bhūyāya kalpate

“One who engages in full devotional service, unfailing in all circumstances, at once transcends the modes of material nature and thus comes to the level of Brahman.”

Simply by engaging in the loving service of the Lord one can attain liberation. As stated in the Bhagavad-gītā (18.54), brahma-bhūtaḥ prasannātmā na śocati na kāṅkṣati. A person who is highly advanced in spiritual knowledge and who has attained the brahma-bhūta stage neither laments nor hankers for anything material. That is the stage of spiritual realization.

Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura considers the brahma-bhūta stage in two divisions — svarūpa-gata and vastu-gata. One who has understood Kṛṣṇa in truth but is still maintaining some material connection is known to be situated in his svarūpa, his original consciousness. When that original consciousness is completely spiritual, it is called Kṛṣṇa consciousness. One who lives in such consciousness is actually living in Vṛndāvana. He may live anywhere; material location doesn’t matter. When by the grace of Kṛṣṇa one thus advances, he becomes completely uncontaminated by the material body and mind and at that time factually lives in Vṛndāvana. That stage is called vastu-gata.

One should execute his spiritual activities in the svarūpa-gata stage of consciousness. He should also chant such spiritual mantras as oṁ namo bhagavate vāsudevāya, and the cin-mayī Gāyatrī — klīṁ kṛṣṇāya govindāya gopījana-vallabhāya svāhā, and klīṁ kāma-devāya vidmahe puṣpa-bāṇāya dhīmahi tan no ’naṅgaḥ pracodayāt. These are the Kāmagāyatrī or kāma-bīja mantras. One should be initiated by a bona fide spiritual master and worship Kṛṣṇa with these transcendental mantras.

As explained by Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī in the previous verse and the current verse:

vṛndāvane ‘aprākṛta navīna madana’
kāma-gāyatrī kāma-bīje yāṅra upāsana
puruṣa, yoṣit, kibā sthāvara-jaṅgama
sarva-cittākarṣaka, sākṣāt manmatha-madana

A person who is properly purified and initiated by the spiritual master worships the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa, by chanting this mantra, the Kāma-gāyatrī with the kāma-bīja. As the Bhagavad-gītā (18.65) confirms, one should engage in transcendental worship in order to be fit for being attracted by Kṛṣṇa, the all-attractive:

man-manā bhava mad-bhaktomad-yājī māṁ namaskuru
mām evaiṣyasi satyaṁ te
pratijāne priyo ’si me

“Always think of Me and become My devotee. Worship Me and offer your homage unto Me. Thus you will come to Me without fail. I promise you this because you are My very dear friend.”

Since every living entity is part and parcel of Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa is naturally attractive. Due to the material covering, one’s attraction for Kṛṣṇa is checked. One is not usually attracted by Kṛṣṇa in the material world, but as soon as one is liberated from material conditioning, he is naturally attracted. Therefore it is said in this verse, sarva-cittākarṣaka: “Everyone is naturally attracted by Kṛṣṇa.” This attraction is within everyone’s heart, and when the heart is cleansed, that attraction is manifested (ceto-darpaṇa-mārjanaṁ bhava-mahā-dāvāgni-nirvāpaṇam).

Text

tāsām āvirabhūc chauriḥ
smayamāna-mukhāmbujaḥ
pītāmbara-dharaḥ sragvī
sākṣān manmatha-manmathaḥ

Synonyms

tāsām — among them; āvirabhūt — appeared; śauriḥ — Lord Kṛṣṇa; smayamāna — smiling; mukha-ambujaḥ — lotus face; pīta-ambara-dharaḥ — dressed with yellow garments; sragvī — decorated with a flower garland; sākṣāt — directly; manmatha — of Cupid; manmathaḥ — Cupid.

Translation

“ ‘When Kṛṣṇa left the rāsa-līlā dance, the gopīs became very morose, and when they were grieving, Kṛṣṇa reappeared dressed in yellow garments. Wearing a flower garland and smiling, He was attractive even to Cupid. In this way Kṛṣṇa appeared among the gopīs.’

Purport

This verse is from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.32.2).

Text

nānā-bhaktera rasāmṛta nānā-vidha haya
sei saba rasāmṛtera ‘viṣaya’ ‘āśraya’

Synonyms

nānā-bhaktera — of various types of devotees; rasa-amṛta — the nectar of devotion or transcendental mellows; nānā-vidha — different varieties; haya — there are; sei saba — all these; rasa-amṛtera — of the nectar of devotion; viṣaya — subject; āśraya — object.

Translation

“Each and every devotee has a certain type of transcendental mellow in relation to Kṛṣṇa. But in all transcendental relationships the devotee is the worshiper [āśraya] and Kṛṣṇa is the object of worship [viṣaya].

Text

akhila-rasāmṛta-mūrtiḥ prasṛmara-ruci-ruddha-tārakā-pāliḥ
kalita-śyāmā-lalito rādhā-preyān vidhur jayati

Synonyms

akhila-rasa-amṛta-mūrtiḥ — the reservoir of all pleasure, in which exist all the mellows of devotional service, namely śānta, dāsya, sakhya, vātsalya and mādhurya; prasṛmara — spreading forth; ruci — by His bodily luster; ruddha — who has subjugated; tārakā — the gopī named Tārakā; pāliḥ — the gopī named Pāli; kalita — who has absorbed the minds of; śyāmā — the gopī named Śyāmā; lalitaḥ — and the gopī named Lalitā; rādhā-preyān — dearmost to Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; vidhuḥ — Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead; jayati — all glories to.

Translation

“ ‘Let Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, be glorified! By virtue of His expanding attractive features, He subjugated the gopīs named Tārakā and Pāli and absorbed the minds of Śyāmā and Lalitā. He is the most attractive lover of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and is the reservoir of pleasure for devotees in all transcendental mellows.’

Purport

Everyone has a particular transcendental mellow by which he loves and serves Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa is the most attractive feature for every kind of devotee. He is therefore called akhila-rasāmṛta-mūrti, the transcendental form of attraction for all kinds of devotees, whether the devotee be in the śānta-rasa, dāsya-rasa, sakhya-rasa, vātsalya-rasa or mādhurya-rasa.

This is the opening verse of the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu, by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī.

Text

śṛṅgāra-rasarāja-maya-mūrti-dhara
ataeva ātma-paryanta-sarva-citta-hara

Synonyms

śṛṅgāra-rasa-rāja-maya — consisting of the mellow of conjugal love, which is the king of mellows; mūrti-dhara — Kṛṣṇa, the personified reservoir of all pleasure; ataeva — therefore; ātma-paryanta — even up to His own self; sarva — all; citta — of hearts; hara — the attractor.

Translation

“Kṛṣṇa is all-attractive for devotees in all mellows because He is the personification of the conjugal mellow. Kṛṣṇa is attractive not only to all the devotees, but to Himself as well.

Text

viśveṣām anurañjanena janayann ānandam indīvara-
śreṇī-śyāmala-komalair upanayann aṅgair anaṅgotsavam
svacchandaṁ vraja-sundarībhir abhitaḥ praty-aṅgam āliṅgitaḥ
śṛṅgāraḥ sakhi mūrtimān iva madhau mugdho hariḥ krīḍati

Synonyms

viśveṣām — of all the gopīs; anurañjanena — by the act of pleasing; janayan — producing; ānandam — the bliss; indīvara-śreṇī — like a row of blue lotuses; śyāmala — bluish black; komalaiḥ — and soft; upanayan — bringing; aṅgaiḥ — with His limbs; anaṅga-utsavam — a festival for Cupid; svacchandam — without restriction; vraja-sundarībhiḥ — by the young women of Vraja; abhitaḥ — on both sides; prati-aṅgam — each limb; āliṅgitaḥ — embraced; śṛṅgāraḥ — amorous love; sakhi — O friend; mūrti-mān — embodied; iva — like; madhau — in the springtime; mugdhaḥ — perplexed; hariḥ — Lord Hari; krīḍati — plays.

Translation

“ ‘My dear friends, just see how Śrī Kṛṣṇa is enjoying the season of spring! With the gopīs embracing each of His limbs, He is like amorous love personified. With His transcendental pastimes, He enlivens all the gopīs and the entire creation. With His soft bluish black arms and legs, which resemble blue lotus flowers, He has created a festival for Cupid.’

Purport

This is a verse from the Gīta-govinda (1.11).

Text

lakṣmī-kāntādi avatārera hare mana
lakṣmī-ādi nārī-gaṇera kare ākarṣaṇa

Synonyms

lakṣmī-kānta-ādi — of the goddess of fortune’s husband (Nārāyaṇa); avatārera — of the incarnation; hare — He enchants; mana — the mind; lakṣmī — the goddess of fortune; ādi — headed by; nārī-gaṇera — of all women; kare — does; ākarṣaṇa — attraction.

Translation

“He also attracts Nārāyaṇa, who is the incarnation of Saṅkarṣaṇa and the husband of the goddess of fortune. He attracts not only Nārāyaṇa but also all women, headed by the goddess of fortune, the consort of Nārāyaṇa.

Text

dvijātmajā me yuvayor didṛkṣuṇā
mayopanītā bhuvi dharma-guptaye
kalāvatīrṇāv avaner bharāsurān
hatveha bhūyas tvarayetam anti me

Synonyms

dvija-ātma-jāḥ — the sons of the brāhmaṇa; me — by Me; yuvayoḥ — of both of you; didṛkṣuṇā — desiring the sight; mayā — by Me; upanītāḥ — brought; bhuvi — in the world; dharma-guptaye — for the protection of religious principles; kalā — with all potencies; avatīrṇau — who descended; avaneḥ — of the world; bhara-asurān — the heavy load of demons; hatvā — having killed; iha — here in the spiritual world; bhūyaḥ — again; tvarayā — very soon; itam — please come back; anti — near; me — Me.

Translation

“[Addressing Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna, Lord Mahā-Viṣṇu (the Mahāpuruṣa) said:] ‘I wanted to see both of you, and therefore I have brought the sons of the brāhmaṇa here. Both of you have appeared in the material world to reestablish religious principles, and you have both appeared here with all your potencies. After killing all the demons, please quickly return to the spiritual world.’

Purport

This is a quotation from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.89.58) concerning Kṛṣṇa’s endeavor to take Arjuna beyond the material universe when Arjuna was searching for the sons of a brāhmaṇa.

Lord Mahā-Viṣṇu, who is situated beyond this material world, was also attracted by the bodily features of Kṛṣṇa. Mahā-Viṣṇu had actually stolen the sons of the brāhmaṇa in Dvārakā so that Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna would come visit Him. This verse is quoted to show that Kṛṣṇa is so attractive that He attracts Mahā-Viṣṇu.

Text

kasyānubhāvo ’sya na deva vidmahe
tavāṅghri-reṇu-sparaśādhikāraḥ
yad-vāñchayā śrīr lalanācarat tapo
vihāya kāmān su-ciraṁ dhṛta-vratā

Synonyms

kasya — of what; anubhāvaḥ — a result; asya — of the serpent (Kāliya); na — not; deva — my Lord; vidmahe — we know; tava aṅghri — of Your lotus feet; reṇu — of the dust; sparaśa — for touching; adhikāraḥ — qualification; yat — which; vāñchayā — by desiring; śrīḥ — the goddess of fortune; lalanā — the topmost woman; acarat — performed; tapaḥ — austerity; vihāya — giving up; kāmān — all desires; su-ciram — for a long time; dhṛta — a law upheld; vratā — as a vow.

Translation

“ ‘O Lord, we do not know how the serpent Kāliya attained such an opportunity to be touched by the dust of Your lotus feet. For this end, the goddess of fortune performed austerities for centuries, giving up all other desires and observing austere vows. Indeed, we do not know how this serpent Kāliya got such an opportunity.’

Purport

This verse from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.16.36) was spoken by the wives of the Kāliya serpent.

Text

āpana-mādhurye hare āpanāra mana
āpanā āpani cāhe karite āliṅgana

Synonyms

āpana — own; mādhurye — by sweetness; hare — steals; āpanāra — His own; mana — mind; āpanā — Himself; āpani — He; cāhe — wants; karite — to do; āliṅgana — embracing.

Translation

“Lord Kṛṣṇa’s sweetness is so attractive that it steals away His own mind. Thus even He wants to embrace Himself.

Text

aparikalita-pūrvaḥ kaś camatkāra-kārī
sphurati mama garīyān eṣa mādhurya-pūraḥ
ayam aham api hanta prekṣya yaṁ lubdha-cetāḥ
sa-rabhasam upabhoktuṁ kāmaye rādhikeva

Synonyms

aparikalita-pūrvaḥ — not previously experienced; kaḥ — who; camatkāra-kārī — causing wonder; sphurati — manifests; mama — My; garīyān — more great; eṣaḥ — this; mādhurya-pūraḥ — abundance of sweetness; ayam — this; aham — I; api — even; hanta — alas; prekṣya — seeing; yam — which; lubdha-cetāḥ — My mind being bewildered; sa-rabhasam — impetuously; upabhoktum — to enjoy; kāmaye — desire; rādhikā iva — like Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.

Translation

“ ‘Upon seeing His own reflection in a bejeweled pillar of His Dvārakā palace, Kṛṣṇa desired to embrace it, saying, “Alas, I have never seen such a person before. Who is He? Just by seeing Him I have become eager to embrace Him, exactly like Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.”’ ”

Purport

This is a verse from Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī’s Lalita-mādhava (8.34).

Text

ei ta’ saṅkṣepe kahila kṛṣṇera svarūpa
ebe saṅkṣepe kahi śuna rādhā-tattva-rūpa

Synonyms

ei ta’ — thus; saṅkṣepe — in brief; kahila — I have said; kṛṣṇera — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; svarūpa — the original form; ebe — now; saṅkṣepe — in summary; kahi — I shall speak; śuna — please hear; rādhā — of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; tattva-rūpa — the actual position.

Translation

Śrī Rāmānanda Rāya then said, “I have thus briefly explained the original form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Now let me describe the position of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.

Text

kṛṣṇera ananta-śakti, tāte tina — pradhāna
‘cic-chakti’, ‘māyā-śakti’, ‘jīva-śakti’-nāma

Synonyms

kṛṣṇera — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; ananta-śakti — unlimited potencies; tāte — in that; tina — three; pradhāna — chief; cit-śakti — spiritual potency; māyā-śakti — material potency; jīva-śakti — marginal potency, or living entities; nāma — named.

Translation

“Kṛṣṇa has unlimited potencies, which can be divided into three main parts. These are the spiritual potency, the material potency and the marginal potency, which is known as the living entities.

Text

‘antaraṅgā’, ‘bahiraṅgā’, ‘taṭasthā’ kahi yāre
antaraṅgā ‘svarūpa-śakti’ — sabāra upare

Synonyms

antaraṅgā — internal; bahiraṅgā — external; taṭa-sthā — marginal; kahi — we say; yāre — to whom; antaraṅgā — the internal potency; svarūpa-śakti — the personal energy; sabāra upare — above all.

Translation

“In other words, these are all potencies of God — internal, external and marginal. But the internal potency is the Lord’s personal energy and stands over the other two.

Text

viṣṇu-śaktiḥ parā proktā
kṣetrajñākhyā tathā parā
avidyā-karma-saṁjñānyā
tṛtīyā śaktir iṣyate

Synonyms

viṣṇu-śaktiḥ — the potency of Lord Viṣṇu; parā — spiritual; proktā — it is said; kṣetrajña-ākhyā — the potency known as kṣetra-jña; tathā — as well as; parā — spiritual; avidyā — ignorance; karma — fruitive activities; saṁjñā — known as; anyā — other; tṛtīyā — third; śaktiḥ — potency; iṣyate — known thus.

Translation

“ ‘The original potency of Lord Viṣṇu is superior, or spiritual, and the living entity actually belongs to that superior energy. But there is another energy, called the material energy, and this third energy is full of ignorance.’

Purport

This is a quotation from the Viṣṇu Purāṇa (6.7.61).

Text

sac-cid-ānanda-maya kṛṣṇera svarūpa
ataeva svarūpa-śakti haya tina rūpa

Synonyms

sat-cit-ānanda-maya — eternal bliss and knowledge; kṛṣṇera — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; svarūpa — the real transcendental form; ataeva — therefore; svarūpa-śakti — His spiritual personal potency; haya — is; tina rūpa — three forms.

Translation

“Originally Lord Kṛṣṇa is sac-cid-ānanda-vigraha, the transcendental form of eternity, bliss and knowledge; therefore His personal potency, the internal potency, has three different forms.

Text

ānandāṁśe ‘hlādinī’, sad-aṁśe ‘sandhinī’
cid-aṁśe ‘samvit’, yāre jñāna kari’ māni

Synonyms

ānanda-aṁśe — in bliss; hlādinī — the pleasure-giving potency; sat-aṁśe — in eternity; sandhinī — the creative potency; cit-aṁśe — in knowledge; samvit — the knowledge potency; yāre — which; jñāna — knowledge; kari’ — taking as; māni — I accept.

Translation

“Hlādinī is His aspect of bliss; sandhinī, of eternal existence; and samvit, of cognizance, which is also accepted as knowledge.

Text

hlādinī sandhinī samvit
tvayy ekā sarva-saṁśraye
hlāda-tāpa-karī miśrā
tvayi no guṇa-varjite

Synonyms

hlādinī — that which generates pleasure; sandhinī — the potency of existence; samvit — the potency of knowledge; tvayi — unto You; ekā — principal internal potency; sarva-saṁśraye — You are the reservoir of all potencies; hlāda — pleasure; tāpa-karī — generator of pains; miśrā — mixed; tvayi — unto You; na u — never; guṇa-varjite — You, the transcendence, the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

Translation

“ ‘My dear Lord, You are the transcendental reservoir of all transcendental qualities. Your pleasure potency, existence potency and knowledge potency are actually all one internal spiritual potency. The conditioned soul, although actually spiritual, sometimes experiences pleasure, sometimes pain and sometimes a mixture of pain and pleasure. This is due to his being touched by matter. But because You are above all material qualities, these are not found in You. Your superior spiritual potency is completely transcendental, and for You there is no such thing as relative pleasure, pleasure mixed with pain, or pain itself.’

Purport

This is a quotation from the Viṣṇu Purāṇa (1.12.69).

Text

kṛṣṇake āhlāde, tā’te nāma — ‘hlādinī’
sei śakti-dvāre sukha āsvāde āpani

Synonyms

kṛṣṇake — unto Kṛṣṇa; āhlāde — gives pleasure; te — therefore; nāma — the name; hlādinī — pleasure-giving potency; sei śakti — that potency; dvāre — by means of; sukha — happiness; āsvāde — tastes; āpani — Lord Kṛṣṇa personally.

Translation

“The potency called hlādinī gives Kṛṣṇa transcendental pleasure. Through this pleasure potency, Kṛṣṇa personally tastes all spiritual pleasure.

Text

sukha-rūpa kṛṣṇa kare sukha āsvādana
bhakta-gaṇe sukha dite ‘hlādinī’ — kāraṇa

Synonyms

sukha-rūpa — embodiment of pleasure; kṛṣṇa — Lord Kṛṣṇa; kare — does; sukha — happiness; āsvādana — tasting; bhakta-gaṇe — unto the devotees; sukha — happiness; dite — to give; hlādinī — the pleasure potency; kāraṇa — the cause.

Translation

“Lord Kṛṣṇa tastes all kinds of transcendental happiness, although He Himself is happiness personified. The pleasure relished by His pure devotees is also manifested by His pleasure potency.

Text

hlādinīra sāra aṁśa, tāra ‘prema’ nāma
ānanda-cinmaya-rasa premera ākhyāna

Synonyms

hlādinīra — of this pleasure potency; sāra — the essential; aṁśa — part; tāra — its; prema — love of God; nāma — name; ānanda — full of pleasure; cit-maya-rasa — the platform of spiritual mellows; premera — of love of Godhead; ākhyāna — the explanation.

Translation

“The most essential part of this pleasure potency is love of Godhead [prema]. Consequently, the explanation of love of Godhead is also a transcendental mellow full of pleasure.

Text

premera parama-sāra ‘mahābhāva’ jāni
sei mahābhāva-rūpā rādhā-ṭhākurāṇī

Synonyms

premera — of love of Godhead; parama-sāra — the essential part; mahā-bhāva — the transcendental ecstasy of the name mahābhāva; jāni — we know; sei — that; mahā-bhāva-rūpā — the personification of the mahābhāva transcendental ecstasy; rādhā-ṭhākurāṇī — Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.

Translation

“The essential part of love of Godhead is called mahābhāva, transcendental ecstasy, and that ecstasy is represented by Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.

Text

tayor apy ubhayor madhye
rādhikā sarvathādhikā
mahābhāva-svarūpeyaṁ
guṇair ativarīyasī

Synonyms

tayoḥ — of them; api — even; ubhayoḥ — of both (Candrāvalī and Rādhārāṇī); madhye — in the middle; rādhikā — Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; sarvathā — in every way; adhikā — greater; mahā-bhāva-svarūpā — the form of mahābhāva; iyam — this one; guṇaiḥ — with good qualities; ativarīyasī — the best of all.

Translation

“ ‘Among the gopīs of Vṛndāvana, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and another gopī are considered chief. But when we compare the gopīs, it appears that Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is most important because Her real feature expresses the highest ecstasy of love. The ecstasy of love experienced by the other gopīs cannot be compared to that of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.’

Purport

This is a quotation from Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī’s Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi (Rādhā-prakaraṇa 3).

Text

premera ‘svarūpa-deha’ — prema-vibhāvita
kṛṣṇera preyasī-śreṣṭhā jagate vidita

Synonyms

premera — love of Godhead; svarūpa-deha — actual body; prema — by love of Godhead; vibhāvita — influence; kṛṣṇera — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; preyasī — of the dear friends; śreṣṭhā — topmost; jagate — throughout the whole world; vidita — known.

Translation

“The body of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is a veritable transformation of love of Godhead; She is the dearmost friend of Kṛṣṇa, and this is known throughout the world.

Text

ānanda-cinmaya-rasa-pratibhāvitābhis
tābhir ya eva nija-rūpatayā kalābhiḥ
goloka eva nivasaty akhilātma-bhūto
govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi

Synonyms

ānanda — bliss; cit — knowledge; maya — consisting of; rasa — mellows; prati — every second; bhāvitābhiḥ — who are engrossed with; tābhiḥ — with those; yaḥ — who; eva — certainly; nija-rūpatayā — with His own form; kalābhiḥ — who are parts of portions of His pleasure potency; goloke — in Goloka Vṛndāvana; eva — certainly; nivasati — resides; akhila-ātma — as the soul of all; bhūtaḥ — who exists; govindam — Lord Govinda; ādi-puruṣam — the original personality; tam — Him; aham — I; bhajāmi — worship.

Translation

“ ‘I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, who resides in His own realm, Goloka, with Rādhā, who resembles His own spiritual figure and who embodies the ecstatic potency [hlādinī]. Their companions are Her confidantes, who embody extensions of Her bodily form and who are imbued and permeated with ever-blissful spiritual rasa.’

Purport

This is a quotation from the Brahma-saṁhitā (5.37).

Text

sei mahābhāva haya ‘cintāmaṇi-sāra’
kṛṣṇa-vāñchā pūrṇa kare ei kārya tāṅra

Synonyms

sei — that; mahā-bhāva — supreme ecstasy; haya — is; cintāmaṇi-sāra — the essence of spiritual life; kṛṣṇa-vāñchā — all the desires of Lord Kṛṣṇa; pūrṇa kare — fulfills; ei — this; kārya — business; tāṅra — Her.

Translation

“That supreme ecstasy of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is the essence of spiritual life. Her only business is to fulfill all the desires of Kṛṣṇa.

Text

‘mahābhāva-cintāmaṇi’ rādhāra svarūpa
lalitādi sakhī — tāṅra kāya-vyūha-rūpa

Synonyms

mahā-bhāva — of the topmost spiritual ecstasy; cintā-maṇi — the touchstone; rādhāra svarūpa — the transcendental form of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; lalitā-ādi sakhī — the gopī associates of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; tāṅra kāya-vyūha-rūpa — expansions of Her spiritual body.

Translation

“Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is the topmost spiritual gem, and the other gopīs — Lalitā, Viśākhā and so on — are expansions of Her spiritual body.

Text

rādhā-prati kṛṣṇa-sneha — sugandhi udvartana
tā’te ati sugandhi deha — ujjvala-varaṇa

Synonyms

rādhā-prati — toward Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; kṛṣṇa-sneha — the affection of Lord Kṛṣṇa; su-gandhi udvartana — perfumed massage; te — in that; ati — very; su-gandhi — perfumed; deha — the body; ujjvala — brilliant; varaṇa — luster.

Translation

“Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s transcendental body is brilliant in luster and full of all transcendental fragrances. Lord Kṛṣṇa’s affection for Her is like a perfumed massage.

Purport

Sugandhi udvartana refers to a paste made of several perfumes and fragrant oils. This paste is massaged all over the body, and in this way the body’s dirt and perspiration are removed. Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s body is automatically perfumed, but when Her body is massaged with the scented paste of Lord Kṛṣṇa’s affection, Her entire body is doubly perfumed and made brilliant and lustrous. This is the beginning of Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī’s description of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s transcendental body. This description (found in verses 165-181) is based on a book by Śrīla Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī known as Premāmbhoja-maranda. Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura’s translation of the original Sanskrit reads as follows:

“The love of the gopīs for Kṛṣṇa is full of transcendental ecstasy. It appears to be a brilliant jewel, and enlightened by such a transcendental jewel, Rādhārāṇī’s body is further perfumed and decorated with kuṅkuma. In the morning Her body is bathed in the nectar of compassion, in the afternoon in the nectar of youth, and in the evening in the nectar of luster itself. In this way the bathing is performed, and Her body becomes as brilliant as the cintāmaṇi jewel. She is dressed in various kinds of silken garments, one of which is Her natural shyness.

“Her beauty is more and more enhanced, being decorated with the red kuṅkuma of beauty itself and the blackish musk of conjugal love. Thus Her body is decorated with different colors. Her ornaments embody the natural symptoms of ecstasy — trembling, tears, jubilation, stunning, perspiration, faltering of the voice, bodily redness, madness and dullness. In this way Her entire body is bedecked with these nine different jewels. Over and above this, the beauty of Her body is enhanced by Her transcendental qualities, which constitute the flower garland hanging on Her body. The ecstasy of love for Kṛṣṇa is known as dhīrā and adhīrā, sober and restless. Such ecstasy constitutes the covering of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s body, and it is adorned by camphor. Her transcendental anger toward Kṛṣṇa is embodied as the arrangement of the hair on Her head, and the tilaka of Her great fortune shines on Her beautiful forehead. Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s earrings are the holy names of Kṛṣṇa, as well as the hearing of His name and fame. Her lips are always reddish due to the betel nut of ecstatic affection for Kṛṣṇa. The black ointment around Her eyes is Her tricky behavior with Kṛṣṇa brought about by love. Her joking with Kṛṣṇa and gentle smiling constitute the camphor with which She is perfumed. She sleeps in Her room with the aroma of pride, and when She lies down in Her bed, the transcendental variety of Her loving ecstasies is like a jeweled locket in the midst of Her necklace of separation. Her transcendental breasts are covered by Her sari in the form of affection and anger toward Kṛṣṇa. She has a stringed instrument known as a kacchapī-vīṇā, which is the fame and fortune that actually dries up the faces and breasts of the other gopīs. She always keeps Her hands on the shoulder of Her gopī friend, who represents Her youthful beauty, and although She is highly qualified with so many spiritual assets, She is nonetheless affected by the Cupid known as Kṛṣṇa. Thus She is defeated. Śrīla Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī offers his respectful obeisances to Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, taking a straw in his mouth. Indeed, he prays, ‘O Gāndharvikā, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, just as Lord Kṛṣṇa never rejects a surrendered soul, please don’t reject me.’ ” This is a summary translation of the Premāmbhoja-maranda, which Kavirāja Gosvāmī quotes.

Text

kāruṇyāmṛta-dhārāya snāna prathama
tāruṇyāmṛta-dhārāya snāna madhyama

Synonyms

kāruṇya-amṛta — of the nectar of mercy; dhārāya — in the shower; snāna — bath; prathama — first; tāruṇya-amṛta — of the nectar of youth; dhārāya — in the shower; snāna — bath; madhyama — in the middle.

Translation

“Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī takes Her first bath in the shower of the nectar of compassion, and She takes Her second bath in the nectar of youth.

Purport

Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī first smears Her body with the paste of Kṛṣṇa’s affection for Her. She then takes Her bath in the water of mercy. After passing the paugaṇḍa age (from five to ten years), Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī first appears as mercy. The second bath is taken at noon in the water of tāruṇyāmṛta, or the nectar of youth. This is the actual expression of Her new youthfulness.

Text

lāvaṇyāmṛta-dhārāya tad-upari snāna
nija-lajjā-śyāma-paṭṭasāṭi-paridhāna

Synonyms

lāvaṇya-amṛta-dhārāya — in the shower of the nectar of bodily luster; tat-upari — over and above that; snāna — the bath; nija — own; lajjā — shyness; śyāma — blackish; paṭṭa — silk; sāṭi — garments; paridhāna — wearing.

Translation

“After Her midday bath, Rādhārāṇī takes another bath in the nectar of bodily luster, and She puts on the garment of shyness, which is Her black silk sari.

Purport

Over and above the other baths, the bath taken in the afternoon is taken in the nectar of full beauty. This nectar represents the personal qualities of beauty and luster. Thus there are three baths in different kinds of water. Rādhārāṇī then puts on two garments — a lower and an upper garment. The upper garment is pinkish and is Her affection and attraction for Kṛṣṇa, and the lower garment, a blackish silk sari, is Her shyness.

Text

kṛṣṇa-anurāga dvitīya aruṇa-vasana
praṇaya-māna-kañculikāya vakṣa ācchādana

Synonyms

kṛṣṇa-anurāga — attraction for Kṛṣṇa; dvitīya — second; aruṇa-vasana — pinkish garment; praṇaya — of love; māna — and anger; kañculikāya — by a short blouse; vakṣa — breasts; ācchādana — covering.

Translation

“Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s affection for Kṛṣṇa is Her upper garment, which is pinkish in color. She then covers Her breasts with another garment, composed of affection and anger toward Kṛṣṇa.

Text

saundarya — kuṅkuma, sakhī-praṇaya — candana
smita-kānti — karpūra, tine — aṅge vilepana

Synonyms

saundarya — Her personal beauty; kuṅkuma — a red powder known as kuṅkuma; sakhī-praṇaya — Her love for Her associates; candana — the sandalwood pulp; smita-kānti — the sweetness of Her smile; karpūra — camphor; tine — by these three things; aṅge — on the body; vilepana — smearing.

Translation

“Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s personal beauty is the reddish powder known as kuṅkuma, Her affection for Her associates is sandalwood pulp, and the sweetness of Her smile is camphor. All these, combined together, are smeared over Her body.

Text

kṛṣṇera ujjvala-rasa — mṛgamada-bhara
sei mṛgamade vicitrita kalevara

Synonyms

kṛṣṇera — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; ujjvala-rasa — the conjugal mellow; mṛga-mada — of musk; bhara — an abundance; sei — that; mṛga-made — made by the aroma of the musk; vicitrita — decorated; kalevara — Her whole body.

Translation

“Conjugal love for Kṛṣṇa is an abundance of musk, and with that musk Her whole body is decorated.

Text

pracchanna-māna vāmya — dhammilla-vinyāsa
‘dhīrādhīrātmaka’ guṇa — aṅge paṭa-vāsa

Synonyms

pracchanna — covered; māna — anger; vāmya — craftiness; dhammilla — of the bunches of hair; vinyāsa — arrangement; dhīra-adhīra-ātmaka — consisting of jealous anger, which is sometimes expressed and sometimes suppressed; guṇa — the quality; aṅge — on the body; paṭa-vāsa — silk covering.

Translation

“Craftiness and covered anger constitute the arrangement of Her hair. The quality of anger due to jealousy is the silk garment covering Her body.

Text

rāga-tāmbūla-rāge adhara ujjvala
prema-kauṭilya — netra-yugale kajjala

Synonyms

rāga — of love; tāmbūla — of the betel nut; rāge — by the reddish color; adhara — lips; ujjvala — brilliant; prema-kauṭilya — the double dealings in loving affairs; netra-yugale — on the two eyes; kajjala — the ointment.

Translation

“Her attachment for Kṛṣṇa is the reddish color of betel nuts on Her brilliant lips. Her double-dealings in loving affairs constitute the black ointment around Her eyes.

Text

‘sūddīpta-sāttvika’ bhāva, harṣādi ‘sañcārī’
ei saba bhāva-bhūṣaṇa saba-aṅge bhari’

Synonyms

su-uddīpta-sāttvika bhāva — blazing ecstasies of goodness; harṣa-ādi — like jubilation; sañcārī — the continuously existing ecstasies; ei saba — all these; bhāva — ecstasies; bhūṣaṇa — ornaments; saba — all; aṅge — body; bhari’ — filling.

Translation

“The ornaments decorating Her body are the blazing ecstasies of goodness and the constantly existing ecstasies, headed by jubilation. All these ecstasies are the ornaments all over Her body.

Text

‘kila-kiñcitādi’-bhāva-viṁśati-bhūṣita
guṇa-śreṇī-puṣpamālā sarvāṅge pūrita

Synonyms

kila-kiñcita-ādi — headed by kila-kiñcita; bhāva — with the ecstasies; viṁśati — twenty; bhūṣita — decorated; guṇa-śreṇī — of Her attractive qualities; puṣpa-mālā — as a garland of flowers; sarva-aṅge — all over the body; pūrita — filled.

Translation

“Also ornamenting Her body are the twenty kinds of ecstatic symptoms beginning with kila-kiñcita. Her transcendental qualities constitute the flower garland hanging in fullness over Her body.

Purport

The twenty different moods headed by kila-kiñcita are described as follows. First, in connection with the body, there are bhāva (ecstasy), hāva (gestures) and helā (negligence); in relation to the self there are śobhā (beauty), kānti (luster), dīpti (brilliance), mādhurya (sweetness), pragalbhatā (impudence), audārya (magnanimity) and dhairya (patience); and in relation to nature there are līlā (pastimes), vilāsa (enjoyment), vicchitti (breaking off) and vibhrama (puzzlement). There are no English equivalents for the words kila-kiñcita, moṭṭāyita and kuṭṭamita.

Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s flower garland consists of Her qualities and is divided into mental, verbal and bodily parts. Her attitude of forgiveness and mercy is all mental. Her talks, which are very pleasing to the ear, are verbal. The bodily qualities are age, beauty, luster and grace.

Text

saubhāgya-tilaka cāru-lalāṭe ujjvala
prema-vaicittya — ratna, hṛdaya — tarala

Synonyms

saubhāgya-tilaka — the tilaka of good fortune; cāru — beautiful; lalāṭe — on the forehead; ujjvala — brilliant; prema — of love of Godhead; vaicittya — diversity; ratna — the jewel; hṛdaya — the heart; tarala — the locket.

Translation

“The tilaka of good fortune is on Her beautiful broad forehead. Her various loving affairs are a gem, and Her heart is the locket.

Text

madhya-vayasa, sakhī-skandhe kara-nyāsa
kṛṣṇalīlā-manovṛtti-sakhī āśa-pāśa

Synonyms

madhya-vayasa — adolescence; sakhī — of a friend; skandhe — on the shoulder; kara — hand; nyāsa — keeping; kṛṣṇa — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; līlā — the pastimes; manaḥ — of the mind; vṛtti — activities; sakhīgopīs; āśa-pāśa — here and there.

Translation

“Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s gopī friends are Her mental activities, which are concentrated on the pastimes of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. She keeps Her hand on the shoulder of a friend, who represents youth.

Purport

Rādhārāṇī’s eight companions (aṣṭa-sakhī) are different varieties of pleasure connected with the pastimes of Kṛṣṇa. Following those pastimes of Śrī Kṛṣṇa are other activities, which are represented by the assistants of the gopīs.

Text

nijāṅga-saurabhālaye garva-paryaṅka
tā’te vasi’ āche, sadā cinte kṛṣṇa-saṅga

Synonyms

nija-aṅga — Her personal body; saurabha-ālaye — in the abode of aroma; garva — pride; paryaṅka — bedstead; te — on that; vasi’ — lying; āche — there is; sadā — always; cinte — thinks; kṛṣṇa-saṅga — the association of Kṛṣṇa.

Translation

“Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s bedstead is pride itself, and it is situated in the abode of Her bodily aroma. She is always seated there thinking of Kṛṣṇa’s association.

Text

kṛṣṇa-nāma-guṇa-yaśa — avataṁsa kāṇe
kṛṣṇa-nāma-guṇa-yaśa-pravāha-vacane

Synonyms

kṛṣṇa — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; nāma — the holy name; guṇa — the qualities; yaśa — the fame; avataṁsa — ornaments; kāṇe — on the ear; kṛṣṇa — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; nāma — of the holy name; guṇa — of the qualities; yaśa — of the fame; pravāha — waves; vacane — in Her talking.

Translation

“Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s earrings are the name, fame and qualities of Lord Kṛṣṇa. The glories of Lord Kṛṣṇa’s name, fame and qualities are always inundating Her speech.

Text

kṛṣṇake karāya śyāma-rasa-madhu pāna
nirantara pūrṇa kare kṛṣṇera sarva-kāma

Synonyms

kṛṣṇake — unto Kṛṣṇa; karāya — She induces; śyāma-rasa — of the mellow of conjugal love; madhu — the honey; pāna — drinking; nirantara — constantly; pūrṇa — complete; kare — makes; kṛṣṇera — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; sarva-kāma — all kinds of lusty desires.

Translation

“Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī induces Kṛṣṇa to drink the honey of the conjugal relationship. She is therefore engaged in satisfying all the lusty desires of Kṛṣṇa.

Text

kṛṣṇera viśuddha-prema-ratnera ākara
anupama-guṇagaṇa-pūrṇa kalevara

Synonyms

kṛṣṇera — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; viśuddha-prema — of pure transcendental love; ratnera — of the valuable jewel; ākara — a mine; anupama — unparalleled; guṇa-gaṇa — of groups of qualities; pūrṇa — full; kalevara — transcendental body.

Translation

“Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is a mine filled with valuable jewels of love for Kṛṣṇa. Her transcendental body is complete with unparalleled spiritual qualities.

Text

kā kṛṣṇasya praṇaya-jani-bhūḥ śrīmatī rādhikaikā
kāsya preyasy anupama-guṇā rādhikaikā na cānyā
jaihmyaṁ keśe dṛśi taralatā niṣṭhuratvaṁ kuce ’syā
vāñchā-pūrtyai prabhavati hare rādhikaikā na cānyā

Synonyms

— who; kṛṣṇasya — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; praṇaya-jani-bhūḥ — the birthplace of love of Kṛṣṇa; śrīmatī — all-beautiful; rādhikā — Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; ekā — alone; — who; asya — His; preyasī — most dear friend; anupama-guṇā — having unparalleled qualities; rādhikā — Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; ekā — alone; na — not; ca — also; anyā — anyone else; jaihmyam — crookedness; keśe — in the hair; dṛśi — in the eyes; taralatā — unsteadiness; niṣṭhuratvam — firmness; kuce — in the breasts; asyāḥ — Her; vāñchā — of the desires; pūrtyai — to fulfill; prabhavati — manifests; hareḥ — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; rādhikā — Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; ekā — alone; na — not; ca anyā — anyone else.

Translation

“ ‘If one asks about the origin of love of Kṛṣṇa, the answer is that the origin is in Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī alone. Who is the most dear friend of Kṛṣṇa? The answer again is Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī alone. No one else. Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s hair is very curly, Her two eyes are always moving to and fro, and Her breasts are firm. Since all transcendental qualities are manifested in Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, She alone is able to fulfill all the desires of Kṛṣṇa. No one else.’

Purport

This is a quotation from Śrī Govinda-līlāmṛta (11.122) by Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī. It is a verse in the form of questions and answers describing the glories of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.

Text

yāṅra saubhāgya-guṇa vāñche satyabhāmā
yāṅra ṭhāñi kalā-vilāsa śikhe vraja-rāmā
yāṅra saundaryādi-guṇa vāñche lakṣmī-pārvatī
yāṅra pativratā-dharma vāñche arundhatī

Synonyms

yāṅra — whose; saubhāgya — of good fortune; guṇa — quality; vāñche — desires; satyabhāmā — Satyabhāmā, one of the queens of Kṛṣṇa; yāṅra ṭhāñi — from whom; kalā-vilāsa — the sixty-four arts; śikhe — learn; vraja-rāmā — all the gopīs in Vṛndāvana; yāṅra — whose; saundarya-ādi — such as beauty; guṇa — qualities; vāñche — desires; lakṣmī — the goddess of fortune; pārvatī — the wife of Lord Śiva; yāṅra — whose; pati-vratā — of chastity; dharma — principle; vāñche — desires; arundhatī — the wife of Vasiṣṭha Muni.

Translation

“Even Satyabhāmā, one of the queens of Śrī Kṛṣṇa, desires the fortunate position and excellent qualities of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. All the gopīs learn the art of dressing from Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, and even the goddess of fortune, Lakṣmī, and the wife of Lord Śiva, Pārvatī, desire Her beauty and qualities. Indeed, Arundhatī, the celebrated chaste wife of Vasiṣṭha, also wants to imitate the chastity and religious principles of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.

Text

yāṅra sadguṇa-gaṇane kṛṣṇa nā pāya pāra
tāṅra guṇa gaṇibe kemane jīva chāra

Synonyms

yāṅra — whose; sat-guṇa — good qualities; gaṇane — in counting; kṛṣṇa — Lord Kṛṣṇa; — not; pāya — obtains; pāra — the limit; tāṅra — Her; guṇa — qualities; gaṇibe — can count; kemane — how; jīva — a living entity; chāra — most insignificant.

Translation

“Even Lord Kṛṣṇa Himself cannot reach the limit of the transcendental qualities of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. How, then, can an insignificant living entity count them?”

Text

prabhu kahe, — jāniluṅ kṛṣṇa-rādhā-prema-tattva
śunite cāhiye duṅhāra vilāsa-mahattva

Synonyms

prabhu kahe — Lord Śrī Caitanya replied; jāniluṅ — now I have understood; kṛṣṇa — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; rādhā — of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; prema — of the loving affairs; tattva — the truth; śunite — to hear; cāhiye — I desire; duṅhāra — of both of Them; vilāsa-mahattva — the greatness of the enjoyment.

Translation

Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu replied, “Now I have come to understand the truth of the loving affairs between Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. Nonetheless, I still want to hear how both of Them gloriously enjoy such love.”

Text

rāya kahe, — kṛṣṇa haya ‘dhīra-lalita’
nirantara kāma-krīḍā — yāṅhāra carita

Synonyms

rāya kahe — Rāmānanda Rāya replied; kṛṣṇa — Lord Kṛṣṇa; haya — is; dhīra-lalita — a person who can keep his girlfriend always in subjugation by different qualities; nirantara — constantly; kāma-krīḍā — pastimes of sexual enjoyment; yāṅhāra — of whom; carita — the character.

Translation

Rāya Rāmānanda replied, “Lord Kṛṣṇa is dhīra-lalita, for He can always keep His girlfriends in a subjugated state. Thus His only business is enjoying sense gratification.

Purport

We should always remember that Kṛṣṇa’s sense gratification is never to be compared to the sense gratification of the material world. As we have already explained, Kṛṣṇa’s sense gratification is just like gold. The perverted reflection of that sense gratification found in the material world is just like iron. The purport is that Kṛṣṇa is not impersonal. He has all the desires that are manifest in the perverted reflection within this material world. However, the qualities are different — one is spiritual, and the other is material. Just as there is a difference between life and death, there is a difference between spiritual sense gratification and material sense gratification.

Text

vidagdho nava-tāruṇyaḥ
parihāsa-viśāradaḥ
niścinto dhīra-lalitaḥ
syāt prāyaḥ preyasī-vaśaḥ

Synonyms

vidagdhaḥ — clever; nava-tāruṇyaḥ — always freshly youthful; parihāsa — in joking; viśāradaḥ — expert; niścintaḥ — without anxiety; dhīra-lalitaḥ — a hero in loving affairs; syāt — is; prāyaḥ — almost always; preyasī-vaśaḥ — one who keeps his girlfriends subjugated.

Translation

“ ‘A person who is very cunning and always youthful, expert in joking and without anxiety, and who can keep his girlfriends always subjugated, is called dhīra-lalita.’

Purport

This verse is from the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (2.1.230).

Text

rātri-dina kuñje krīḍā kare rādhā-saṅge
kaiśora vayasa saphala kaila krīḍā-raṅge

Synonyms

rātri-dina — day and night; kuñje — in the gardens or bushes of Vṛndāvana; krīḍā — pastimes; kare — performs; rādhā-saṅge — with Rādhārāṇī; kaiśora — the pre-youthful; vayasa — age; sa-phala — fruitful; kaila — made; krīḍā-raṅge — taking pleasure in different pastimes.

Translation

“Day and night Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa enjoys the company of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī in the bushes of Vṛndāvana. Thus His pre-youthful age is fulfilled through His affairs with Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.

Text

vācā sūcita-śarvarī-rati-kalā-prāgalbhyayā rādhikāṁ
vrīḍā-kuñcita-locanāṁ viracayann agre sakhīnām asau
tad-vakṣoruha-citra-keli-makarī-pāṇḍitya-pāraṁ gataḥ
kaiśoraṁ saphalī-karoti kalayan kuñje vihāraṁ hariḥ

Synonyms

vācā — by speech; sūcita — revealing; śarvarī — of the night; rati — in amorous pastimes; kalā — of the portion; prāgalbhyayā — the impudence; rādhikām — Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; vrīḍā — from shame; kuñcita-locanām — having Her eyes closed; viracayan — making; agre — before; sakhīnām — Her friends; asau — that one; tat — of Her; vakṣaḥ-ruha — on the breasts; citra-keli — with variegated pastimes; makarī — in drawing dolphins; pāṇḍitya — of cleverness; pāram — the limit; gataḥ — who reached; kaiśoram — adolescence; sa-phalī-karoti — makes successful; kalayan — performing; kuñje — in the bushes; vihāram — pastimes; hariḥ — the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

Translation

“ ‘Thus Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa spoke of the sexual activities of the previous night. In this way He made Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī close Her eyes out of shyness. Taking this opportunity, Śrī Kṛṣṇa painted various types of dolphins on Her breasts. Thus He became a very expert artist for all the gopīs. During such pastimes, the Lord enjoyed the fulfillment of His youth.’ ”

Purport

This quotation is also found in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (2.1.119).

Text

prabhu kahe, — eho haya, āge kaha āra
rāya kahe, — ihā va-i buddhi-gati nāhi āra

Synonyms

prabhu kahe — Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu said; eho haya — this is all right; āge kaha āra — please go forward and say more; rāya kahe — Rāmānanda Rāya replied; ihā va-i — except this; buddhi-gati — movement of my intelligence; nāhi — there is not; āra — any more.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu said, “This is all right, but please continue.”

Purport

At that time Rāya Rāmānanda replied, “I don’t think my intelligence goes beyond this.”

Text

yebā ‘prema-vilāsa-vivarta’ eka haya
tāhā śuni’ tomāra sukha haya, ki nā haya

Synonyms

yebā — whatever; prema-vilāsa-vivarta — the resultant bewilderment or revolution in the ecstasy of loving affairs; eka haya — there is one topic; tāhā — that; śuni’ — hearing; tomāra — Your; sukha — happiness; haya — is; ki — or; — not; haya — is.

Translation

Rāya Rāmānanda then informed Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu that there was another topic, known as prema-vilāsa-vivarta. “You may hear of this from me,” Rāmānanda Rāya said, “but I do not know whether You will be happy with it or not.”

Purport

These statements are set forth for our understanding, according to Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura in his Amṛta-pravāha-bhāṣya. In essence, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu told Rāmānanda Rāya, “My dear Rāmānanda, the explanation you have given about the goal of life and the pastimes of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and Kṛṣṇa is certainly the truth. Although this is factual, you can continue telling Me more if there is anything more to say.” In reply, Rāmānanda Rāya said, “I do not think I have anything to say beyond this, but there is a topic known as prema-vilāsa-vivarta, which I may explain to You. I do not know whether it will bring You happiness or not.”

Text

eta bali’ āpana-kṛta gīta eka gāhila
preme prabhu sva-haste tāṅra mukha ācchādila

Synonyms

eta bali’ — saying this; āpana-kṛta — composed by himself; gīta — song; eka — one; gāhila — sang; preme — in love of Godhead; prabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; sva-haste — by His own hand; tāṅra — his (Rāmānanda Rāya’s); mukha — mouth; ācchādila — covered.

Translation

Saying this, Rāmānanda Rāya began to sing a song he had composed, but Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, out of the ecstasy of love of Godhead, immediately covered Rāmānanda’s mouth with His own hand.

Purport

The topics that are about to be discussed between Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and Rāmānanda Rāya cannot be understood by a materialistic poet, nor by intelligence or material perception. Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura states that the spiritual mellow can be realized only when one is situated on the transcendental platform beyond the material stage of goodness. That platform is called viśuddha-sattva (sattvaṁ viśuddhaṁ vasudeva-śabditam). Realization of the viśuddha-sattva platform is beyond the pale of the material world and is not perceived by bodily senses or mental speculation. Our identification with the gross body and subtle mind is different from spiritual understanding. Since the intelligence and mind are material, the loving affairs of Śrī Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa are beyond their perception. Sarvopādhi-vinirmuktaṁ tat-paratvena nirmalam: when we are free from all material designations and our senses are completely purified by the bhakti process, we can understand the sense activities of the Absolute Truth (hṛṣīkeṇa hṛṣīkeśa-sevanaṁ bhaktir ucyate).

The spiritual senses are beyond the material senses. A materialist can think only of the negation of material variety; he cannot understand spiritual variety. He thinks that spiritual variety simply contradicts material variety and is a negation or void, but such conceptions cannot even reach the precincts of spiritual realization. The wonderful activities of the gross body and subtle mind are always imperfect. They are below the degree of spiritual understanding and are ephemeral. The spiritual mellow is eternally wonderful and is described as pūrṇa, śuddha, nitya-mukta — that is, complete, perfectly pure and eternally liberated from all material conceptions. When we are unable to fulfill our material desires, there is certainly sorrow and confusion. This may be described as vivarta. But in spiritual life there is no sorrow, inebriety or imperfection. Śrīla Rāmānanda Rāya was expert in realizing the spiritual activities of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and Kṛṣṇa, and Rāmānanda’s spiritual experience was placed before Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu as he inquired whether the Lord approved his realization of spiritual truth.

There are three books prominent in this connection. One was written by Bhakta dāsa Bāula and is called Vivarta-vilāsa. Another was compiled by Jagadānanda Paṇḍita and is called Prema-vivarta. Śrī Rāmānanda Rāya’s book is called Prema-vilāsa-vivarta. The Vivarta-vilāsa by Bhakta dāsa Bāula is completely different from the other two books. Sometimes a university student or professor tries to study these transcendental literatures and attempts to put forth a critical analysis from the mundane view, with an end to receiving degrees like a Ph.D. Such realization is certainly different from that of Rāmānanda Rāya. If one actually wants to take a Ph.D. degree from Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and be approved by Rāmānanda Rāya, he must first become free from all material designations (sarvopādhi-vinirmuktaṁ tat-paratvena nirmalam). A person who identifies with his material body cannot understand these talks between Śrī Rāmānanda Rāya and Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Man-made religious scriptures and transcendental philosophical talks are quite different. Indeed, there is a gulf of difference between the two. This subject matter has been very diligently described by Śrīman Madhvācārya. Since material philosophers are situated in the material conception of life, they are unable to realize the spiritual prema-vilāsa-vivarta. They cannot accommodate an elephant upon a dish. Similarly, mundane speculators cannot capture the spiritual elephant within their limited conception. It is just like a frog’s trying to measure the Atlantic Ocean by imagining it so many times larger than his well. Materialistic philosophers and sahajiyās cannot understand the talks between Rāmānanda Rāya and Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu concerning the pastimes of Śrī Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. The only tendency of the impersonalists or the prākṛta-sahajiyās is to face the platform of impersonalism. They cannot understand spiritual variegatedness. Consequently, when Rāmānanda Rāya attempted to sing his own verses, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu stopped him by covering his mouth with His own hand.

Text

pahilehi rāga nayana-bhaṅge bhela
anudina bāḍhala, avadhi nā gela
nā so ramaṇa, nā hāma ramaṇī
duṅhu-mana manobhava peṣala jāni’
e sakhi, se-saba prema-kāhinī
kānu-ṭhāme kahabi vichurala jāni’
nā khoṅjaluṅ dūtī, nā khoṅjaluṅ ān
duṅhukeri milane madhya ta pāṅca-bāṇa
ab sohi virāga, tuṅhu bheli dūtī
su-purukha-premaki aichana rīti

Synonyms

pahilehi — in the beginning; rāga — attraction; nayana-bhaṅge — by activities of the eyes; bhela — there was; anu-dina — gradually, day after day; bāḍhala — increased; avadhi — limit; — not; gela — reached; — not; so — He; ramaṇa — the enjoyer; — not; hāma — I; ramaṇī — the enjoyed; duṅhu-mana — both the minds; manaḥ-bhava — the mental situation; peṣala — pressed together; jāni’ — knowing; e — this; sakhi — My dear friend; se-saba — all those; prema-kāhinī — affairs of love; kānu-ṭhāme — before Kṛṣṇa; kahabi — you will say; vichurala — He has forgotten; jāni’ — knowing; — not; khoṅjaluṅ — searched out; dūtī — a messenger; — not; khoṅjaluṅ — searched out; ān — anyone else; duṅhukeri — of both of Us; milane — by the meeting; madhya — in the middle; ta — indeed; pāṅca-bāṇa — five arrows of Cupid; ab — now; sohi — that; virāga — separation; tuṅhu — you; bheli — became; dūtī — the messenger; su-purukha — of a beautiful person; premaki — of loving affairs; aichana — such; rīti — the consequence.

Translation

“ ‘Alas, before We met there was an initial attachment between Us brought about by an exchange of glances. In this way attachment evolved. That attachment has gradually grown, and there is no limit to it. Now that attachment has become a natural sequence between Ourselves. It is not that it is due to Kṛṣṇa, the enjoyer, nor is it due to Me, for I am the enjoyed. It is not like that. This attachment was made possible by mutual meeting. This mutual exchange of attraction is known as manobhava, or Cupid. Kṛṣṇa’s mind and My mind have merged together. Now, during this time of separation, it is very difficult to explain these loving affairs. My dear friend, though Kṛṣṇa might have forgotten all these things, you can understand and bring this message to Him. But during Our first meeting there was no messenger between Us, nor did I request anyone to see Him. Indeed, Cupid’s five arrows were Our via media. Now, during this separation, that attraction has increased to another ecstatic state. My dear friend, please act as a messenger on My behalf, because if one is in love with a beautiful person, this is the consequence.’

Purport

These verses were originally composed and sung by Rāmānanda Rāya himself. Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura suggests that during the time of conjugal enjoyment, the attachment might be compared to Cupid himself. However, during the period of separation, Cupid becomes a messenger of highly elevated love. This is called prema-vilāsa-vivarta. When there is separation, conjugal enjoyment itself acts like a messenger, and that messenger was addressed by Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī as a friend. The essence of this transaction is that transcendental loving affairs are as relishable during separation as during conjugal enjoyment. When Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī was fully absorbed in love of Kṛṣṇa, She mistook a black tamāla tree for Kṛṣṇa and embraced it. Such a mistake is called prema-vilāsa-vivarta.

Text

rādhāyā bhavataś ca citta-jatunī svedair vilāpya kramād
yuñjann adri-nikuñja-kuñjara-pate nirdhūta-bheda-bhramam
citrāya svayam anvarañjayad iha brahmāṇḍa-harmyodare
bhūyobhir nava-rāga-hiṅgula-bharaiḥ śṛṅgāra-kāruḥ kṛtī

Synonyms

rādhāyāḥ — of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; bhavataḥ ca — and of You; citta-jatunī — the two minds like shellac; svedaiḥ — by perspiration; vilāpya — melting; kramāt — gradually; yuñjan — making; adri — of Govardhana Hill; nikuñja — in a solitary place for enjoyment; kuñjara-pate — O king of the elephants; nirdhūta — completely taken away; bheda-bhramam — the misunderstanding of differentiation; citrāya — for increasing the wonder; svayam — personally; anvarañjayat — colored; iha — in this world; brahmāṇḍa — of the universe; harmya-udare — within the palace; bhūyobhiḥ — by varieties of means; nava-rāga — of new attraction; hiṅgula-bharaiḥ — by the vermilion; śṛṅgāra — of loving affairs; kāruḥ — the craftsman; kṛtī — very expert.

Translation

“ ‘O my Lord, You live in the forest of Govardhana Hill, and, like the king of elephants, You are expert in the art of conjugal love. O master of the universe, Your heart and Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s heart are just like shellac and are now melted in Your spiritual perspiration. Therefore one can no longer distinguish between You and Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. Now You have mixed Your newly invoked affection, which is like vermilion, with Your melted hearts, and for the benefit of the whole world You have painted both Your hearts red within this great palace of the universe.’ ”

Purport

This verse quoted by Rāmānanda Rāya is included in Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī’s Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi (Sthāyi-bhāva-prakaraṇa 155).

Text

prabhu kahe, — ‘sādhya-vastura avadhi’ ei haya
tomāra prasāde ihā jāniluṅ niścaya

Synonyms

prabhu kahe — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu confirmed; sādhya-vastura — of the object of life; avadhi — the limit; ei — this; haya — is; tomāra — of you; prasāde — by the mercy; ihā — this; jāniluṅ — I have understood; niścaya — conclusively.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu confirmed these verses recited by Śrī Rāmānanda Rāya, saying, “This is the limit of the goal of human life. Only by your mercy have I come to understand it conclusively.

Text

‘sādhya-vastu’ ‘sādhana’ vinu keha nāhi pāya
kṛpā kari’ kaha, rāya, pābāra upāya

Synonyms

sādhya-vastu — the goal of life; sādhana vinu — without practicing the process; keha nāhi pāya — no one achieves; kṛpā kari’ — very mercifully; kaha — please explain; rāya — My dear Rāmānanda Rāya; pābāra upāya — the means of achieving.

Translation

“The goal of life cannot be achieved unless one practices the process. Now, being merciful upon Me, please explain that means by which this goal can be attained.”

Text

rāya kahe, — yei kahāo, sei kahi vāṇī
ki kahiye bhāla-manda, kichui nā jāni

Synonyms

rāya kahe — Rāmānanda Rāya replied; yei — whatever; kahāo — You make me speak; sei — that; kahi — I speak; vāṇī — message; ki — what; kahiye — I am speaking; bhāla-manda — good or bad; kichui jāni — I do not know anything.

Translation

Śrī Rāmānanda Rāya replied, “I do not know what I am saying, but You have made me speak what I have spoken, be it good or bad. I am simply repeating that message.

Text

tribhuvana-madhye aiche haya kon dhīra
ye tomāra māyā-nāṭe ha-ibeka sthira

Synonyms

tri-bhuvana-madhye — within the three worlds; aiche — so much; haya — there is; kon — who; dhīra — patient; ye — who; tomāra — Your; māyā-nāṭe — in the manipulation of different energies; ha-ibeka — will be; sthira — steady.

Translation

“Within these three worlds, who is so undisturbed that he can remain steady as You manipulate Your different energies?

Text

mora mukhe vaktā tumi, tumi hao śrotā
atyanta rahasya, śuna, sādhanera kathā

Synonyms

mora mukhe — in my mouth; vaktā — speaker; tumi — You are; tumi — You; hao — are; śrotā — the hearer; atyanta rahasya — extremely mysterious; śuna — now please hear; sādhanera kathā — the discussion of the process.

Translation

“Actually You are speaking through my mouth, and at the same time You are listening. This is very mysterious. Anyway, kindly hear the explanation of the process by which the goal can be attained.

Purport

Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī has advised us to hear about Kṛṣṇa from a Vaiṣṇava. He has explicitly forbidden us to hear from an avaiṣṇava.

avaiṣṇava-mukhodgīrṇaṁpūtaṁ hari-kathāmṛtam
śravaṇaṁ naiva kartavyaṁ
sarpocchiṣṭaṁ yathā payaḥ

Thus quoting from Padma Purāṇa, Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī warns that one should not hear anything about Kṛṣṇa from an avaiṣṇava, however great a mundane scholar he may be. Milk touched by the lips of a serpent has poisonous effects; similarly, talks about Kṛṣṇa given by an avaiṣṇava are also poisonous. However, because a Vaiṣṇava is surrendered to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, his talks are spiritually potent. In the Bhagavad-gītā (10.10) the Supreme Lord says:

teṣāṁ satata-yuktānāṁbhajatāṁ prīti-pūrvakam
dadāmi buddhi-yogaṁ taṁ
yena mām upayānti te

“To those who are constantly devoted to worshiping Me with love, I give the understanding by which they can come to Me.” When a pure Vaiṣṇava speaks, he speaks perfectly. How is this? His speech is managed by Kṛṣṇa Himself from within the heart. Śrīla Rāmānanda Rāya accepts this benediction from Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; therefore he admits that whatever he was speaking was not derived from his own intelligence. Rather, everything was coming from Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. According to the Bhagavad-gītā (15.15):

sarvasya cāhaṁ hṛdi sanniviṣṭo
mattaḥ smṛtir jñānam apohanaṁ ca
vedaiś ca sarvair aham eva vedyo
vedānta-kṛd veda-vid eva cāham

“I am seated in everyone’s heart, and from Me come remembrance, knowledge and forgetfulness. By all the Vedas, I am to be known. Indeed I am the compiler of the Vedānta, and I am the knower of the Vedas.

All intelligence emanates from the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the Supersoul within the heart of everyone. Nondevotees want to ask the Supreme Lord for sense gratification; therefore nondevotees come under the influence of māyā, the illusory energy. A devotee, however, is directed by the Supreme Personality of Godhead and comes under the influence of yogamāyā. Consequently there is a gulf of difference between statements made by a devotee and those made by a nondevotee.

Text

rādhā-kṛṣṇera līlā ei ati gūḍhatara
dāsya-vātsalyādi-bhāve nā haya gocara

Synonyms

rādhā-kṛṣṇera līlā — the pastimes of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa; ei — this is; ati — very much; gūḍhatara — more confidential; dāsya — of servitude; vātsalya-ādi — and of parental love, etc.; bhāve — in the moods; haya — is not; gocara — appreciated.

Translation

“The pastimes of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa are very confidential. They cannot be understood through the mellows of servitude, fraternity or parental affection.

Text

sabe eka sakhī-gaṇera ihāṅ adhikāra
sakhī haite haya ei līlāra vistāra

Synonyms

sabe — only; eka — one; sakhī-gaṇera — of the gopīs; ihāṅ — in this; adhikāra — qualification; sakhī — the gopīs; haite — from; haya — is; ei līlāra — of these pastimes; vistāra — the expansion.

Translation

“Actually, only the gopīs have the right to appreciate these transcendental pastimes, and only from them can these pastimes be expanded.

Text

sakhī vinā ei līlā puṣṭa nāhi haya
sakhī līlā vistāriyā, sakhī āsvādaya

Synonyms

sakhī vinā — without the gopīs; ei līlā — these pastimes; puṣṭa — nourished; nāhi haya — are never; sakhī — the gopīs; līlā — the pastimes; vistāriyā — expanding; sakhī — the gopīs; āsvādaya — taste this mellow.

Translation

“Without the gopīs, these pastimes between Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa cannot be nourished. Only by their cooperation are such pastimes broadcast. It is their business to taste the mellows.

Text

sakhī vinā ei līlāya anyera nāhi gati
sakhī-bhāve ye tāṅre kare anugati
rādhā-kṛṣṇa-kuñjasevā-sādhya sei pāya
sei sādhya pāite āra nāhika upāya

Synonyms

sakhī vinā — without the gopīs; ei līlāya — in these pastimes; anyera — of others; nāhi — there is not; gati — entrance; sakhī-bhāve — in the mood of the gopīs; ye — anyone who; tāṅre — Lord Kṛṣṇa; kare — does; anugati — following; rādhā-kṛṣṇa — of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa; kuñja-sevā — of service in the kuñjas, or gardens, of Vṛndāvana; sādhya — the goal; sei pāya — he gets; sei — that; sādhya — achievement; pāite — to receive; āra — other; nāhika — there is not; upāya — means.

Translation

“Without the help of the gopīs, one cannot enter into these pastimes. Only one who worships the Lord in the ecstasy of the gopīs, following in their footsteps, can engage in the service of Śrī Śrī Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa in the bushes of Vṛndāvana. Only then can one understand the conjugal love between Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. There is no other procedure for understanding.

Purport

The means for returning home, for going back to Godhead, is devotional service, but everyone has a different taste in the Lord’s service. One may be inclined to serve the Lord in servitude (dāsya-rasa), fraternity (sakhya-rasa) or parental love (vātsalya-rasa), but none of these can enable one to enter into the service of the Lord in conjugal love. To attain such service, one has to follow in the footsteps of the gopīs in the ecstasy of sakhī-bhāva. Then only can one understand the transcendental mellow of conjugal love.

In the Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi (Sakhī-prakaraṇa 1), Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī advises:

prema-līlā-vihārāṇāṁ
samyag vistārikā sakhī
viśrambha-ratna-peṭī ca

One who expands the conjugal love of Kṛṣṇa and His enjoyment among the gopīs is called a sakhī. Such a person is a confidential gopī in the conjugal affairs. Such assistants are like jewels in the form of Kṛṣṇa’s confidantes. The actual business of the sakhīs is described thus in Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi (Sakhī-prakaraṇa 88-91):

mithaḥ prema-guṇotkīrtistayor āsakti-kāritā
abhisāro dvayor eva
sakhyāḥ kṛṣṇe samarpaṇam
narmāśvāsana-nepathyaṁhṛdayodghāṭa-pāṭavam
chidra-saṁvṛtir etasyāḥ
paty-ādeḥ parivañcanā
śikṣā saṅgamanaṁ kālesevanaṁ vyajanādibhiḥ
tayor dvayor upālambhaḥ
sandeśa-preṣaṇaṁ tathā
nāyikā-prāṇa-saṁrakṣāprayatnādyāḥ sakhī-kriyāḥ

In the conjugal pastimes of Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa is the hero (nāyaka), and Rādhikā is the heroine (nāyikā). The first business of the gopīs is to chant the glories of both the hero and the heroine. Their second business is to gradually create a situation in which the hero may be attracted to the heroine and vice versa. Their third business is to induce both of Them to approach each other. Their fourth business is to surrender unto Kṛṣṇa, the fifth is to create a jovial atmosphere, the sixth to give Them assurance to enjoy Their pastimes, the seventh to dress and decorate both hero and heroine, the eighth to show expertise in expressing Their desires, the ninth to conceal the faults of the heroine, the tenth to cheat their respective husbands and relatives, the eleventh to educate, the twelfth to enable both the hero and heroine to meet at the proper time, the thirteenth to fan the hero and heroine, the fourteenth to sometimes reproach the hero and heroine, the fifteenth to set conversations in motion, and the sixteenth to protect the heroine by various means.

Some materialistic sahajiyās who cannot actually understand the pastimes of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa manufacture their own life-styles without referring to authority. Such sahajiyās are called sakhī-bhekī, and sometimes they are called gaura-nāgarī. They believe that the material body, which is fit to be eaten by jackals and dogs, is enjoyable for Kṛṣṇa. Consequently they artificially decorate the material body to attract Kṛṣṇa, thinking themselves sakhīs. But Kṛṣṇa is never attracted by the artificial grooming of the material body. As far as Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and Her gopīs are concerned, their bodies, homes, dresses, ornaments, endeavors and activities are all spiritual. All of these are meant to satisfy the spiritual senses of Kṛṣṇa. Indeed, they are so pleasing and endearing to Kṛṣṇa that He is subjugated by the influence of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and Her friends. They have nothing to do with anything mundane within the fourteen planetary systems of the universe. Although Kṛṣṇa is attractive to everyone, He is nonetheless attracted by the gopīs and Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.

One should not be misled by mental concoctions, supposing his material body to be perfect and deeming oneself a sakhī. This is something like ahaṅgrahopāsanā, that is, a Māyāvādī’s worship of his own body as the Supreme. Śrīla Jīva Gosvāmī has cautioned mundaners to abstain from such conceptions. He also warns that thinking oneself one of the associates of the Supreme without following in the footsteps of the gopīs is as offensive as thinking oneself the Supreme. Such thinking is an aparādha. One has to practice living in Vṛndāvana by hearing about the talks of the gopīs with Kṛṣṇa. However, one should not consider himself a gopī, for this is offensive.

Text

vibhur api sukha-rūpaḥ sva-prakāśo ’pi bhāvaḥ
kṣaṇam api na hi rādhā-kṛṣṇayor yā ṛte svāḥ
pravahati rasa-puṣṭiṁ cid-vibhūtīr iveśaḥ
śrayati na padam āsāṁ kaḥ sakhīnāṁ rasa-jñaḥ

Synonyms

vibhuḥ — all-powerful; api — although; sukha-rūpaḥ — happiness personified; sva-prakāśaḥ — self-effulgent; api — although; bhāvaḥ — the completely spiritual activities; kṣaṇam api — even for a moment; nanever; hi — certainly; rādhā-kṛṣṇayoḥ — of Śrī Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa; yāḥ — whom; ṛte — without; svāḥ — His own entourage (the gopīs); pravahati — leads to; rasa-puṣṭim — completion of the highest humor; cit-vibhūtīḥ — spiritual potencies; iva — like; īśaḥ — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; śrayati — takes shelter of; na — not; padam — the position; āsām — of them; kaḥ — who; sakhīnām — of the personal associates; rasa-jñaḥ — one who is conversant with the science of mellows.

Translation

“ ‘The pastimes of Śrī Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa are self-effulgent. They are happiness personified, unlimited and all-powerful. Even so, the spiritual humors of such pastimes are never complete without the gopīs, the Lord’s personal friends. The Supreme Personality of Godhead is never complete without His spiritual potencies; therefore unless one takes shelter of the gopīs, one cannot enter into the company of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. Who can be interested in Their spiritual pastimes without taking their shelter?’

Purport

This is a quotation from the Govinda-līlāmṛta (10.17).

Text

sakhīra svabhāva eka akathya-kathana
kṛṣṇa-saha nija-līlāya nāhi sakhīra mana

Synonyms

sakhīra — of the gopīs; svabhāva — natural inclination; eka — one; akathya — inexplicable; kathana — narration; kṛṣṇa-saha — with Kṛṣṇa; nija-līlāya — in His personal pastimes; nāhi — not; sakhīra — of the gopīs; mana — the mind.

Translation

“There is an inexplicable fact about the natural inclinations of the gopīs. The gopīs never want to enjoy themselves with Kṛṣṇa personally.

Text

kṛṣṇa saha rādhikāra līlā ye karāya
nija-sukha haite tāte koṭi sukha pāya

Synonyms

kṛṣṇa saha — with Kṛṣṇa; rādhikāra — of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; līlā — the pastimes; ye — which; karāya — they bring about; nija-sukha — personal happiness; haite — than; tāte — in that; koṭi — ten million times; sukha — the happiness; pāya — they derive.

Translation

“The happiness of the gopīs increases ten million times when they serve to engage Śrī Śrī Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa in Their transcendental pastimes.

Text

rādhāra svarūpa — kṛṣṇa-prema-kalpalatā
sakhī-gaṇa haya tāra pallava-puṣpa-pātā

Synonyms

rādhāra svarūpa — the spiritual nature of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; kṛṣṇa-prema — of love of Kṛṣṇa; kalpa-latā — a creeper; sakhī-gaṇa — the gopīs; haya — are; tāra — of that creeper; pallava — the twigs; puṣpa — flowers; pātā — and leaves.

Translation

“By nature, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is just like a creeper of love of Godhead, and the gopīs are the twigs, flowers and leaves of that creeper.

Text

kṛṣṇa-līlāmṛta yadi latāke siñcaya
nija-sukha haite pallavādyera koṭi-sukha haya

Synonyms

kṛṣṇa-līlāmṛta — the nectar of Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes; yadi — if; latāke — the creeper; siñcaya — sprinkles; nija-sukha haite — than personal happiness; pallava-ādyera — of the twigs, flowers and leaves; koṭi — ten million times; sukha — the happiness; haya — there is.

Translation

“When the nectar of Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes is sprinkled on that creeper, the happiness derived by the twigs, flowers and leaves is ten million times greater than that derived by the creeper itself.

Purport

In his Amṛta-pravāha-bhāṣya, Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura states, “Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is the creeper of love of Godhead, and the gopīs are exactly like twigs, flowers and leaves. When water is sprinkled on the creeper, the twigs, flowers and leaves indirectly receive all the benefits of the creeper itself. But water sprinkled directly on the twigs, leaves and flowers is not as effective as water sprinkled on the creeper’s root. The gopīs are not as pleased when they directly mix with Kṛṣṇa as when they serve to unite Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī with Kṛṣṇa. Their transcendental pleasure lies in uniting Them.”

Text

sakhyaḥ śrī-rādhikāyā vraja-kumuda-vidhor hlādinī-nāma-śakteḥ
sārāṁśa-prema-vallyāḥ kisalaya-dala-puṣpādi-tulyāḥ sva-tulyāḥ
iktāyāṁ kṛṣṇa-līlāmṛta-rasa-nicayair ullasantyām amuṣyāṁ
jātollāsāḥ sva-sekāc chata-guṇam adhikaṁ santi yat tan na citram

Synonyms

sakhyaḥ — friends like Lalitā and Viśākhā; śrī-rādhikāyāḥ — of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; vraja-kumuda — of the lotuslike inhabitants of Vrajabhūmi; vidhoḥ — of the moon (Kṛṣṇa); hlādinī — pleasure-giving; nāma — of the name; śakteḥ — of the potency; sāra-aṁśa — the active principle; prema-vallyāḥ — of the creeper of love of Godhead; kisalaya — newly grown; dala — leaves; puṣpa — flowers; ādi — and so on; tulyāḥ — equal to; sva-tulyāḥ — equal to Herself; siktāyām — when sprinkled; kṛṣṇa-līlā — of the pastimes of Kṛṣṇa; amṛta — of the nectar; rasa-nicayaiḥ — by drops of the juice; ullasantyām — shining; amuṣyām — of Her, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; jāta-ullāsāḥ — having awakened pleasure; sva-sekāt — than her own sprinkling; śata-guṇam — a hundred times; adhikam — more; santi — are; yat — which; tat — that; na — not; citram — wonderful.

Translation

“ ‘All the gopīs, the personal friends of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, are equal to Her. Kṛṣṇa is pleasing to the inhabitants of Vrajabhūmi, just as the moon is pleasing to the lotus flower. His pleasure-giving potency is known as āhlādinī, of which the active principle is Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. She is compared to a creeper with newly grown flowers and leaves. When the nectar of Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes is sprinkled on Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, all Her friends, the gopīs, immediately appreciate the pleasure a hundred times more than if they were sprinkled themselves. Actually this is not at all wonderful.’

Purport

This verse is also from the Govinda-līlāmṛta (10.16).

Text

yadyapi sakhīra kṛṣṇa-saṅgame nāhi mana
tathāpi rādhikā yatne karāna saṅgama

Synonyms

yadyapi — although; sakhīra — of the gopīs; kṛṣṇa-saṅgame — directly enjoying with Kṛṣṇa; nāhi — not; mana — the mind; tathāpi — still; rādhikā — Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; yatne — with great endeavor; karāna — causes; saṅgama — association with Kṛṣṇa.

Translation

“Although the gopīs, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s friends, do not desire to enjoy themselves directly with Kṛṣṇa, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī makes a great endeavor to induce Kṛṣṇa to enjoy Himself with the gopīs.

Text

nānā-cchale kṛṣṇe preri’ saṅgama karāya
ātma-kṛṣṇa-saṅga haite koṭi-sukha pāya

Synonyms

nānā-chale — under different pleas; kṛṣṇe — unto Kṛṣṇa; preri’ — sending; saṅgama — direct association; karāya — induces; ātma-kṛṣṇa-saṅga — personal association with Kṛṣṇa; haite — than; koṭi-sukha — ten million times more happiness; pāya — She gets.

Translation

“Presenting various pleas for the gopīs, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī sometimes sends the gopīs to Kṛṣṇa just to enable them to associate with Him directly. At such times, She enjoys a happiness ten million times greater than that enjoyed through direct association.

Text

anyonye viśuddha preme kare rasa puṣṭa
tāṅ-sabāra prema dekhi’ kṛṣṇa haya tuṣṭa

Synonyms

anyonye — by one another; viśuddha — transcendental; preme — in love of Godhead; kare — makes; rasa — the mellow; puṣṭa — nourished; tāṅ-sabāra — of all of them; prema — the love of Godhead; dekhi’ — seeing; kṛṣṇa — Lord Kṛṣṇa; haya — becomes; tuṣṭa — satisfied.

Translation

“The transcendental mellow is nourished by that mutual behavior in transcendental love of Godhead. When Lord Kṛṣṇa sees how the gopīs have developed pure love for Him, He becomes very satisfied.

Purport

Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and the gopīs are not interested in their personal happiness derived from association with Kṛṣṇa. Rather, they become happy by seeing one another associate with Kṛṣṇa. In this way their dealings are further nourished by love of Godhead, and seeing this, Kṛṣṇa is very pleased.

Text

sahaja gopīra prema, — nahe prākṛta kāma
kāma-krīḍā-sāmye tāra kahi ‘kāma’-nāma

Synonyms

sahaja — natural; gopīra — of the gopīs; prema — love of Godhead; nahe — is not; prākṛta — material; kāma — lust; kāma-krīḍā — lusty affairs; sāmye — in appearing equal to; tāra — of such activities; kahi — I speak; kāma-nāma — the name “lust.”

Translation

“It is to be noted that the natural characteristic of the gopīs is to love the Supreme Lord. Their lusty desire is not to be compared to material lust. Nonetheless, because their desire sometimes appears to resemble material lust, their transcendental love for Kṛṣṇa is sometimes described as lust.

Purport

Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura says that material lust should never be attributed to Kṛṣṇa, who is full of transcendental knowledge. Material lust cannot be engaged in the service of the Lord, for it is applicable to materialists, not to Kṛṣṇa. Only prema, or love of Godhead, is applicable for the satisfaction of Kṛṣṇa. Prema is full service rendered unto the Lord. The lusty affairs of the gopīs actually constitute the topmost love of Godhead because the gopīs never act for their own personal satisfaction. They are simply pleased by engaging other gopīs in the service of the Lord. The gopīs derive more transcendental pleasure from indirectly engaging other gopīs in the service of Kṛṣṇa than from engaging in His service themselves. That is the difference between material lust and love of Godhead. Lust applies to the material world, and love of Godhead applies only to Kṛṣṇa.

Text

premaiva gopa-rāmāṇāṁ
kāma ity agamat prathām
ity uddhavādayo ’py etaṁ
vāñchanti bhagavat-priyāḥ

Synonyms

premā — love of Godhead; eva — certainly; gopa-rāmāṇām — of all the gopīs; kāmaḥ — lust; iti — thus; agamat — became current; prathām — the process; iti — thus; uddhava-ādayaḥ — all devotees, headed by Uddhava; api — certainly; etam — this type of behavior; vāñchanti — desire; bhagavat-priyāḥ — those who are very, very dear to the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

Translation

“ ‘Although the dealings of the gopīs with Kṛṣṇa are on the platform of pure love of Godhead, such dealings are sometimes considered to be lusty. But because they are completely spiritual, Uddhava and all the other dearmost devotees of the Lord desire to participate in them.’

Purport

This is a quotation from the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (1.2.285).

Text

nijendriya-sukha-hetu kāmera tātparya
kṛṣṇa-sukha-tātparya gopī-bhāva-varya

Synonyms

nija-indriya — of one’s own senses; sukha — of the happiness; hetu — for the reason; kāmera — of lusty desire; tātparya — intention; kṛṣṇa — of Kṛṣṇa; sukha — the happiness; tātparya — intention; gopī-bhāva-varya — the foremost mood of the gopīs.

Translation

“Lusty desires are experienced when one is concerned with his own personal sense gratification. The mood of the gopīs is not like that. Their only desire is to satisfy the senses of Kṛṣṇa.

Text

nijendriya-sukha-vāñchā nāhi gopikāra
kṛṣṇe sukha dite kare saṅgama-vihāra

Synonyms

nija-indriya-sukha — for personal sense gratification; vāñchā — the desire; nāhi — there is not; gopikāra — of the gopīs; kṛṣṇe — unto Kṛṣṇa; sukha — happiness; dite — to give; kare — do; saṅgama-vihāra — mingling and enjoying with Kṛṣṇa.

Translation

“Among the gopīs, there is not a pinch of desire for sense gratification. Their only desire is to give pleasure to Kṛṣṇa, and this is why they mingle with Him and enjoy with Him.

Text

yat te sujāta-caraṇāmburuhaṁ staneṣu
bhītāḥ śanaiḥ priya dadhīmahi karkaśeṣu
tenāṭavīm aṭasi tad vyathate na kiṁ svit
kūrpādibhir bhramati dhīr bhavad-āyuṣāṁ naḥ

Synonyms

yat — because; te — Your; sujāta — delicate; caraṇa-ambu-ruham — lotus feet; staneṣu — on the breasts; bhītāḥ — being afraid of; śanaiḥ — very carefully; priya — O dear one; dadhīmahi — we place; karkaśeṣu — very rough and hard; tena — by such lotus feet; aṭavīm — the forest; aṭasi — You wander; tat vyathate — that are pained; na — not; kim svit — whether; kūrpa-ādibhiḥ — by the small particles of stone; bhramati — bewilders; dhīḥ — intelligence; bhavat-āyuṣām — of persons who consider You as the duration of life; naḥ — of us.

Translation

“[All the gopīs said:] ‘Dear Kṛṣṇa, we carefully hold Your delicate lotus feet upon our hard breasts. When You walk in the forest, Your soft lotus feet are pricked by small bits of stone. We fear that this is paining You. Since You are our life and soul, our minds are very much disturbed when Your lotus feet are pained.’

Purport

This is a quotation from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.31.19).

Text

sei gopī-bhāvāmṛte yāṅra lobha haya
veda-dharma-loka tyaji’ se kṛṣṇe bhajaya

Synonyms

sei — that; gopī — of the gopīs; bhāva-amṛte — in the nectar of the ecstasy; yāṅra — whose; lobha — attachment; haya — is; veda-dharma — religious principles of the Vedas; loka — popular opinion; tyaji’ — giving up; se — he; kṛṣṇe — unto Kṛṣṇa; bhajaya — renders loving service.

Translation

“One who is attracted by that ecstatic love of the gopīs does not care about popular opinion or the regulative principles of Vedic life. Rather, he completely surrenders unto Kṛṣṇa and renders service unto Him.

Text

rāgānuga-mārge tāṅre bhaje yei jana
sei-jana pāya vraje vrajendra-nandana

Synonyms

rāga-anuga — of spontaneous attachment; mārge — on the path; tāṅre — Kṛṣṇa; bhaje — worships; yei — who; jana — a person; sei-jana — that person; pāya — gets; vraje — in Vṛndāvana; vrajendra-nandana — the son of Mahārāja Nanda.

Translation

“If one worships the Lord on the path of spontaneous love and goes to Vṛndāvana, he receives the shelter of Vrajendra-nandana, the son of Nanda Mahārāja.

Purport

In all, there are sixty-four items listed for the rendering of service unto Kṛṣṇa, and these are the regulative principles enjoined in the śāstras and given by the spiritual master. One has to serve Kṛṣṇa according to these regulative principles, but if one develops spontaneous love for Kṛṣṇa as exhibited in the activities of those who live in Vrajabhūmi, one attains the platform of rāgānuga-bhakti. One who has developed this spontaneous love is eligible for elevation to the platform enjoyed by the inhabitants of Vrajabhūmi. In Vrajabhūmi, there are no regulative principles set forth for Kṛṣṇa’s service. Rather, everything is carried out in spontaneous, natural love for Kṛṣṇa. There is no question of following the principles of the Vedic system. Such principles are followed within this material world, and as long as one is on the material platform, he has to execute them. However, spontaneous love of Kṛṣṇa is transcendental. It may seem that the regulative principles are being violated, but the devotee is on the transcendental platform. Such service is called guṇātīta, or nirguṇa, for it is not contaminated by the three modes of material nature.

Text

vraja-lokera kona bhāva lañā yei bhaje
bhāva-yogya deha pāñā kṛṣṇa pāya vraje

Synonyms

vraja-lokera — of the planet known as Goloka Vṛndāvana; kona — some; bhāva — mood; lañā — accepting; yei — anyone who; bhaje — executes devotional service; bhāva-yogya — suitable for that spiritual attraction; deha — a body; pāñā — getting; kṛṣṇa — Lord Kṛṣṇa; pāya — gets; vraje — in Vṛndāvana.

Translation

“In his liberated stage the devotee is attracted by one of the five humors in the transcendental loving service of the Lord. As he continues to serve the Lord in that transcendental mood, he attains a spiritual body to serve Kṛṣṇa in Goloka Vṛndāvana.

Text

tāhāte dṛṣṭānta — upaniṣad śruti-gaṇa
rāga-mārge bhaji’ pāila vrajendra-nandana

Synonyms

tāhāte — in this matter; dṛṣṭānta — the example; upaniṣad śruti-gaṇa — the great sages known as the personified Upaniṣads or śrutis; rāga-mārge — on the path of spontaneous love; bhaji’ — worshiping; pāila — obtained; vrajendra-nandana — the lotus feet of Lord Kṛṣṇa.

Translation

“Those saintly persons who represent the Upaniṣads are vivid examples of this. By worshiping the Lord on the path of spontaneous love, they attained the lotus feet of Vrajendra-nandana, the son of Nanda Mahārāja.

Purport

In the Goloka Vṛndāvana planet, Kṛṣṇa’s servants are headed by Raktaka and Patraka. Kṛṣṇa’s friends are headed by Śrīdāmā, Subala and others. There are also elderly gopīs and the cowherd men, headed by Nanda Mahārāja, mother Yaśodā and others. All of these personalities are eternally engaged in the loving service of the Lord in accordance with their specific attachments for Kṛṣṇa. One who wants to return home to serve the Lord directly may be attracted to Kṛṣṇa as a servant, friend, father or mother. If a person continuously serves Kṛṣṇa during this life in a particular ecstasy, upon giving up the material body he attains a spiritual body suitable for serving Kṛṣṇa in terms of his particular attachment. One may serve as a servant, friend, father or mother. In the same way, one who wants to serve Kṛṣṇa in conjugal love can attain a body under the guidance of the gopīs. In this connection, the most vivid example is provided by those saintly personalities known as the śrutis, who represent the Upaniṣads. The śrutis understood that without serving Kṛṣṇa and following in the footsteps of the gopīs there would be no possibility of their entering the kingdom of God and serving Kṛṣṇa in the mood of conjugal love. Therefore they engaged in spontaneous loving service unto Kṛṣṇa and followed in the footsteps of the gopīs.

Text

nibhṛta-marun-mano ’kṣa-dṛḍha-yoga-yujo hṛdi yan
munaya upāsate tad arayo ’pi yayuḥ smaraṇāt
striya uragendra-bhoga-bhuja-daṇḍa-viṣakta-dhiyo
vayam api te samāḥ sama-dṛśo ’ṅghri-saroja-sudhāḥ

Synonyms

nibhṛta — controlled; marut — the life air; manaḥ — the mind; akṣa — senses; dṛḍha — strong; yoga — in the mystic yoga process; yujaḥ — who are engaged; hṛdi — within the heart; yat — who; munayaḥ — the great sages; upāsate — worship; tat — that; arayaḥ — the enemies; api — also; yayuḥ — obtain; smaraṇāt — from remembering; striyaḥ — the gopīs; uraga-indra — of serpents; bhoga — like the bodies; bhuja — the arms; daṇḍa — like rods; viṣakta — fastened to; dhiyaḥ — whose minds; vayam api — we also; te — Your; samāḥ — equal to them; sama-dṛśaḥ — having the same ecstatic emotions; aṅghri-saroja — of the lotus feet; sudhāḥ — the nectar.

Translation

“ ‘Great sages conquer the mind and senses by practicing the mystic yoga system and controlling the breath. Thus engaging in mystic yoga, they see the Supersoul within their hearts and ultimately enter into impersonal Brahman. But even the enemies of the Supreme Personality of Godhead attain that position simply by thinking of the Supreme Lord. However, the damsels of Vraja, the gopīs, being attracted by the beauty of Kṛṣṇa, simply wanted to embrace Him and His arms, which are like serpents. Thus the gopīs ultimately tasted the nectar of the lotus feet of the Lord. Similarly, we Upaniṣads can also taste the nectar of His lotus feet by following in the footsteps of the gopīs.’ ”

Purport

This is a quotation from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.87.23) spoken by the śrutis, the personified Vedas.

Text

‘sama-dṛśaḥ’-śabde kahe ‘sei bhāve anugati’
‘samāḥ’-śabde kahe śrutira gopī-deha-prāpti

Synonyms

sama-dṛśaḥ śabde — by the word sama-dṛśaḥ; kahe — it says; sei — that; bhāve — in the emotion; anugati — following; samāḥ śabde — by the word samāḥ; kahe — it says; śrutira — of the persons known as the śrutis; gopī-deha — the bodies of gopīs; prāpti — attainment.

Translation

“The word ‘sama-dṛśaḥ,’ mentioned in the fourth line of the previous verse, means ‘following the mood of the gopīs.’ The word ‘samāḥ’ means ‘the śrutis’ attainment of bodies like those of the gopīs.’

Text

‘aṅghri-padma-sudhā’ya kahe ‘kṛṣṇa-saṅgānanda’
vidhi-mārge nā pāiye vraje kṛṣṇa-candra

Synonyms

aṅghri-padma-sudhāya — by the nectar derived from the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa; kahe — it says; kṛṣṇa-saṅga-ānanda — transcendental bliss by the association of Kṛṣṇa; vidhi-mārge — on the path of regulative principles; pāiye — one does not get; vraje — in Goloka Vṛndāvana; kṛṣṇa-candra — Lord Kṛṣṇa.

Translation

“The word ‘aṅghri-padma-sudhā’ means ‘associating intimately with Kṛṣṇa.’ One can attain such perfection only by spontaneous love of God. One cannot obtain Kṛṣṇa in Goloka Vṛndāvana simply by serving the Lord according to regulative principles.

Text

nāyaṁ sukhāpo bhagavān
dehināṁ gopikā-sutaḥ
jñānināṁ cātma-bhūtānāṁ
yathā bhakti-matām iha

Synonyms

na — not; ayam — this Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa; sukha-āpaḥ — easily available; bhagavān — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; dehinām — for materialistic persons who have accepted the body as the self; gopikā-sutaḥ — the son of mother Yaśodā; jñāninām — for persons addicted to mental speculation; ca — and; ātma-bhūtānām — for persons performing severe austerities and penances; yathā — as; bhakti-matām — for persons engaged in spontaneous devotional service; iha — in this world.

Translation

“ ‘The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa, the son of mother Yaśodā, is accessible to those devotees engaged in spontaneous loving service, but He is not as easily accessible to mental speculators, to those striving for self-realization by severe austerities and penances, or to those who consider the body the same as the self.’

Purport

This verse from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.9.21) is spoken by Śrīla Śukadeva Gosvāmī. It appears within a passage in which he glorifies mother Yaśodā and other devotees of Kṛṣṇa by describing how they can subjugate Him with their love.

Text

ataeva gopī-bhāva kari aṅgīkāra
rātri-dina cinte rādhā-kṛṣṇera vihāra

Synonyms

ataeva — therefore; gopī-bhāva — the loving mood of the gopīs; kari — making; aṅgīkāra — acceptance; rātri-dina — day and night; cinte — one thinks; rādhā-kṛṣṇera — of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa; vihāra — the pastimes.

Translation

“Therefore one should accept the mood of the gopīs in their service. In such a transcendental mood, one should always think of the pastimes of Śrī Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa.

Text

siddha-dehe cinti’ kare tāhāṅñi sevana
sakhī-bhāve pāya rādhā-kṛṣṇera caraṇa

Synonyms

siddha-dehe — in the perfected stage; cinti’ — by remembering; kare — does; tāhāṅñi — in the spiritual world; sevana — service; sakhī-bhāve — in mood of the gopīs; pāya — gets; rādhā-kṛṣṇera — of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa; caraṇa — the lotus feet.

Translation

“After thinking of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa and Their pastimes for a long time and after getting completely free from material contamination, one is transferred to the spiritual world. There the devotee attains an opportunity to serve Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa as one of the gopīs.

Purport

Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura comments that the word siddha-deha, “perfected spiritual body,” refers to a body beyond the material gross body composed of five elements and the subtle astral body composed of mind, intelligence and false ego. In other words, one attains a completely spiritual body fit to render service to the transcendental couple Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa: sarvopādhi-vinirmuktaṁ tat-paratvena nirmalam.

When one is situated in his spiritual body, which is beyond this gross and subtle material body, he is fit to serve Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. That body is called siddha-deha. The living entity attains a particular type of gross body in accordance with his past activities and mental condition. In this life the mental condition changes in different ways, and the same living entity gets another body in the next life according to his desires. The mind, intelligence and false ego are always engaged in an attempt to dominate material nature. According to that subtle astral body, one attains a gross body to enjoy the objects of one’s desires. According to the activities of the present body, one prepares another subtle body. And according to the subtle body, one attains another gross body. This is the process of material existence. However, when one is spiritually situated and does not desire a gross or subtle body, he attains his original spiritual body. As confirmed by the Bhagavad-gītā (4.9): tyaktvā dehaṁ punar janma naiti mām eti so ’rjuna.

One is elevated to the spiritual world by the spiritual body and is situated either in Goloka Vṛndāvana or in another Vaikuṇṭha planet. In the spiritual body there are no longer material desires, and one is fully satisfied by rendering service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. This is the platform of bhakti (hṛṣīkeṇa hṛṣīkeśa-sevanaṁ bhaktir ucyate). When the spiritual body, mind and senses are completely purified, one can render service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead and His consort. In Vaikuṇṭha the consort is Lakṣmī, and in Goloka Vṛndāvana the consort is Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. In the spiritual body, free from material contamination, one can serve Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa and Lakṣmī-Nārāyaṇa. When one is thus spiritually situated, he no longer thinks of his own personal sense gratification. This spiritual body is called siddha-deha, the body by which one can render transcendental service unto Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. The process is that of engaging the transcendental senses in loving devotional service. This verse specifically mentions, sakhī-bhāve pāya rādhā-kṛṣṇera caraṇa: only transcendentally elevated persons in the mood of the gopīs can engage in the service of the lotus feet of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa.

Text

gopī-ānugatya vinā aiśvarya-jñāne
bhajileha nāhi pāya vrajendra-nandane

Synonyms

gopī-ānugatya — subservience to the gopīs; vinā — without; aiśvarya-jñāne — in the knowledge of opulence; bhajileha — if serving the Supreme Lord; nāhi — not; pāya — gets; vrajendra-nandane — the son of Mahārāja Nanda, Kṛṣṇa.

Translation

“Unless one follows in the footsteps of the gopīs, he cannot attain the service of the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa, the son of Nanda Mahārāja. If one is overcome by knowledge of the Lord’s opulence, he cannot attain the Lord’s lotus feet, even though he is engaged in devotional service.

Purport

One can worship Lakṣmī-Nārāyaṇa by the process of vidhi-mārga, worshiping the Lord with regulative principles according to the instructions of the śāstra and the spiritual master. But the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa, cannot be directly worshiped by this process. The dealings between Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa and the gopīs are devoid of the opulences of Lakṣmī-Nārāyaṇa. The process of vidhi-mārga, following the regulative principles, is utilized in the worship of Lakṣmī-Nārāyaṇa, whereas the process of spontaneous service — following in the footsteps of the gopīs, who are the denizens of Vṛndāvana — is transcendentally more advanced and is the process whereby Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa are worshiped. One cannot attain this elevated position while worshiping the Lord in His opulence. Those attracted by the conjugal love between Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa must follow in the footsteps of the gopīs. Only then is it possible to enter into the Lord’s service in Goloka Vṛndāvana and directly associate with Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa.

Text

tāhāte dṛṣṭānta — lakṣmī karila bhajana
tathāpi nā pāila vraje vrajendra-nandana

Synonyms

tāhāte — in that; dṛṣṭānta — the evidence; lakṣmī — the goddess of fortune; karila — did; bhajana — worship; tathāpi — still; — not; pāila — got; vraje — in Vṛndāvana; vrajendra-nandana — the son of Mahārāja Nanda, Kṛṣṇa.

Translation

“The unspoken example in this connection is the goddess of fortune, who worshiped Lord Kṛṣṇa in order to attain His pastimes in Vṛndāvana. But due to her opulent life-style, she could not attain the service of Kṛṣṇa in Vṛndāvana.

Text

nāyaṁ śriyo ’ṅga u nitānta-rateḥ prasādaḥ
svar-yoṣitāṁ nalina-gandha-rucāṁ kuto ’nyāḥ
rāsotsave ’sya bhuja-daṇḍa-gṛhīta-kaṇṭha-
labdhāśiṣāṁ ya udagād vraja-sundarīṇām

Synonyms

na — not; ayam — this; śriyaḥ — of the goddess of fortune; aṅge — on the chest; u — alas; nitānta-rateḥ — who is very intimately related; prasādaḥ — the favor; svaḥ — of the heavenly planets; yoṣitām — of women; nalina — of the lotus flower; gandha — having the fragrance; rucām — and bodily luster; kutaḥ — much less; anyāḥ — others; rāsa-utsave — in the festival of the rāsa dance; asya — of Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa; bhuja-daṇḍa — by the arms; gṛhīta — embraced; kaṇṭha — their necks; labdha-āśiṣām — who achieved such a blessing; yaḥ — which; udagāt — became manifest; vraja-sundarīṇām — of the beautiful gopīs, the transcendental girls of Vrajabhūmi.

Translation

“ ‘When Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa was dancing with the gopīs in the rāsa-līlā, the gopīs were embraced around the neck by the Lord’s arms. This transcendental favor was never bestowed upon the goddess of fortune or the other consorts in the spiritual world. Nor was such a thing ever imagined by the most beautiful girls in the heavenly planets, girls whose bodily luster and aroma resemble the beauty and fragrance of lotus flowers. And what to speak of worldly women, who may be very, very beautiful according to material estimation?’ ”

Purport

This is a quotation from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.47.60).

Text

eta śuni’ prabhu tāṅre kaila āliṅgana
dui jane galāgali karena krandana

Synonyms

eta śuni’ — hearing so much; prabhu — Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; tāṅre — unto Rāmānanda Rāya; kaila — did; āliṅgana — embracing; dui jane — both of them; galāgali — embracing shoulder to shoulder; karena — did; krandana — crying.

Translation

After hearing this, Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu embraced Rāmānanda Rāya, and both of them, embracing shoulder to shoulder, began to cry.

Text

ei-mata premāveśe rātri goṅāilā
prātaḥ-kāle nija-nija-kārye duṅhe gelā

Synonyms

ei-mata — in this way; prema-āveśe — in ecstatic love of Godhead; rātri — the night; goṅāilā — passed; prātaḥ-kāle — in the morning; nija-nija-kārye — to their own respective duties; duṅhe — both of them; gelā — departed.

Translation

The entire night was passed in this way, in ecstatic love of Godhead. In the morning they both departed to tend to their respective duties.

Text

vidāya-samaye prabhura caraṇe dhariyā
rāmānanda rāya kahe vinati kariyā

Synonyms

vidāya-samaye — at the point of departure; prabhura caraṇe — the lotus feet of Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; dhariyā — capturing; rāmānanda rāya — Rāmānanda Rāya; kahe — says; vinati kariyā — with great humility.

Translation

Before departing from Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, Rāmānanda Rāya fell to the ground and caught hold of the Lord’s lotus feet. He then spoke submissively as follows.

Text

‘more kṛpā karite tomāra ihāṅ āgamana
dina daśa rahi’ śodha mora duṣṭa mana

Synonyms

more — unto me; kṛpā — mercy; karite — to do; tomāra — Your; ihāṅ — here; āgamana — coming; dina daśa rahi’ — remaining at least ten days; śodha — purify; mora — my; duṣṭa mana — polluted mind.

Translation

Śrī Rāmānanda Rāya said, “You have come here just to show me Your causeless mercy. Therefore stay here for at least ten days and purify my polluted mind.

Text

tomā vinā anya nāhi jīva uddhārite
tomā vinā anya nāhi kṛṣṇa-prema dite’

Synonyms

tomā vinā — without You; anya — anyone else; nāhi — there is not; jīva — the living entity; uddhārite — to liberate; tomā vinā — without You; anya — anyone else; nāhi — there is not; kṛṣṇa-prema dite — to bestow love of Kṛṣṇa.

Translation

“But for You, there is no one who can deliver all the living entities, for You alone can deliver love of Kṛṣṇa.”

Text

prabhu kahe, — āilāṅa śuni’ tomāra guṇa
kṛṣṇa-kathā śuni, śuddha karāite mana

Synonyms

prabhu kahe — the Lord said; āilāṅa — I have come; śuni’ — hearing; tomāra — your; guṇa — qualities; kṛṣṇa-kathā — these topics about Kṛṣṇa; śuni — I hear; śuddha karāite — just to make pure; mana — the mind.

Translation

The Lord replied, “Having heard about your good qualities, I have come here. I have come to hear about Kṛṣṇa from you and thus purify My mind.

Text

yaiche śuniluṅ, taiche dekhiluṅ tomāra mahimā
rādhā-kṛṣṇa-premarasa-jñānera tumi sīmā

Synonyms

yaiche — as much; śuniluṅ — as I have heard; taiche — that much; dekhiluṅ — I have seen; tomāra mahimā — your glories; rādhā-kṛṣṇa-prema-rasa-jñānera — of transcendental knowledge about the loving affairs of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa; tumi — you; sīmā — the ultimate goal.

Translation

“Now that I have actually seen your glories, what I heard about you is confirmed. As far as the pastimes of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa in a loving mood are concerned, you are the limit of knowledge.”

Purport

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu found Rāmānanda Rāya to be the best authority in transcendental knowledge of the loving affairs between Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. In this verse the Lord actually states that Rāmānanda Rāya was the limit of this knowledge.

Text

daśa dinera kā-kathā yāvat āmi jība’
tāvat tomāra saṅga chāḍite nāriba

Synonyms

daśa dinera — of ten days; -kathā — what to speak; yāvat — as long as; āmi — I; jība’ — shall live; tāvat — that long; tomāra — of you; saṅga — the association; chāḍite — to give up; nāriba — I shall not be able.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu continued, “To say nothing of ten days, as long as I live I shall find it impossible to give up your company.

Text

nīlācale tumi-āmi thākiba eka-saṅge
sukhe goṅāiba kāla kṛṣṇa-kathā-raṅge

Synonyms

nīlācale — in Jagannātha Purī; tumi — you; āmi — I; thākiba — shall stay; eka-saṅge — together; sukhe — in happiness; goṅāiba — will pass; kāla — time; kṛṣṇa-kathā-raṅge — in the joy of talking about Kṛṣṇa.

Translation

“You and I shall remain together at Jagannātha Purī. We shall pass our time together in joy, talking about Kṛṣṇa and His pastimes.”

Text

eta bali’ duṅhe nija-nija kārye gelā
sandhyā-kāle rāya punaḥ āsiyā mililā

Synonyms

eta bali’ — saying this; duṅhe — both of them; nija-nija — their own respective; kārye — in the duties; gelā — departed; sandhyā-kāle — in the evening; rāya — Rāmānanda Rāya; punaḥ — again; āsiyā — coming there; mililā — met.

Translation

In this way they both departed to perform their respective duties. Then, in the evening, Rāmānanda Rāya returned to see Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

Text

anyonye mili’ duṅhe nibhṛte vasiyā
praśnottara-goṣṭhī kahe ānandita hañā

Synonyms

anyonye — each other; mili’ — meeting; duṅhe — both of them; nibhṛte — in a secluded place; vasiyā — sitting; praśna-uttara — of questions and answers; goṣṭhī — a discussion; kahe — spoke; ānandita — jubilant; hañā — becoming.

Translation

Thus they met time and time again, sitting in a secluded place and jubilantly discussing devotional service by the question-and-answer process.

Text

prabhu puche, rāmānanda karena uttara
ei mata sei rātre kathā paraspara

Synonyms

prabhu puche — the Lord inquires; rāmānanda — Rāya Rāmānanda; karena — gives; uttara — answers; ei mata — in this way; sei rātre — on that night; kathā — discussion; paraspara — mutual.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu asked the questions, and Śrī Rāmānanda Rāya gave the answers. In this way they were engaged in discussion throughout the night.

Text

prabhu kahe, — “kon vidyā vidyā-madhye sāra?”
rāya kahe, — “kṛṣṇa-bhakti vinā vidyā nāhi āra”

Synonyms

prabhu kahe — the Lord inquired; kon — what; vidyā — knowledge; vidyā-madhye — in the midst of knowledge; sāra — the most important; rāya kahe — Rāmānanda Rāya answered; kṛṣṇa-bhakti — devotional service to Kṛṣṇa; vinā — except; vidyā — education; nāhi — there is not; āra — any other.

Translation

On one occasion the Lord inquired, “Of all types of education, which is the most important?”

Purport

Rāmānanda Rāya replied, “No education is important other than the transcendental devotional service of Kṛṣṇa.”

texts 245 to 257 are all questions and answers between Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and Rāmānanda Rāya. In these exchanges there is an attempt to show the difference between material and spiritual existence. Education in Kṛṣṇa consciousness is always transcendental and is the best of all forms of education. Material education aims at increasing the activities of material sense gratification. Beyond material sense gratification is another negative form of knowledge called brahma-vidyā, or impersonal transcendental knowledge. But beyond that brahma-vidyā, or knowledge of the impersonal Brahman, is knowledge of devotional service to the Supreme Lord, Viṣṇu. This knowledge is higher. And higher still is devotional service to Lord Kṛṣṇa, which is the topmost form of education. According to Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (4.29.49), tat karma hari-toṣaṁ yat sā vidyā tan-matir yayā: “Work meant for pleasing the Supreme Lord is the best, and education that enhances one’s Kṛṣṇa consciousness is the best.”

Also, according to Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (7.5.23-24):

śravaṇaṁ kīrtanaṁ viṣṇoḥsmaraṇaṁ pāda-sevanam
arcanaṁ vandanaṁ dāsyaṁ
sakhyam ātma-nivedanam
iti puṁsārpitā viṣṇaubhaktiś cen nava-lakṣaṇā
kriyeta bhagavaty addhā
tan manye ’dhītam uttamam

This is a statement given by Prahlāda Mahārāja in answer to a question raised by his father. Prahlāda Mahārāja said, “To hear or chant about Lord Viṣṇu, to remember Him, to serve His lotus feet, to worship Him, to offer prayers to Him, to become His servant and His friend, to sacrifice everything for His service — all these are varieties of devotional service. One who is engaged in such activities is understood to be educated to the topmost perfection.”

Text

‘kīrti-gaṇa-madhye jīvera kon baḍa kīrti?’
‘kṛṣṇa-bhakta baliyā yāṅhāra haya khyāti’

Synonyms

kīrti-gaṇa-madhye — among glorious activities; jīvera — of the living entity; kon — which; baḍa — greatest; kīrti — glory; kṛṣṇa-bhakta — a devotee of Lord Kṛṣṇa; baliyā — as; yāṅhāra — of whom; haya — there is; khyāti — the reputation.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu then asked Rāmānanda Rāya, “Out of all glorious activities, which is the most glorious?”

Purport

Rāmānanda Rāya replied, “That person who is reputed to be a devotee of Lord Kṛṣṇa enjoys the utmost fame and glory.”

The greatest reputation a living being can have is to be a devotee of Kṛṣṇa and to act in Kṛṣṇa consciousness. In the material world everyone is trying to be famous by accumulating a large bank balance or material opulence. There is a steady competition among karmīs attempting to advance in a wealthy society. The whole world is turning in accordance with that competitive mood. But this kind of name and fame is temporary, for it lasts only as long as the temporary material body exists. One may become famous as a brahma-jñānī, an impersonalist scholar, or one may become a materially opulent person. In either case, such reputations are inferior to the reputation of Kṛṣṇa’s devotee. In the Garuḍa Purāṇa it is said:

kalau bhāgavataṁ nāmadurlabhaṁ naiva labhyate
brahma-rudra-padotkṛṣṭaṁ
guruṇā kathitaṁ mama

“In this Age of Kali, the fame of one who is known as a great devotee is very rare. However, such a position is superior to that of the great demigods like Brahmā and Mahādeva. This is the opinion of all spiritual masters.”

In the Itihāsa-samuccaya, Nārada tells Puṇḍarīka:

janmāntara-sahasreṣuyasya syād buddhir īdṛśī
dāso ’haṁ vāsudevasya
  sarvāḻ lokān samuddharet

“After many, many births, when a person realizes that he is the eternal servant of Vāsudeva, he can deliver all the worlds.”

In the Ādi Purāṇa, in a conversation between Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna, it is said, bhaktānām anugacchanti muktayaḥ śrutibhiḥ saha: “The most exalted position of liberation is given by Vedic knowledge. Everyone follows in the footsteps of the devotee.” Similarly, in the Bṛhan-nāradīya Purāṇa it is further stated, adyāpi ca muni-śreṣṭhā brahmādyā api devatāḥ: “Until now, even the great demigods like Brahmā and Lord Śiva did not know the influence of a devotee.” The Garuḍa Purāṇa similarly states:

brāhmaṇānāṁ sahasrebhyaḥsatra-yājī viśiṣyate
satra-yājī-sahasrebhyaḥ
sarva-vedānta-pāragaḥ
sarva-vedānta-vit-koṭyāviṣṇu-bhakto viśiṣyate
vaiṣṇavānāṁ sahasrebhya
ekānty eko viśiṣyate

“It is said that out of thousands of brāhmaṇas, one is qualified to perform sacrifices, and out of many thousands of such qualified brāhmaṇas expert in sacrificial offerings, one learned brāhmaṇa may have passed beyond all Vedic knowledge. He is considered the best among all these brāhmaṇas. And yet, out of thousands of such brāhmaṇas who have surpassed Vedic knowledge, one person may be a viṣṇu-bhakta, and he is most famous. Out of many thousands of such Vaiṣṇavas, one who is completely fixed in the service of Lord Kṛṣṇa is most famous. Indeed, a person who is completely devoted to the service of the Lord certainly returns home, back to Godhead.”

There is also the following statement in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (3.13.4):

śrutasya puṁsāṁ sucira-śramasya
nanv añjasā sūribhir īḍito ’rthaḥ
tat-tad-guṇānuśravaṇaṁ mukunda-
pādāravindaṁ hṛdayeṣu yeṣām

“After much hard labor, a person highly learned in Vedic literature certainly becomes very famous. However, one who is always hearing and chanting the glories of the lotus feet of Mukunda within his heart is certainly superior.”

In the Nārāyaṇa-vyūha-stava it is said:

nāhaṁ brahmāpi bhūyāsaṁtvad-bhakti-rahito hare
tvayi bhaktas tu kīṭo ’pi
bhūyāsaṁ janma-janmasu

“I do not aspire to take birth as a Brahmā if that Brahmā is not a devotee of the Lord. I shall be satisfied simply to take birth as an insect if I am given a chance to remain in the house of a devotee,”

There are many similar verses in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, especially 3.25.38, 4.24.29, 4.31.22, 7.9.24, and 10.14.30.

It was Lord Śiva who said, “I do not know the truth about Kṛṣṇa, but a devotee of Lord Kṛṣṇa knows all the truth. Out of all the devotees of Lord Kṛṣṇa, Prahlāda is the greatest.”

Above Prahlāda, the Pāṇḍavas are supposedly more advanced. Above the Pāṇḍavas are the members of the Yadu dynasty, who are even more advanced. In the Yadu dynasty, Uddhava is the furthest advanced, and above Uddhava are the damsels of Vraja-dhāma, the gopīs themselves.

In the Bṛhad-vāmana Purāṇa, Lord Brahmā tells Bhṛgu:

ṣaṣṭi-varṣa-sahasrāṇimayā taptaṁ tapaḥ purā
nanda-gopa-vraja-strīṇāṁ
pāda-reṇūpalabdhaye

“I underwent meditation and austerities for sixty thousand years just to understand the dust of the lotus feet of the gopīs. Still, I could not understand it. To say nothing of me, even Lord Śiva, Lord Śeṣa and the goddess of fortune, Lakṣmī, could not understand it.”

In the Ādi Purāṇa the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself says:

na tathā me priyatamobrahmā rudraś ca pārthiva
na ca lakṣmīr na cātmā ca
yathā gopī-jano mama

“Lord Brahmā, Lord Śiva, the goddess of fortune and even My own self are not as dear to Me as the gopīs.” Of all the gopīs, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is the topmost. Rūpa Gosvāmī and Sanātana Gosvāmī are the most exalted servitors of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Those who adhere to their service are known as rūpānuga devotees. The Caitanya-candrāmṛta (26) gives the following statement about Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī:

āstāṁ vairāgya-koṭir bhavatu śama-dama-kṣānti-maitry-ādi-koṭis
tattvānudhyāna-koṭir bhavatu bhavatu vā vaiṣṇavī bhakti-koṭiḥ
koṭy-aṁśo ’py asya na syāt tad api guṇa-gaṇo yaḥ svataḥ-siddha āste
śrīmac-caitanyacandra-priya-caraṇa-nakha-jyotir āmoda-bhājām

The qualities of one engaged in the service of Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu — such as reputation, austerities, penances and knowledge — are not to be compared to the good qualities of others. Such is the perfection of a devotee always engaged in the service of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

Text

‘sampattira madhye jīvera kon sampatti gaṇi?’
‘rādhā-kṛṣṇe prema yāṅra, sei baḍa dhanī’

Synonyms

sampattira — riches; madhye — among; jīvera — of the living entities; kon — what; sampatti — the wealth; gaṇi — we accept; rādhā-kṛṣṇe — to Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and Kṛṣṇa; prema — loving service; yāṅra — whose; sei — he; baḍa — very great; dhanī — capitalist.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu asked, “Of the many capitalists who possess great riches, who is the topmost?”

Purport

Rāmānanda Rāya replied, “He who is richest in love for Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa is the greatest capitalist.”

Everyone in this material world is attempting to acquire riches to satisfy the senses. Actually no one cares for anything other than acquiring material possessions and maintaining them. The wealthy are generally accepted as the most important personalities in this material world, but when we compare a material man of wealth to one wealthy in devotional service to Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa, the latter is found to be the greatest capitalist. According to Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.39.2):

kim alabhyaṁ bhagavatiprasanne śrī-niketane
tathāpi tat-parā rājan
na hi vāñchanti kiñcana

“What is difficult for the devotees of Lord Kṛṣṇa, who is the shelter of the goddess of fortune? Although such devotees can obtain anything, O King, they do not desire anything.”

Text

‘duḥkha-madhye kona duḥkha haya gurutara?’
‘kṛṣṇa-bhakta-viraha vinā duḥkha nāhi dekhi para’

Synonyms

duḥkha-madhye — among the miserable conditions of life; kona — what; duḥkha — misery; haya — is; gurutara — more painful; kṛṣṇa-bhakta-viraha — separation from the devotee of Lord Kṛṣṇa; vinā — besides; duḥkha — unhappiness; nāhi — there is not; dekhi — I see; para — other.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu asked, “Of all kinds of distress, what is the most painful?”

Śrī Rāmānanda Rāya replied, “Apart from separation from the devotee of Kṛṣṇa, I know of no unbearable unhappiness.”

Purport

Concerning this, the Lord states in the Vedic literature:

mām anārādhya duḥkhārtaḥkuṭumbāsakta-mānasaḥ
sat-saṅga-rahito martyo
vṛddha-sevā-paricyutaḥ

“A person who does not worship Me, who is unduly attached to family and who does not stick to devotional service must be considered a most unhappy person. Similarly, one who does not associate with Vaiṣṇavas, or who does not render service to his superior, is also a most unhappy person.”

There is also the following statement in the Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta (1.5.54):

sva-jīvanādhikaṁ prārthyaṁśrī-viṣṇu-jana-saṅgataḥ
vicchedena kṣaṇaṁ cātra
na sukhāṁśaṁ labhāmahe

“Out of all kinds of desirable things experienced in the life of a living entity, association with the devotees of the Lord is the greatest. When we are separated from a devotee even for a moment, we cannot enjoy happiness.”

Text

‘mukta-madhye kon jīva mukta kari’ māni?’
‘kṛṣṇa-prema yāṅra, sei mukta-śiromaṇi’

Synonyms

mukta-madhye — among the liberated; kon — what; jīva — living entity; mukta — liberated; kari’ — considering as; māni — we accept; kṛṣṇa-prema — one who loves Kṛṣṇa; yāṅra — of whom; sei — such a person; mukta-śiromaṇi — the topmost of all liberated souls.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu then inquired, “Out of all liberated persons, who should be accepted as the greatest?”

Purport

Rāmānanda Rāya replied, “He who has love for Kṛṣṇa has attained the topmost liberation.”

muktānām api siddhānāṁnārāyaṇa-parāyaṇaḥ
su-durlabhaḥ praśāntātmā
kotiṣv api mahā-mune

“O great sage, of the many millions of liberated persons and of the millions who have attained perfection, he who is a devotee of Lord Nārāyaṇa is very, very rare. Indeed, he is the most perfect and peaceful person.”

Text

‘gāna-madhye kona gāna — jīvera nija dharma?’
‘rādhā-kṛṣṇera prema-keli’ — yei gītera marma’

Synonyms

gāna-madhye — among songs; kona gāna — which song; jīvera — of the living entity; nija — his own; dharma — religion; rādhā-kṛṣṇera prema-keli — the loving affairs of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa; yei — which; gītera — of the song; marma — purport.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu next asked Rāmānanda Rāya, “Among many songs, which song is to be considered the actual religion of the living entity?”

Purport

Rāmānanda Rāya replied, “That song describing the loving affairs of Śrī Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa is superior to all other songs.”

anugrahāya bhaktānāṁmānuṣaṁ deham āsthitaḥ
bhajate tādṛśīḥ krīḍā
yāḥ śrutvā tat-paro bhavet

“Lord Kṛṣṇa descends apparently as a human being, and He exhibits His transcendental pastimes in Vṛndāvana so that the conditioned soul may be attracted to hearing His transcendental activities.” Nondevotees are strictly prohibited from participating in songs celebrating the loving affairs of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. Unless one is a devotee, it is very dangerous to hear the songs about the pastimes of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa that were written by Jayadeva Gosvāmī, Caṇḍīdāsa and other exalted devotees. Lord Śiva drank an ocean of poison, but one should not imitate this. One must first become a pure devotee of Lord Kṛṣṇa. Only then can one enjoy hearing the songs of Jayadeva and relish transcendental bliss. If one simply imitates the activities of Lord Śiva and drinks poison, one will certainly meet with death.

The talks between Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and Rāmānanda Rāya are meant for advanced devotees only. Those who are on the mundane platform and who study these talks in order to put forward some thesis for a Ph.D. will not be able to understand them. Instead, these conversations will have a poisonous effect.

Text

‘śreyo-madhye kona śreyaḥ jīvera haya sāra?’
‘kṛṣṇa-bhakta-saṅga vinā śreyaḥ nāhi āra’

Synonyms

śreyaḥ-madhye — among beneficial activities; kona — which; śreyaḥ — beneficial function; jīvera — of the living entity; haya — is; sāra — the essence; kṛṣṇa-bhakta-saṅga — for associating with the devotees of Lord Kṛṣṇa; vinā — except; śreyaḥ — beneficial activity; nāhi — there is not; āra — another.

Translation

Then Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu asked, “Out of all auspicious and beneficial activities, which is best for the living entity?”

Purport

Rāmānanda Rāya replied, “The only auspicious activity is association with the devotees of Kṛṣṇa.”

ata ātyantikaṁ kṣemaṁpṛcchāmo bhavato ’naghāḥ
saṁsāre ’smin kṣaṇārdho ’pi
sat-saṅgaḥ śevadhir nṛṇām

“We are asking you to tell us what is the most perfect welfare activity. I think that in this material world, association with devotees — even if it be for a moment — is the greatest treasure house for mankind.”

Text

‘kāṅhāra smaraṇa jīva karibe anukṣaṇa?’
‘kṛṣṇa’-nāma-guṇa-līlā — pradhāna smaraṇa’

Synonyms

kāṅhāra — of whom; smaraṇa — remembering; jīva — the living entity; karibe — should do; anukṣaṇa — constantly; kṛṣṇa-nāma — the holy name of Lord Kṛṣṇa; guṇa-līlā — His qualities and pastimes; pradhāna smaraṇa — most important remembrance.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu asked, “What should all living entities constantly remember?”

Purport

Rāmānanda Rāya replied, “The chief objects of remembrance are always the Lord’s holy name, qualities and pastimes.”

Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (2.2.36) states:

tasmāt sarvātmanā rājanhariḥ sarvatra sarvadā
śrotavyaḥ kīrtitavyaś ca
smartavyo bhagavān nṛṇām

Śukadeva Gosvāmī concludes, “The business of the living entity is to always remember the Supreme Personality of Godhead in every circumstance. The Lord should be heard about, glorified and remembered by all human beings.”

Text

‘dhyeya-madhye jīvera kartavya kon dhyāna?’
‘rādhā-kṛṣṇa-padāmbuja-dhyāna — pradhāna’

Synonyms

dhyeya-madhye — out of all types of meditation; jīvera — of the living entity; kartavya — the duty; kon — what; dhyāna — meditation; rādhā-kṛṣṇa-pada-ambuja — on the lotus feet of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa; dhyāna — meditation; pradhāna — is the chief.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu further inquired, “Out of many types of meditation, which is required for all living entities?”

Purport

Śrīla Rāmānanda Rāya replied, “The chief duty of every living entity is to meditate upon the lotus feet of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa.”

tasmād ekena manasābhagavān sātvatāṁ patiḥ
śrotavyaḥ kīrtitavyaś ca
dhyeyaḥ pūjyaś ca nityadā

Sūta Gosvāmī replied to the sages headed by Śaunaka, “Everyone should very attentively listen to the pastimes of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. One should glorify His activities and meditate upon Him regularly.”

Text

‘sarva tyaji’ jīvera kartavya kāhāṅ vāsa?’
‘vraja-bhūmi vṛndāvana yāhāṅ līlā-rāsa’

Synonyms

sarva — everything; tyaji’ — giving up; jīvera — of the living entity; kartavya — to be done; kāhāṅ — where; vāsa — residence; vraja-bhūmi — the land known as Vrajabhūmi; vṛndāvana — the holy place named Vṛndāvana; yāhāṅ — where; līlā-rāsa — Lord Kṛṣṇa performed His rāsa dance.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu asked, “Where should the living entity live, abandoning all other places?”

Purport

Rāmānanda Rāya replied, “He should live in the holy place known as Vṛndāvana or Vrajabhūmi, where the Lord performed His rāsa dance.”

āsām aho caraṇa-reṇu-juṣām ahaṁ syāṁ
vṛndāvane kim api gulma-latauṣadhīnām
yā dustyajaṁ sva-janam ārya-pathaṁ ca hitvā
bhejur mukunda-padavīṁ śrutibhir vimṛgyām

Uddhava said, “Let me become one of Vṛndāvana’s herbs and plants that are trampled by the gopīs, who gave up all connections with family and friends and decided to worship the lotus feet of Mukunda. Those lotus feet are sought by all great saintly persons expert in the study of Vedic literature.”

Text

‘śravaṇa-madhye jīvera kon śreṣṭha śravaṇa?’
‘rādhā-kṛṣṇa-prema-keli karṇa-rasāyana’

Synonyms

śravaṇa-madhye — out of all topics for hearing; jīvera — of the living entity; kon — what; śreṣṭha — most important; śravaṇa — topic of hearing; rādhā-kṛṣṇa-prema-keli — the loving affairs between Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa; karṇa-rasa-ayana — most pleasing to the ear.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu asked, “Out of all topics people listen to, which is best for all living entities?”

Purport

Rāmānanda Rāya replied, “Hearing about the loving affairs between Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa is most pleasing to the ear.”

vikrīḍitaṁ vraja-vadhūbhir idaṁ ca viṣṇoḥ
śraddhānvito ’nuśṛṇuyād atha varṇayed yaḥ
bhaktiṁ parāṁ bhagavati pratilabhya kāmaṁ
hṛd-rogam āśv apahinoty acireṇa dhīraḥ

“He who faithfully hears about the dealings between Lord Kṛṣṇa and the gopīs in the rāsa dance and he who describes these activities attain to the perfectional stage of devotional service and simultaneously lose material, lusty desires.”

A liberated person who hears about the loving affairs of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa is not inclined to have lusty desires. One mundane rogue once said that when the Vaiṣṇavas chant the name “Rādhā, Rādhā,” he simply remembers a barber’s wife named Rādhā. This is a practical example. Unless one is liberated, he should not try to hear about the loving affairs between Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. If one is not liberated and listens to a relation of the rāsa dance, he may remember his own mundane activities and illicit connections with some woman whose name may also be Rādhā. In the conditioned stage one should not even try to remember such things. By practicing the regulative principles, one should rise to the platform of spontaneous attraction for Kṛṣṇa. Then and only then should one hear about rādhā-kṛṣṇa-līlā. Although these affairs may be very pleasing both to conditioned and to liberated souls, the conditioned soul should not try to hear them. The talks between Rāmānanda Rāya and Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu are conducted on the platform of liberation.

Text

‘upāsyera madhye kon upāsya pradhāna?’
‘śreṣṭha upāsya — yugala ‘rādhā-kṛṣṇa’ nāma’

Synonyms

upāsyera — objects of worship; madhye — among; kon — which; upāsya — worshipable object; pradhāna — the chief; śreṣṭha — the chief; upāsya — worshipable object; yugala — the couple; rādhā-kṛṣṇa nāma — the holy name of Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa, or Hare Kṛṣṇa.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu asked, “Among all worshipable objects, which is the chief?”

Purport

Rāmānanda Rāya replied, “The chief worshipable object is the holy name of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa, the Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra.”

etāvān eva loke ’sminpuṁsāṁ dharmaḥ paraḥ smṛtaḥ
bhakti-yogo bhagavati
tan-nāma-grahaṇādibhiḥ

“In this material world the living entity’s only business is to accept the path of bhakti-yoga and chant the holy name of the Lord.”

Text

‘mukti, bhukti vāñche yei, kāhāṅ duṅhāra gati?’
‘sthāvara-deha, deva-deha yaiche avasthiti’

Synonyms

mukti — liberation; bhukti — sense enjoyment; vāñche — desires; yei — one who; kāhāṅ — where; duṅhāra — of both of them; gati — the destination; sthāvara-deha — the body of a tree; deva-deha — the body of a demigod; yaiche — just as; avasthiti — situated.

Translation

“And what is the destination of those who desire liberation and those who desire sense gratification?” Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu asked.

Purport

Rāmānanda Rāya replied, “Those who attempt to merge into the existence of the Supreme Lord will have to accept bodies like those of trees. And those who are overly inclined toward sense gratification will attain the bodies of demigods.”

Those who desire liberation by merging into the existence of God do not desire sense gratification within the material world. On the other hand, they have no information about serving the lotus feet of the Lord. Consequently, they are doomed to stand like trees for many thousands of years. Although trees are living entities, they are nonmoving. The liberated soul who merges into the existence of the Lord is no better than the trees. Trees also stand in the Lord’s existence because material energy and the Lord’s energy are the same. Similarly, the Brahman effulgence is also the energy of the Supreme Lord. It is the same whether one remains in the Brahman effulgence or in the material energy because in neither is there spiritual activity. Better situated are those who desire sense gratification and promotion to the heavenly planets. Such people want to enjoy themselves like denizens of heaven in the gardens of paradise. They at least retain their individuality in order to enjoy life. But the impersonalists, who try to lose their individuality, also lose both material and spiritual pleasure. The last destination of the Buddhist philosophers is to become just like a stone, which is immovable and has neither material nor spiritual activity. As far as the hard-working karmīs are concerned, Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam states (11.10.23):

iṣṭveha devatā yajñaiḥsvar-lokaṁ yāti yājñikaḥ
bhuñjīta deva-vat tatra
bhogān divyān nijārjitān

“After performing various sacrificial rituals for elevation to the heavenly planets, the karmīs go there and enjoy themselves with the demigods to the extent that they have obtained the results of pious activities.”

In the Bhagavad-gītā (9.20-21) Lord Kṛṣṇa states:

trai-vidyā māṁ soma-pāḥ pūta-pāpā
yajñair iṣṭvā svar-gatiṁ prārthayante
te puṇyam āsādya surendra-lokam
aśnanti divyān divi deva-bhogān
te taṁ bhuktvā svarga-lokaṁ viśālaṁ
kṣīṇe puṇye martya-lokaṁ viśanti
evaṁ trayī-dharmam anuprapannā
gatāgataṁ kāma-kāmā labhante

“Those who study the Vedas and drink soma juice, seeking the heavenly planets, worship Me indirectly. Purified of sinful reactions, they take birth on the pious, heavenly planet of Indra, where they enjoy godly delights. When they have thus enjoyed vast heavenly sense pleasure and the results of their pious activities are exhausted, they return to this mortal planet again. Thus those who seek sense enjoyment by adhering to the principles of the three Vedas achieve only repeated birth and death.”

Therefore after finishing the results of pious activities, the karmīs return to this planet in the form of rain, and they begin their life as grass and plants in the evolutionary process.

Text

arasa-jña kāka cūṣe jñāna-nimba-phale
rasa-jña kokila khāya premāmra-mukule

Synonyms

arasa-jña — those who are without mellows; kāka — the crows; cūṣe — suck; jñāna — of knowledge; nimba-phale — on the bitter nimba fruit; rasa-jña — those who enjoy transcendental mellows; kokila — the cuckoos; khāya — eat; prema-āmra-mukule — the buds of the mango of love of Godhead.

Translation

Rāmānanda Rāya continued, “Those who are devoid of all transcendental mellows are like the crows that suck the juice from the bitter fruits of the nimba tree of knowledge, whereas those who enjoy mellows are like the cuckoos who eat the buds of the mango tree of love of Godhead.”

Purport

The speculative process of empiric philosophy is as bitter as the fruit of the nimba tree. Tasting this fruit is the business of crows. In other words, the philosophical process of realizing the Absolute Truth is a process taken up by crowlike men. But the cuckoolike devotees have very sweet voices with which to chant the holy name of the Lord and taste the sweet fruit of the mango tree of love of Godhead. Such devotees relish sweet mellows with the Lord.

Text

abhāgiyā jñānī āsvādaye śuṣka jñāna
kṛṣṇa-premāmṛta pāna kare bhāgyavān

Synonyms

abhāgiyā — unfortunate; jñānī — the philosophical speculators; āsvādaye — taste; śuṣka — dry; jñāna — empiric knowledge; kṛṣṇa-prema-amṛta — the nectar of love of Kṛṣṇa; pāna — drinking; kare — do; bhāgyavān — the fortunate.

Translation

Rāmānanda Rāya concluded, “The unfortunate empiric philosophers taste the dry process of philosophical knowledge, whereas the devotees regularly drink the nectar of love of Kṛṣṇa. Therefore they are the most fortunate of all.”

Text

ei-mata dui jana kṛṣṇa-kathā-rase
nṛtya-gīta-rodane haila rātri-śeṣe

Synonyms

ei-mata — in this way; dui jana — both of them (Lord Caitanya and Rāmānanda Rāya); kṛṣṇa-kathā-rase — in the mellows of discussing topics about Kṛṣṇa; nṛtya-gīta — in dancing and chanting; rodane — in crying; haila — there was; rātri-śeṣe — the end of the night.

Translation

In this way Caitanya Mahāprabhu and Rāmānanda Rāya passed the whole night relishing the mellows of kṛṣṇa-kathā, topics about Kṛṣṇa. While they were chanting, dancing and crying, the night ended.

Text

doṅhe nija-nija-kārye calilā vihāne
sandhyā-kāle rāya āsi’ mililā āra dine

Synonyms

doṅhe — both of them; nija-nija-kārye — in their respective duties; calilā — departed; vihāne — in the morning; sandhyā-kāle — in the evening; rāya — Rāmānanda Rāya; āsi’ — coming again; mililā — met; āra — next; dine — on the day.

Translation

The next morning they both departed to perform their respective duties, but in the evening Rāmānanda Rāya returned to meet the Lord again.

Text

iṣṭa-goṣṭhī kṛṣṇa-kathā kahi’ kata-kṣaṇa
prabhu-pada dhari’ rāya kare nivedana

Synonyms

iṣṭa-goṣṭhī — spiritual discussion; kṛṣṇa-kathā — topics of Kṛṣṇa; kahi’ — talking; kata-kṣaṇa — for some time; prabhu-pada — the lotus feet of the Lord; dhari’ — catching; rāya — Rāmānanda Rāya; kare — makes; nivedana — submission.

Translation

That evening, after discussing the topics of Kṛṣṇa for some time, Rāmānanda Rāya caught hold of the lotus feet of the Lord and spoke as follows.

Text

‘kṛṣṇa-tattva’, ‘rādhā-tattva’, ‘prema-tattva-sāra’
‘rasa-tattva’ ‘līlā-tattva’ vividha prakāra

Synonyms

kṛṣṇa-tattva — the truth about Kṛṣṇa; rādhā-tattva — the truth about Rādhā; prema-tattva-sāra — the essence of Their loving affairs; rasa-tattva — the truth about transcendental mellows; līlā-tattva — the truth about the pastimes of the Lord; vividha prakāra — of different varieties.

Translation

“There is a variety of transcendental truths — the truth about Kṛṣṇa, the truth about Rādhārāṇī, the truth about Their loving affairs, the truth about transcendental humors, and the truth about the Lord’s pastimes.

Text

eta tattva mora citte kaile prakāśana
brahmāke veda yena paḍāila nārāyaṇa

Synonyms

eta tattva — all these varieties of truth; mora citte — in my heart; kaile — You did; prakāśana — manifesting; brahmāke — unto Lord Brahmā; veda — the Vedic knowledge; yena — as; paḍāila — taught; nārāyaṇa — the Supreme Lord.

Translation

“You have manifested all these transcendental truths in my heart. This is exactly the way Nārāyaṇa educated Lord Brahmā.”

Purport

The heart of Brahmā was enlightened by the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This is Vedic information given in the Śvetāśvatara Upaniṣad (6.18):

yo brahmāṇaṁ vidadhāti pūrvaṁ
yo vai vedāṁś ca prahiṇoti tasmai
taṁ ha devam ātma-buddhi-prakāśaṁ
mumukṣur vai śaraṇam ahaṁ prapadye

“Because I desire liberation, let me surrender unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who first enlightened Lord Brahmā in Vedic knowledge through Lord Brahmā’s heart. The Lord is the original source of all enlightenment and spiritual advancement.” In this connection one may also refer to Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam 2.9.30-35, 11.14.3, 12.4.40 and 12.13.19.

Text

antaryāmī īśvarera ei rīti haye
bāhire nā kahe, vastu prakāśe hṛdaye

Synonyms

antaryāmī — the Supersoul; īśvarera — of the Personality of Godhead; ei — this; rīti — the system; haye — is; bāhire — externally; kahe — does not speak; vastu — the facts; prakāśe — manifests; hṛdaye — within the heart.

Translation

Rāmānanda Rāya continued, “The Supersoul within everyone’s heart speaks not externally but from within. He instructs the devotees in all respects, and that is His way of instruction.”

Purport

Here Śrī Rāmānanda Rāya admits that Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu is the Supersoul. It is the Supersoul that inspires the devotee; therefore He is the original source of the Gāyatrī mantra, which states, oṁ bhūr bhuvaḥ svaḥ tat savitur vareṇyaṁ bhargo devasya dhīmahi dhiyo yo naḥ pracodayāt. Savitā is the original source of all intelligence. That Savitā is Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu. This is confirmed in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (2.4.22):

pracoditā yena purā sarasvatī
vitanvatājasya satīṁ smṛtiṁ hṛdi
sva-lakṣaṇā prādurabhūt kilāsyataḥ
sa me ṛṣīṇām ṛṣabhaḥ prasīdatām

“May the Lord, who in the beginning of the creation amplified the potent knowledge of Brahmā from within his heart and inspired him with full knowledge of creation and His own self, and who appeared to be generated from the mouth of Brahmā, be pleased with me.” This was spoken by Śukadeva Gosvāmī when he invoked the blessing of the Supreme Personality of Godhead before delivering Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam to Mahārāja Parīkṣit.

Text

janmādy asya yato ’nvayād itarataś cārtheṣv abhijñaḥ sva-rāṭ
tene brahma hṛdā ya ādi-kavaye muhyanti yat sūrayaḥ
tejo-vāri-mṛdāṁ yathā vinimayo yatra tri-sargo ’mṛṣā
dhāmnā svena sadā nirasta-kuhakaṁ satyaṁ paraṁ dhīmahi

Synonyms

janma-ādi — creation, maintenance and dissolution; asya — of this (the universe); yataḥ — from whom; anvayāt — directly from the spiritual connection; itarataḥ — indirectly from the lack of material contact; ca — also; artheṣu — in all affairs; abhijñaḥ — perfectly cognizant; sva-rāṭ — independent; tene — imparted; brahma — the Absolute Truth; hṛdā — through the heart; yaḥ — who; ādi-kavaye — unto Lord Brahmā; muhyanti — are bewildered; yat — in whom; sūrayaḥ — great personalities like Lord Brahmā and other demigods or great brāhmaṇas; tejaḥ-vāri-mṛdām — of fire, water and earth; yathā — as; vinimayaḥ — the exchange; yatra — in whom; tri-sargaḥ — the material creation of three modes; amṛṣā — factual; dhāmnā — with the abode; svena — His own personal; sadā — always; nirasta-kuhakam — devoid of all illusion; satyam — the truth; param — absolute; dhīmahi — let us meditate upon.

Translation

“ ‘O my Lord, Śrī Kṛṣṇa, son of Vasudeva, O all-pervading Personality of Godhead, I offer my respectful obeisances unto You. I meditate upon Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa because He is the Absolute Truth and the primeval cause of all causes of the creation, sustenance and destruction of the manifested universes. He is directly and indirectly conscious of all manifestations, and He is independent because there is no other cause beyond Him. It is He only who first imparted the Vedic knowledge unto the heart of Brahmājī, the original living being. By Him even the great sages and demigods are placed into illusion, as one is bewildered by the illusory representations of water seen in fire, or land seen on water. Only because of Him do the material universes, temporarily manifested by the reactions of the three modes of nature, appear factual, although they are unreal. I therefore meditate upon Him, Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa, who is eternally existent in the transcendental abode, which is forever free from the illusory representations of the material world. I meditate upon Him, for He is the Absolute Truth.’ ”

Purport

This is the opening invocation of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (1.1.1).

Text

eka saṁśaya mora āchaye hṛdaye
kṛpā kari’ kaha more tāhāra niścaye

Synonyms

eka saṁśaya — one doubt; mora — my; āchaye — there is; hṛdaye — in the heart; kṛpā kari’ — being merciful; kaha — please say; more — unto me; tāhāra — of that; niścaye — the ascertainment.

Translation

Rāmānanda Rāya then said that he had but one doubt within his heart, and he petitioned the Lord, “Please be merciful upon me and just remove my doubt.”

Text

pahile dekhiluṅ tomāra sannyāsi-svarūpa
ebe tomā dekhi muñi śyāma-gopa-rūpa

Synonyms

pahile — in the beginning; dekhiluṅ — I saw; tomāra — Your; sannyāsi-svarūpa — form as a person in the renounced order; ebe — now; tomā — You; dekhi — see; muñi — I; śyāma-gopa-rūpa — form as Śyāmasundara, the cowherd boy.

Translation

Rāmānanda Rāya then told Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, “At first I saw You appear like a sannyāsī, but now I am seeing You as Śyāmasundara, the cowherd boy.

Text

tomāra sammukhe dekhi kāñcana-pañcālikā
tāṅra gaura-kāntye tomāra sarva aṅga ḍhākā

Synonyms

tomāra — of You; sammukhe — in front; dekhi — I see; kāñcana-pañcālikā — a doll made of gold; tāṅra — of it; gaura-kāntye — by a golden complexion; tomāra — Your; sarva — all; aṅga — body; ḍhākā — covering.

Translation

“I now see You appearing like a golden doll, and Your entire body appears covered by a golden luster.

Purport

Śyāmasundara is blackish, but here Rāmānanda Rāya says that he saw Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu appear golden. The lustrous body of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was covered by the bodily complexion of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.

Text

tāhāte prakaṭa dekhoṅ sa-vaṁśī vadana
nānā bhāve cañcala tāhe kamala-nayana

Synonyms

tāhāte — in that; prakaṭa — manifested; dekhoṅ — I see; sa-vaṁśī — with the flute; vadana — the face; nānā bhāve — in various modes; cañcala — restless; tāhe — in that; kamala-nayana — the lotus eyes.

Translation

“I see that You are holding a flute to Your mouth, and Your lotus eyes are moving very restlessly due to various ecstasies.

Text

ei-mata tomā dekhi’ haya camatkāra
akapaṭe kaha, prabhu, kāraṇa ihāra

Synonyms

ei-mata — in this way; tomā — You; dekhi’ — seeing; haya — there is; camatkāra — wonder; akapaṭe — without duplicity; kaha — please tell; prabhu — my Lord; kāraṇa — the cause; ihāra — of this.

Translation

“I actually see You in this way, and this is very wonderful. My Lord, please tell me without duplicity what is causing this.”

Text

prabhu kahe, — kṛṣṇe tomāra gāḍha-prema haya
premāra svabhāva ei jāniha niścaya

Synonyms

prabhu kahe — the Lord replied; kṛṣṇe — unto Kṛṣṇa; tomāra — your; gāḍha-prema — deep love; haya — there is; premāra — of such transcendental love; svabhāva — the nature; ei — this; jāniha — please know; niścaya — certainly.

Translation

Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu replied, “You have a deep love for Kṛṣṇa, and one who has such deep ecstatic love for the Lord naturally sees things in such a way. Please take this from Me to be certain.

Text

mahā-bhāgavata dekhe sthāvara-jaṅgama
tāhāṅ tāhāṅ haya tāṅra śrī-kṛṣṇa-sphuraṇa

Synonyms

mahā-bhāgavata — a first-class advanced devotee; dekhe — sees; sthāvara-jaṅgama — the movable and inert; tāhāṅ tāhāṅ — here and there; haya — is; tāṅra — his; śrī-kṛṣṇa-sphuraṇa — manifestation of Lord Kṛṣṇa.

Translation

“A devotee advanced on the spiritual platform sees everything movable and inert as the Supreme Lord. For him, everything he sees here and there is but a manifestation of Lord Kṛṣṇa.

Text

sthāvara-jaṅgama dekhe, nā dekhe tāra mūrti
sarvatra haya nija iṣṭa-deva-sphūrti

Synonyms

sthāvara-jaṅgama — movable and inert; dekhe — he sees; — not; dekhe — sees; tāra — its; mūrti — form; sarvatra — everywhere; haya — there is; nija — his own; iṣṭa-deva — worshipable Lord; sphūrti — manifestation.

Translation

“The mahā-bhāgavata, the advanced devotee, certainly sees everything mobile and immobile, but he does not exactly see their forms. Rather, everywhere he immediately sees manifest the form of the Supreme Lord.”

Purport

Due to his deep ecstatic love for Kṛṣṇa, the mahā-bhāgavata sees Kṛṣṇa everywhere and nothing else. This is confirmed in the Brahma-saṁhitā (5.38): premāñjana-cchurita-bhakti-vilocanena santaḥ sadaiva hṛdayeṣu vilokayanti.

As soon as a devotee sees something — be it movable or inert — he immediately remembers Kṛṣṇa. An advanced devotee is advanced in knowledge. This knowledge is very natural to a devotee, for he has already read in the Bhagavad-gītā how to awaken Kṛṣṇa consciousness. According to Lord Kṛṣṇa in the Bhagavad-gītā (7.8):

raso ’ham apsu kaunteyaprabhāsmi śaśi-sūryayoḥ
praṇavaḥ sarva-vedeṣu
śabdaḥ khe pauruṣaṁ nṛṣu

“O son of Kuntī [Arjuna], I am the taste of water, the light of the sun and the moon, the syllable oṁ in the Vedic mantras; I am the sound in ether and ability in man.”

Thus when a devotee drinks water or any other liquid, he immediately remembers Kṛṣṇa. For a devotee there is no difficulty in awakening Kṛṣṇa consciousness twenty-four hours a day. Caitanya Mahāprabhu therefore says here:

sthāvara jaṅgama dekhe nā dekhe tāra mūrti
sarvatra haya nija iṣṭa-deva-sphūrti

A saintly person, an advanced devotee, sees Kṛṣṇa twenty-four hours a day and nothing else. As far as movable and inert things are concerned, a devotee sees them all as transformations of Kṛṣṇa’s energy. As Lord Kṛṣṇa states in the Bhagavad-gītā (7.4):

bhūmir āpo ’nalo vāyuḥkhaṁ mano buddhir eva ca
ahaṅkāra itīyaṁ me
bhinnā prakṛtir aṣṭadhā

“Earth, water, fire, air, ether, mind, intelligence and false ego — all together these eight constitute My separated material energies.”

Actually nothing is separate from Kṛṣṇa. When a devotee sees a tree, he knows that the tree is a combination of two energies — material and spiritual. The inferior energy, which is material, forms the body of the tree; however, within the tree is the living entity, the spiritual spark, which is part and parcel of Kṛṣṇa. This is the superior energy of Kṛṣṇa within this world. Whatever living thing we see is simply a combination of these two energies. When an advanced devotee thinks of these energies, he immediately understands that they are manifestations of the Supreme Lord. As soon as we see the sun rise in the morning, we arise and set about doing our morning duties. Similarly, as soon as a devotee sees the energy of the Lord, he immediately remembers Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa. This is explained in this verse: sarvatra haya nija iṣṭa-deva-sphūrti.

A devotee who has purified his existence through devotional service sees only Kṛṣṇa in every step of life. This is also explained in the next verse, which is a quotation from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (11.2.45).

Text

sarva-bhūteṣu yaḥ paśyed
bhagavad-bhāvam ātmanaḥ
bhūtāni bhagavaty ātmany
eṣa bhāgavatottamaḥ

Synonyms

sarva-bhūteṣu — in all objects (in matter, spirit and combinations of matter and spirit); yaḥ — anyone who; paśyet — sees; bhagavat-bhāvam — the ability to be engaged in the service of the Lord; ātmanaḥ — of the supreme spirit soul or the Transcendence beyond the material conception of life; bhūtāni — all beings; bhagavati — in the Supreme Personality of Godhead; ātmani — the basic principle of all existence; eṣaḥ — this; bhāgavata-uttamaḥ — a person advanced in devotional service.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu continued, “ ‘A person advanced in devotional service sees within everything the soul of souls, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Consequently he always sees the form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead as the cause of all causes and understands that all things are situated in Him.’

Text

vana-latās tarava ātmani viṣṇuṁ
vyañjayantya iva puṣpa-phalāḍhyāḥ
praṇata-bhāra-viṭapā madhu-dhārāḥ
prema-hṛṣṭa-tanavo vavṛṣuḥ sma

Synonyms

vana-latāḥ — the herbs and plants; taravaḥ — the trees; ātmani — in the Supreme Soul; viṣṇum — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; vyañjayantyaḥ — manifesting; iva — like; puṣpa-phala-āḍhyāḥ — filled with luxuriant fruits and flowers; praṇata-bhāra — bowed down because of loads; viṭapāḥ — the trees; madhu-dhārāḥ — showers of honey; prema-hṛṣṭa — inspired by love of Godhead; tanavaḥ — whose bodies; vavṛṣuḥ — constantly rained; sma — certainly.

Translation

“ ‘The plants, creepers and trees were full of fruits and flowers due to ecstatic love of Kṛṣṇa. Indeed, being so full, they were bowing down. They were inspired by such deep love for Kṛṣṇa that they were constantly pouring showers of honey. In this way the gopīs saw all the forests of Vṛndāvana.’ ”

Purport

This verse (Bhāg. 10.35.9) is one of the songs the gopīs sang during Kṛṣṇa’s absence. In Kṛṣṇa’s absence the gopīs were always absorbed in thought of Him. Similarly, the mahā-bhāgavata, the advanced devotee, sees everything as potentially serving the Lord. Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī states:

prāpañcikatayā buddhyāhari-sambandhi-vastunaḥ
mumukṣubhiḥ parityāgo
vairāgyaṁ phalgu kathyate

(Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu 1.2.126)

The advanced devotee does not see anything as unconnected with Kṛṣṇa. Unlike the Māyāvādī philosophers, a devotee does not see the material world as false, because he knows that everything in the material world is connected to Kṛṣṇa. A devotee knows how to utilize everything in the service of the Lord, and this is characteristic of the mahā-bhāgavata. The gopīs saw the plants, creepers and forest trees loaded with fruits and flowers and ready to serve Kṛṣṇa. In this way they immediately remembered their worshipable Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa. They did not simply see plants, creepers and trees the way a mundaner sees them.

Text

rādhā-kṛṣṇe tomāra mahā-prema haya
yāhāṅ tāhāṅ rādhā-kṛṣṇa tomāre sphuraya

Synonyms

rādhā-kṛṣṇe — unto Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa; tomāra — your; mahā-prema — great love; haya — there is; yāhāṅ tāhāṅ — anywhere and everywhere; rādhā-kṛṣṇa — Lord Kṛṣṇa and Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; tomāre — unto you; sphuraya — appear.

Translation

Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu continued, “My dear Rāya, you are an advanced devotee and are always filled with ecstatic love for Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. Therefore whatever you see — anywhere and everywhere — simply awakens your Kṛṣṇa consciousness.”

Text

rāya kahe, — prabhu tumi chāḍa bhāri-bhūri
mora āge nija-rūpa nā kariha curi

Synonyms

rāya kahe — Rāmānanda Rāya replied; prabhu — my Lord; tumi — You; chāḍa — give up; bhāri-bhūri — these grave talks; mora — of me; āge — in front; nija-rūpa — Your real form; — not; kariha — do; curi — stealing.

Translation

Rāmānanda Rāya replied, “My dear Lord, please give up all these serious talks. Please do not conceal Your real form from me.”

Text

rādhikāra bhāva-kānti kari’ aṅgīkāra
nija-rasa āsvādite kariyācha avatāra

Synonyms

rādhikāra — of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; bhāva-kānti — ecstatic love and luster; kari’ — making; aṅgīkāra — acceptance; nija-rasa — Your own transcendental mellow; āsvādite — to taste; kariyācha — You have made; avatāra — incarnation.

Translation

Rāmānanda Rāya continued, “My dear Lord, I can understand that You have assumed the ecstasy and bodily complexion of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. By accepting this, You are tasting Your own personal transcendental humor and have therefore appeared as Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

Text

nija-gūḍha-kārya tomāra — prema āsvādana
ānuṣaṅge prema-maya kaile tribhuvana

Synonyms

nija-gūḍha-kārya — own confidential business; tomāra — Your; prema — transcendental love; āsvādana — tasting; ānuṣaṅge — simultaneously; prema-maya — transformed into love of God; kaile — You have made; tri-bhuvana — all the world.

Translation

“My dear Lord, You have descended in this incarnation of Lord Caitanya for Your own personal reasons. You have come to taste Your own spiritual bliss, and at the same time You are transforming the whole world by spreading the ecstasy of love of Godhead.

Text

āpane āile more karite uddhāra
ebe kapaṭa kara, — tomāra kona vyavahāra

Synonyms

āpane — personally; āile — You have come; more — unto me; karite — to make; uddhāra — deliverance; ebe — now; kapaṭa — duplicity; kara — You do; tomāra — Your; kona — what; vyavahāra — behavior.

Translation

“My dear Lord, by Your causeless mercy You have appeared before me to grant me liberation. Now You are playing in a duplicitous way. What is the reason for this behavior?”

Text

tabe hāsi’ tāṅre prabhu dekhāila svarūpa
‘rasa-rāja’, ‘mahābhāva’ — dui eka rūpa

Synonyms

tabe — therefore; hāsi’ — smiling; tāṅre — unto him (Rāmānanda Rāya); prabhu — the Lord; dekhāila — showed; svarūpa — His personal form; rasa-rāja — the king of all transcendental humors; mahā-bhāva — the condition of ecstatic love; dui — two; eka — one; rūpa — form.

Translation

Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa is the reservoir of all pleasure, and Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is the personification of ecstatic love of Godhead. These two forms had combined as one in Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. This being the case, Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu revealed His real form to Rāmānanda Rāya.

Purport

This is described as rādhā-bhāva-dyuti-suvalitaṁ naumi kṛṣṇa-svarūpam. Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa was absorbed in the features of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. This was disclosed to Rāmānanda Rāya when he saw Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. An advanced devotee can understand śrī-kṛṣṇa-caitanya, rādhā-kṛṣṇa nahe anya. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, being a combination of Kṛṣṇa and Rādhā, is nondifferent from Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa combined. This is explained by Svarūpa Dāmodara Gosvāmī:

rādhā kṛṣṇa-praṇaya-vikṛtir hlādinī śaktir asmād
ekātmānāv api bhuvi purā deha-bhedaṁ gatau tau
caitanyākhyaṁ prakaṭam adhunā tad-dvayaṁ caikyam āptaṁ
rādhā-bhāva-dyuti-suvalitaṁ naumi kṛṣṇa-svarūpam

(Cc. Ādi 1.5)

Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa is one. Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa is Kṛṣṇa and Kṛṣṇa’s pleasure potency combined. When Kṛṣṇa exhibits His pleasure potency, He appears to be two — Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. Otherwise, Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa are one. This oneness may be perceived by advanced devotees through the grace of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. This was the case with Rāmānanda Rāya. One may aspire to attain such a position, but one should not try to imitate the mahā-bhāgavata.

Text

dekhi’ rāmānanda hailā ānande mūrcchite
dharite nā pāre deha, paḍilā bhūmite

Synonyms

dekhi’ — seeing this form; rāmānanda — Rāmānanda Rāya; hailā — there was; ānande — in ecstasy; mūrcchite — fainting; dharite — to hold him; — not; pāre — able; deha — the body; paḍilā — fell down; bhūmite — on the ground.

Translation

Upon seeing this form, Rāmānanda Rāya lost consciousness in transcendental bliss. Unable to remain standing, he fell to the ground.

Text

prabhu tāṅre hasta sparśi’ karāilā cetana
sannyāsīra veṣa dekhi’ vismita haila mana

Synonyms

prabhu — the Lord; tāṅre — unto Rāmānanda Rāya; hasta — the hand; sparśi’ — touching; karāilā — made; cetana — conscious; sannyāsīra — of the sannyāsī; veṣa — the dress; dekhi’ — seeing; vismita — struck with wonder; haila — became; mana — the mind.

Translation

When Rāmānanda Rāya fell to the ground unconscious, Caitanya Mahāprabhu touched his hand, and he immediately regained consciousness. But when he saw Lord Caitanya in the dress of a sannyāsī, he was struck with wonder.

Text

āliṅgana kari’ prabhu kaila āśvāsana
tomā vinā ei-rūpa nā dekhe anya-jana

Synonyms

āliṅgana kari’ — embracing him; prabhu — the Lord; kaila — did; āśvāsana — pacifying; tomā vinā — but for you; ei-rūpa — this form; — not; dekhe — sees; anya-jana — anyone else.

Translation

After embracing Rāmānanda Rāya, the Lord pacified him, informing him, “But for you, no one has ever seen this form.”

Purport

In the Bhagavad-gītā (7.25) Lord Kṛṣṇa states:

nāhaṁ prakāśaḥ sarvasyayoga-māyā-samāvṛtaḥ
mūḍho ’yaṁ nābhijānāti
loko mām ajam avyayam

“I am never manifest to the foolish and unintelligent. For them I am covered by My internal potency [yogamāyā], and so they do not know Me, who am unborn and infallible.”

The Lord always reserves the right of not being exposed to everyone. The devotees, however, are always engaged in the service of the Lord, serving with the tongue by chanting the Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra and tasting mahā-prasādam. Gradually the sincere devotee pleases the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and the Supreme Lord reveals Himself. One cannot see the Supreme Lord by making personal efforts. Rather, when the Lord is pleased by the service of a devotee, He reveals Himself.

Text

mora tattva-līlā-rasa tomāra gocare
ataeva ei-rūpa dekhāiluṅ tomāre

Synonyms

mora — My; tattva-līlā — truth and pastimes; rasa — and mellows; tomāra — of you; gocare — within the knowledge; ataeva — therefore; ei-rūpa — this form; dekhāiluṅ — I have shown; tomāre — unto you.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu confirmed, “All the truths about My pastimes and mellows are within your knowledge. Therefore I have shown this form to you.

Text

gaura aṅga nahe mora — rādhāṅga-sparśana
gopendra-suta vinā teṅho nā sparśe anya-jana

Synonyms

gaura — fair; aṅga — body; nahe — not; mora — My; rādhā-aṅga — of the body of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; sparśana — the touching; gopendra-suta — the son of Nanda Mahārāja; vinā — except; teṅho — Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; — not; sparśe — touches; anya-jana — anyone else.

Translation

“Actually My body does not have a fair complexion. It only appears so because it has touched the body of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. However, She does not touch anyone but the son of Nanda Mahārāja.

Text

tāṅra bhāve bhāvita kari’ ātma-mana
tabe nija-mādhurya kari āsvādana

Synonyms

tāṅra — of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; bhāve — in the ecstasy; bhāvita — enlightened; kari’ — making; ātma-mana — body and mind; tabe — thereupon; nija-mādhurya — My own transcendental humor; kari — I do; āsvādana — tasting.

Translation

“I have now converted My body and mind into the ecstasy of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; thus I am tasting My own personal sweetness in that form.”

Purport

Gaurasundara here informed Śrī Rāmānanda Rāya, “My dear Rāmānanda Rāya, you were actually seeing a separate person with a fair-complexioned body. Actually I am not fair. Being Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the son of Nanda Mahārāja, I am blackish, but when I come in touch with Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī I become fair-complexioned externally. Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī does not touch the body of anyone but Kṛṣṇa. I taste My own transcendental features by accepting the complexion of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. Without Rādhārāṇī, one cannot taste the transcendental pleasure of Kṛṣṇa’s conjugal love.” In this regard, Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura comments on the prākṛta-sahajiyā-sampradāya, which considers Kṛṣṇa and Lord Caitanya to possess different bodies. They misinterpret the words gaura aṅga nahe mora in text 287. From that verse and the present verse we can understand that Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu is nondifferent from Kṛṣṇa. Both are the same Supreme Personality of Godhead. In the form of Kṛṣṇa, the Lord enjoys spiritual bliss and remains the shelter of all devotees, viṣaya-vigraha. And in His Gaurāṅga feature Kṛṣṇa tastes separation from Kṛṣṇa in the ecstasy of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. This ecstatic form is Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya. Śrī Kṛṣṇa is always the transcendental reservoir of all pleasure, and He is technically called dhīra-lalita. Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is the embodiment of spiritual energy, personified as ecstatic love for Kṛṣṇa; therefore only Kṛṣṇa can touch Her. The dhīra-lalita aspect is not seen in any other form of the Lord, including Viṣṇu and Nārāyaṇa. Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is therefore known as Govinda-nandinī and Govinda-mohinī, for She is the only source of transcendental pleasure for Śrī Kṛṣṇa and the only person who can enchant His mind.

Text

tomāra ṭhāñi āmāra kichu gupta nāhi karma
lukāile prema-bale jāna sarva-marma

Synonyms

tomāra ṭhāñi — before you; āmāra — My; kichu — anything; gupta — hidden; nāhi — is not; karma — action; lukāile — even if I conceal; prema-bale — by the force of your love; jāna — you know; sarva-marma — everything in detail.

Translation

Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu then admitted to His pure devotee, Rāmānanda Rāya, “Now there is no confidential activity unknown to you. Even though I try to conceal My activities, you can understand everything in detail by virtue of your advanced love for Me.”

Text

gupte rākhiha, kāhāṅ nā kario prakāśa
āmāra bātula-ceṣṭā loke upahāsa

Synonyms

gupte — in secret; rākhiha — keep; kāhāṅ — anywhere; — not; kario — make; prakāśa — exposure; āmāra — My; bātula-ceṣṭā — activities like a madman; loke — among the general people; upahāsa — laughter.

Translation

The Lord then requested Rāmānanda Rāya, “Keep all these talks a secret. Please do not expose them anywhere and everywhere. Since My activities appear to be like those of a madman, people may take them lightly and laugh.”

Text

āmi — eka bātula, tumi — dvitīya bātula
ataeva tomāya āmāya ha-i sama-tula

Synonyms

āmi — I; eka — one; bātula — madman; tumi — you; dvitīya — second; bātula — madman; ataeva — therefore; tomāya — you; āmāya — Me; ha-i — are; sama-tula — on an equal level.

Translation

Caitanya Mahāprabhu then said, “Indeed, I am a madman, and you are also a madman. Therefore we are on the same platform.”

Purport

All these conversations between Rāmānanda Rāya and Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu appear ludicrous to a common man who is not a devotee. The entire world is filled with material conceptions, and people are unable to understand these conversations due to the conditioning of mundane philosophy. Those who are overly attached to mundane activities cannot understand the ecstatic conversations between Rāmānanda Rāya and Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Consequently the Lord requested that Rāmānanda Rāya keep all these conversations secret and not expose them to the general populace. If one is actually advanced in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, he can understand these confidential talks; otherwise they appear crazy. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu therefore informed Rāmānanda Rāya that they both appeared like madmen and were therefore on the same platform. It is confirmed in the Bhagavad-gītā (2.69):

yā niśā sarva-bhūtānāṁtasyāṁ jāgarti saṁyamī
yasyāṁ jāgrati bhūtāni
sā niśā paśyato muneḥ

“What is night for all beings is the time of awakening for the self-controlled, and the time of awakening for all beings is night for the introspective sage.”

Sometimes Kṛṣṇa consciousness appears like a type of madness to mundane people, just as the activities of mundaners are considered a form of madness by Kṛṣṇa conscious men.

Text

ei-rūpa daśa-rātri rāmānanda-saṅge
sukhe goṅāilā prabhu kṛṣṇa-kathā-raṅge

Synonyms

ei-rūpa — in this way; daśa-rātri — ten nights; rāmānanda saṅge — with Śrī Rāmānanda Rāya; sukhe — in great happiness; goṅāilā — passed; prabhu — Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; kṛṣṇa-kathā-raṅge — in transcendental pleasure by discussing talks of Kṛṣṇa.

Translation

For ten nights Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu and Rāmānanda Rāya spent a happy time discussing the pastimes of Kṛṣṇa.

Text

nigūḍha vrajera rasa-līlāra vicāra
aneka kahila, tāra nā pāila pāra

Synonyms

nigūḍha — very confidential; vrajera — of Vṛndāvana, or Vrajabhūmi; rasa-līlāra — of the pastimes of conjugal love between Kṛṣṇa and the gopīs; vicāra — consideration; aneka — various; kahila — spoke; tāra — of that; — not; pāila — got; pāra — the limit.

Translation

The conversations between Rāmānanda Rāya and Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu contain the most confidential subject matters, touching the conjugal love between Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa in Vṛndāvana [Vrajabhūmi]. Although they talked at great length about these pastimes, they could not reach the limit of discussion.

Text

tāmā, kāṅsā, rūpā, sonā, ratna-cintāmaṇi
keha yadi kāhāṅ potā pāya eka-khāni

Synonyms

tāmā — copper; kāṅsā — bell metal; rūpā — silver; sonā — gold; ratna-cintāmaṇi — touchstone, the basis of all metals; keha — somebody; yadi — if; kāhāṅ — somewhere; potā — buried; pāya — finds; eka-khāni — in one place.

Translation

Actually, these conversations are like a great mine where, from a single place, one can extract all kinds of metals — copper, bell metal, silver and gold — and also touchstone, the basis of all metals.

Purport

Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura gives the following summary of the conversations between Rāmānanda Rāya and Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Rāmānanda Rāya replied to five questions of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, and these questions and their replies are recorded in verses 57-67. The first answer is compared to copper, the second to a better metal, bell metal, the third to a still better metal, silver, and the fourth to the best metal of all, gold. But the fifth answer is compared to the most valuable gem, touchstone, because it deals with unalloyed devotion, the ultimate goal of devotional life, and illuminates the preceding four subordinate answers.

Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura points out that in Vrajabhūmi there is the Yamunā River with its sandy banks. There are kadamba trees, cows, Kṛṣṇa’s sticks with which He herds cows, and Kṛṣṇa’s flute. All of these belong to śānta-rasa, the mellow of neutrality in devotional service. There are also the direct servants of Kṛṣṇa, such as Citraka, Patraka and Raktaka, and these are the embodiments of service in the mellow of servitude. There are also friends like Śrīdāmā and Sudāmā, who embody service in fraternity. Nanda Mahārāja and mother Yaśodā are the embodiments of parental love. Above all of these are Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and Her assistants, the gopīs Lalitā, Viśākhā and others, who embody conjugal love. In this way all five mellows — śānta, dāsya, sakhya, vātsalya and mādhurya — exist eternally in Vrajabhūmi. They are also compared, respectively, to copper, bell metal, silver, gold and touchstone, the basis of all metals. Śrīla Kavirāja Gosvāmī therefore refers to a mine eternally existing in Vṛndāvana, Vrajabhūmi.

Text

krame uṭhāite seha uttama vastu pāya
aiche praśnottara kaila prabhu-rāmarāya

Synonyms

krame — gradually; uṭhāite — to raise; seha — that person; uttama — best; vastu — metal; pāya — gets; aiche — so also; praśna-uttara — the questions and answers; kaila — have done; prabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; rāma-rāya — and Rāmānanda Rāya.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and Rāmānanda Rāya worked like miners, excavating all kinds of valuable metals, each one better than the other. Their questions and answers are exactly like that.

Text

āra dina rāya-pāśe vidāya māgilā
vidāyera kāle tāṅre ei ājñā dilā

Synonyms

āra dina — the next day; rāya-pāśe — before Rāmānanda Rāya; vidāya māgilā — begged farewell; vidāyera kāle — at the time of departure; tāṅre — unto him; ei — this; ājñā — order; dilā — gave.

Translation

The next day Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu begged Rāmānanda Rāya to give Him permission to leave, and at the time of farewell the Lord gave him the following orders.

Text

viṣaya chāḍiyā tumi yāha nīlācale
āmi tīrtha kari’ tāṅhā āsiba alpa-kāle

Synonyms

viṣaya — material engagement; chāḍiyā — giving up; tumi — you; yāha — go; nīlācale — to Jagannātha Purī; āmi — I; tīrtha kari’ — finishing My touring and pilgrimage; tāṅhā — there; āsiba — shall return; alpa-kāle — very soon.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu told him, “Give up all material engagements and come to Jagannātha Purī. I will return there very soon after finishing My tour and pilgrimage.

Text

dui-jane nīlācale rahiba eka-saṅge
sukhe goṅāiba kāla kṛṣṇa-kathā-raṅge

Synonyms

dui-jane — both of us; nīlācale — at Jagannātha Purī; rahiba — shall stay; eka-saṅge — together; sukhe — in happiness; goṅāiba — shall pass; kāla — time; kṛṣṇa-kathā-raṅge — in the pleasure of discussing topics about Kṛṣṇa.

Translation

“The two of us shall remain together at Jagannātha Purī and happily pass our time discussing Kṛṣṇa.”

Text

eta bali’ rāmānande kari’ āliṅgana
tāṅre ghare pāṭhāiyā karila śayana

Synonyms

eta bali’ — saying this; rāmānande — to Śrī Rāmānanda Rāya; kari’ — doing; āliṅgana — embracing; tāṅre — him; ghare — to his home; pāṭhāiyā — sending; karila — did; śayana — lying down.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu then embraced Śrī Rāmānanda Rāya, and after sending him back to his home, the Lord took rest.

Text

prātaḥ-kāle uṭhi’ prabhu dekhi’ hanumān
tāṅre namaskari’ prabhu dakṣiṇe karilā prayāṇa

Synonyms

prātaḥ-kāle — in the morning; uṭhi’ — rising; prabhu — Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; dekhi’ — visiting; hanumān — the village deity Hanumān; tāṅre — unto him; namaskari’ — offering obeisances; prabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; dakṣiṇe — to the south; karilā — made; prayāṇa — departure.

Translation

After rising from bed the next morning, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu visited the local temple, where there was a deity of Hanumān. After offering him obeisances, the Lord departed for South India.

Purport

In almost all the cities and towns of India there are temples of Hanumānjī, the eternal servant of Lord Rāmacandra. There is even a temple of Hanumān near Govindajī temple in Vṛndāvana. Formerly this temple was in front of the Gopālajī temple, but the Gopālajī Deity went to Orissa to remain as Sākṣi-gopāla. Being the eternal servant of Lord Rāmacandra, Hanumānjī has been respectfully worshiped for many hundreds and thousands of years. Here even Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu set the example in showing how one should offer respects to Hanumānjī.

Text

‘vidyāpūre’ nānā-mata loka vaise yata
prabhu-darśane ‘vaiṣṇava’ haila chāḍi’ nija-mata

Synonyms

vidyāpūre — in the town of Vidyānagara; nānā-mata — various opinions; loka — people; vaise — reside; yata — all; prabhu-darśane — in seeing Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; vaiṣṇava — devotees of Lord Viṣṇu; haila — became; chāḍi’ — giving up; nija-mata — own opinions.

Translation

All the residents of Vidyānagara were of different faiths, but after seeing Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, they abandoned their own faiths and became Vaiṣṇavas.

Text

rāmānanda hailā prabhura virahe vihvala
prabhura dhyāne rahe viṣaya chāḍiyā sakala

Synonyms

rāmānanda — Śrīla Rāmānanda Rāya; hailā — became; prabhura — of Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; virahe — in separation; vihvala — overwhelmed; prabhura dhyāne — in meditation on Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; rahe — remains; viṣaya — worldly business; chāḍiyā — giving up; sakala — all.

Translation

When Rāmānanda Rāya began to feel separation from Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, he was overwhelmed. Meditating on the Lord, he gave up all his material business.

Text

saṅkṣepe kahiluṅ rāmānandera milana
vistāri’ varṇite nāre sahasra-vadana

Synonyms

saṅkṣepe — in brief; kahiluṅ — I have described; rāmānandera milana — meeting with Śrīla Rāmānanda Rāya; vistāri’ — expanding; varṇite — to describe; nāre — not able; sahasra-vadana — Lord Śeṣa Nāga, who has thousands of hoods.

Translation

I have briefly described the meeting between Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and Rāmānanda Rāya. No one can actually describe this meeting exhaustively. It is even impossible for Lord Śeṣa Nāga, who has thousands of hoods.

Text

sahaje caitanya-caritra — ghana-dugdha-pūra
rāmānanda-caritra tāhe khaṇḍa pracura

Synonyms

sahaje — generally; caitanya-caritra — the activities of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; ghana-dugdha-pūra — like condensed milk; rāmānanda-caritra — the story of Rāmānanda Rāya; tāhe — in that; khaṇḍa — sugar candy; pracura — a large quantity.

Translation

The activities of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu are like condensed milk, and the activities of Rāmānanda Rāya are like large quantities of sugar candy.

Text

rādhā-kṛṣṇa-līlā — tāte karpūra-milana
bhāgyavān yei, sei kare āsvādana

Synonyms

rādhā-kṛṣṇa-līlā — the pastimes of Śrī Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa; tāte — in that composition; karpūra — the camphor; milana — mixture; bhāgyavān — fortunate; yei — one who; sei — that person; kare — does; āsvādana — tasting.

Translation

Their meeting is exactly like a mixture of condensed milk and sugar candy. When they talk of the pastimes of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa, camphor is added. One who tastes this combined preparation is most fortunate.

Text

ye ihā eka-bāra piye karṇa-dvāre
tāra karṇa lobhe ihā chāḍite nā pāre

Synonyms

ye — anyone; ihā — this; eka-bāra — once; piye — drinks; karṇa-dvāre — through aural reception; tāra — his; karṇa — ears; lobhe — in greed; ihā — this; chāḍite — to give up; — not; pāre — are able.

Translation

This wonderful preparation has to be taken aurally. If one takes it, he becomes greedy to relish it even further.

Text

‘rasa-tattva-jñāna’ haya ihāra śravaṇe
‘prema-bhakti’ haya rādhā-kṛṣṇera caraṇe

Synonyms

rasa-tattva-jñāna — transcendental knowledge of the humors of conjugal love between Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa; haya — is; ihāra — of this; śravaṇe — by hearing; prema-bhakti — pure love of Godhead; haya — becomes possible; rādhā-kṛṣṇera caraṇe — at the lotus feet of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa.

Translation

By hearing the talks between Rāmānanda Rāya and Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, one becomes enlightened with the transcendental knowledge of the mellows of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes. Thus one can develop unalloyed love for the lotus feet of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa.

Text

caitanyera gūḍha-tattva jāni ihā haite
viśvāsa kari’ śuna, tarka nā kariha citte

Synonyms

caitanyera — of Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; gūḍha-tattva — the confidential truth; jāni — we can learn; ihā haite — from these talks; viśvāsa kari’ — having firm faith; śuna — hear; tarka — arguments; — not; kariha — do; citte — within the heart.

Translation

The author requests every reader to hear these talks with faith and without argument. By studying them in this way, one will be able to understand the confidential truth of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

Text

alaukika līlā ei parama nigūḍha
viśvāse pāiye, tarke haya bahu-dūra

Synonyms

alaukika — uncommon; līlā — pastimes; ei — this; parama — most; nigūḍha — confidential; viśvāse — by faith; pāiye — we can get; tarke — by argument; haya — is; bahu-dūra — far away.

Translation

This part of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s pastimes is most confidential. One can derive benefit quickly only by faith; otherwise, by arguing one will always remain far away.

Text

śrī-caitanya-nityānanda-advaita-caraṇa
yāṅhāra sarvasva, tāṅre mile ei dhana

Synonyms

śrī-caitanya — of Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; nityānanda — of Lord Nityānanda; advaita-caraṇa — and the lotus feet of Śrī Advaita Prabhu; yāṅhāra sarva-sva — whose everything; tāṅre — him; mile — meets; ei — this; dhana — treasure.

Translation

He who has accepted as everything the lotus feet of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, Nityānanda Prabhu and Advaita Prabhu can attain this transcendental treasure.

Purport

Śrī Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura says that Kṛṣṇa is obtainable for the faithful, but for those who are accustomed to argue, Kṛṣṇa is far, far away. Similarly, these talks between Rāmānanda Rāya and Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu can be understood by a person who has firm faith. Those who are not in the disciplic succession, the asauta-panthīs, cannot have faith in these talks. They are always doubting and engaging in mental concoctions. These talks cannot be understood by such whimsical people. Transcendental topics remain far, far away from those engaged in mundane arguments. In this regard, the Vedic mantras in the Kaṭha Upaniṣad (1.2.9) state, naiṣā tarkeṇa matir āpaneyā proktānyenaiva su-jñānāya preṣṭha. According to the Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad (3.2.3):

nāyam ātmā pravacanena labhyo
na medhayā na bahunā śrutena
yam evaiṣa vṛṇute tena labhyas
tasyaiṣa ātmā vivṛṇute tanūṁ svām

And according to the Brahma-sūtra (2.1.11), tarkāpratiṣṭhānāt.

All Vedic literatures declare that transcendental subjects cannot be understood simply by argument or logic. Spiritual matters are far above experimental knowledge. Only by Kṛṣṇa’s mercy can one who is interested in His transcendental loving affairs understand them. If one tries to understand these transcendental topics simply by using one’s material brain substance, the attempt will be futile. Whether one is a prākṛta-sahajiyā or a mundane opportunist or scholar, one’s labor to understand these topics by mundane means will ultimately be frustrated. One therefore has to give up all mundane attempts and try to become a pure devotee of Lord Viṣṇu. When a devotee follows the regulative principles, the truth of these talks will be revealed to him. This is confirmed in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (1.2.234):

ataḥ śrī-kṛṣṇa-nāmādina bhaved grāhyam indriyaiḥ
sevonmukhe hi jihvādau
svayam eva sphuraty adaḥ

One cannot understand the Lord’s holy name, pastimes, form, qualities or entourage with one’s blunt material senses. However, when the senses are purified by the constant rendering of service, the spiritual truth of the pastimes of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa is revealed. As confirmed in the Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad, yam evaiṣa vṛṇute tena labhyas. Only one who is favored by the Supreme Personality of Godhead can understand the transcendental features of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

Text

rāmānanda rāye mora koṭī namaskāra
yāṅra mukhe kaila prabhu rasera vistāra

Synonyms

rāmānanda rāye — unto Śrī Rāmānanda Rāya; mora — my; koṭī — ten million; namaskāra — obeisances; yāṅra mukhe — in whose mouth; kaila — did; prabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; rasera vistāra — the expansion of transcendental mellows.

Translation

I offer ten million obeisances unto the lotus feet of Śrī Rāmānanda Rāya because from his mouth much spiritual information has been expanded by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

Text

dāmodara-svarūpera kaḍacā-anusāre
rāmānanda-milana-līlā karila pracāre

Synonyms

dāmodara-svarūpera — of Svarūpa Dāmodara Gosvāmī; kaḍacā — with the notebooks; anusāre — in accordance; rāmānanda-milana-līlā — the pastimes of the meeting with Rāmānanda; karila — have done; pracāre — distribution.

Translation

I have tried to preach the pastimes of Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s meeting with Rāmānanda Rāya in accordance with the notebooks of Śrī Svarūpa Dāmodara.

Purport

At the end of every chapter, the author admits the value of the disciplic succession. He never claims to have written this transcendental literature by carrying out research work. He simply admits his indebtedness to the notes taken by Svarūpa Dāmodara, Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī and other authoritative persons. This is the way of writing transcendental literatures, which are never meant for so-called scholars and research workers. The process is mahā-jano yena gataḥ sa panthāḥ: one has to strictly follow great personalities and ācāryas. Ācārya-vān puruṣo veda: one who has the favor of the ācārya knows everything. This statement made by Kavirāja Gosvāmī is very valuable for all pure devotees. Sometimes the prākṛtā sahajiyās claim that they have heard the truth from their guru. But one cannot have transcendental knowledge simply by hearing from a guru who is not bona fide. The guru must be bona fide, and he must have heard from his own bona fide guru. Only then will his message be accepted as bona fide. Lord Kṛṣṇa confirms this in the Bhagavad-gītā (4.1):

śrī-bhagavān uvāca
imaṁ vivasvate yogaṁ
proktavān aham avyayam
vivasvān manave prāha
manur ikṣvākave ’bravīt

“The Supreme Lord said, ‘I instructed this imperishable science of yoga to the sun-god, Vivasvān, and Vivasvān instructed it to Manu, the father of mankind, and Manu in turn instructed it to Ikṣvāku.’ ”

In this way the message is transmitted in the bona fide spiritual disciplic succession from bona fide spiritual master to bona fide student. Śrīla Kavirāja Gosvāmī therefore as usual concludes this chapter by reasserting his faith in the lotus feet of the six Gosvāmīs. Thus he is able to set forth this transcendental literature, Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta.

Text

śrī-rūpa-raghunātha-pade yāra āśa
caitanya-caritāmṛta kahe kṛṣṇadāsa

Synonyms

śrī-rūpa — Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī; raghunātha — Śrīla Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī; pade — at the lotus feet; yāra — whose; āśa — expectation; caitanya-caritāmṛta — the book named Caitanya-caritāmṛta; kahe — describes; kṛṣṇa-dāsa — Śrīla Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī.

Translation

Praying at the lotus feet of Śrī Rūpa and Śrī Raghunātha, always desiring their mercy, I, Kṛṣṇadāsa, narrate Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta, following in their footsteps.

Purport

Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports to Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā, eighth chapter, describing the talks between Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and Rāmānanda Rāya.