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CHAPTER FIVE

The Activities of Sākṣi-gopāla

Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura gives the following summary of the fifth chapter in his Amṛta-pravāha-bhāṣya. After passing through Yājapura, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu reached the town of Kaṭaka (Cuttack) and there went to see the temple of Sākṣi-gopāla. While there, He heard the story of Sākṣi-gopāla from the mouth of Śrī Nityānanda Prabhu.

Once there were two brāhmaṇas, one elderly and the other young, who were inhabitants of a place known as Vidyānagara. After touring many places of pilgrimage, the two brāhmaṇas finally reached Vṛndāvana. The elderly brāhmaṇa was very satisfied with the service of the young brāhmaṇa, and he wanted to offer him his youngest daughter in marriage. The young brāhmaṇa received the promise of his elder before the Gopāla Deity of Vṛndāvana. Thus the Gopāla Deity acted as a witness. When the two brāhmaṇas returned to Vidyānagara, the younger brāhmaṇa raised the question of this marriage, but the elderly brāhmaṇa, due to obligations to his friends and wife, answered that he could not remember his promise. Because of this, the younger brāhmaṇa returned to Vṛndāvana and narrated the whole story to Gopālajī. Thus Gopālajī, being obliged by the young man’s devotional service, accompanied him to southern India. Gopālajī followed the younger brāhmaṇa, who could hear the tinkling sound of Gopālajī’s ankle bells. When all the respectable gentlemen of Vidyānagara were assembled, Gopālajī testified to the promise of the elderly brāhmaṇa. Thus the marriage was performed. Later, the king of that country constructed a fine temple for Gopāla.

Afterwards, King Puruṣottama-deva of Orissa was insulted by the King of Vidyānagara, who refused to give him his daughter in marriage and called him a sweeper of Lord Jagannātha. With the help of Lord Jagannātha, King Puruṣottama-deva fought the King of Vidyānagara and defeated him. Thus he took charge of both the King’s daughter and his kingdom as well. At that time, Gopālajī, being very much obligated by the devotional service of King Puruṣottama-deva, was brought to the town of Kaṭaka.

After hearing this narration, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu visited the temple of Gopāla in great ecstasy of love of God. From Kaṭaka He went to Bhuvaneśvara and saw the temple of Lord Śiva. In this way, He gradually arrived at Kamalapura, and on the banks of the Bhārgī River He came to the temple of Lord Śiva, where He entrusted His sannyāsa staff to Nityānanda Prabhu. However, Nityānanda Prabhu broke the staff into three pieces and threw it into the Bhārgī River at a place known as Āṭhāranālā. Being angry at not getting His staff back, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu left the company of Nityānanda Prabhu and went alone to see the Jagannātha temple.

Text

padbhyāṁ calan yaḥ pratimā-svarūpo
brahmaṇya-devo hi śatāha-gamyam
deśaṁ yayau vipra-kṛte ’dbhutehaṁ
taṁ sākṣi-gopālam ahaṁ nato ’smi

Synonyms

padbhyām — by the two legs; calan — walking; yaḥ — one who; pratimā — of the Deity; svarūpaḥ — in the form; brahmaṇya-devaḥ — the Supreme Lord of brahminical culture; hi — certainly; śata-āha — in one hundred days; gamyam — to be passed over; deśam — the country; yayau — went; vipra-kṛte — for the benefit of a brāhmaṇa; adbhuta — most wonderful; īham — activity; tam — unto that; sākṣi-gopālam — the Gopāla known as the witness Gopāla; aham — I; nataḥ asmi — offer respectful obeisances.

Translation

I offer my respectful obeisances unto the Supreme Personality of God [brahmaṇya-deva], who appeared as Sākṣi-gopāla to benefit a brāhmaṇa. For one hundred days He traveled through the country, walking on His own legs. Thus His activities are wonderful.

Text

jaya jaya śrī-caitanya jaya nityānanda
jayādvaitacandra jaya gaura-bhakta-vṛnda

Synonyms

jaya — all glories; jaya — all glories; śrī-caitanya — to Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; jaya — all glories; nityānanda — to Lord Śrī Nityānanda Prabhu; jaya — all glories; advaita-candra — to Advaita Ācārya; jaya — all glories; gaura-bhakta-vṛnda — to the devotees of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

Translation

All glories to Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu! All glories to Lord Nityānanda Prabhu! All glories to Śrī Advaita Prabhu! And all glories to all the devotees of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu!

Text

calite calite āilā yājapura-grāma
varāha-ṭhākura dekhi’ karilā praṇāma

Synonyms

calite calite — walking on and on; āilā — reached; yājapura-grāma — the village of Yājapura-grāma; varāha-ṭhākura — the temple of Varāhadeva; dekhi’ — seeing; karilā — offered; praṇāma — obeisances.

Translation

Walking and walking, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and His party finally arrived at Yājapura, on the river Vaitaraṇī. There He saw the temple of Varāhadeva and offered His obeisances unto Him.

Text

nṛtya-gīta kaila preme bahuta stavana
yājapure se rātri karilā yāpana

Synonyms

nṛtya-gīta — dancing and chanting; kaila — executed; preme — in love of Godhead; bahuta — various; stavana — prayers; yājapure — in the village of Yājapura; se rātri — that night; karilā — did; yāpana — passing.

Translation

In the temple of Varāhadeva, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu engaged in chanting and dancing and offered prayers. He passed that night in the temple.

Text

kaṭake āilā sākṣi-gopāla dekhite
gopāla-saundarya dekhi’ hailā ānandite

Synonyms

kaṭake — in the town of Kaṭaka (Cuttack); āilā — arrived; sākṣi-gopāla — the witness Gopāla; dekhite — to see; gopāla — of the Deity of Gopāla; saundarya — the beauty; dekhi’ — seeing; hailā — became; ānandite — very much pleased.

Translation

Afterwards, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu went to the town of Kaṭaka to see the temple of the witness Gopāla. When He saw the Deity of Gopāla, He was very much pleased by His beauty.

Text

premāveśe nṛtya-gīta kaila kata-kṣaṇa
āviṣṭa hañā kaila gopāla stavana

Synonyms

prema-āveśe — in the ecstasy of love of God; nṛtya-gīta — dancing and chanting; kaila — performed; kata-kṣaṇa — for some time; āviṣṭa hañā — being overwhelmed; kaila — offered; gopāla stavana — prayers to Gopāla.

Translation

While there, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu engaged in chanting and dancing for some time, and being overwhelmed, He offered many prayers to Gopāla.

Text

sei rātri tāhāṅ rahi’ bhakta-gaṇa-saṅge
gopālera pūrva-kathā śune bahu raṅge

Synonyms

sei rātri — that night; tāhāṅ — there; rahi’ — remaining; bhakta-gaṇa-saṅge — with the other devotees; gopālera — of Lord Gopāla; pūrva-kathā — previous narration; śune — hears; bahu — much; raṅge — in pleasure.

Translation

That night Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu stayed in the temple of Gopāla, and along with all the devotees, He heard the narration of the witness Gopāla with great pleasure.

Text

nityānanda-gosāñi yabe tīrtha bhramilā
sākṣi-gopāla dekhibāre kaṭaka āilā

Synonyms

nityānanda-gosāñi — Lord Nityānanda Prabhu; yabe — when; tīrtha bhramilā — traveled to the places of pilgrimage; sākṣi-gopāla — the witness Gopāla; dekhibāre — to see; kaṭaka — to the town of Kaṭaka; āilā — came.

Translation

Previously, when Nityānanda Prabhu had toured all over India to see different places of pilgrimage, He also had come to see Sākṣi-gopāla at Kaṭaka.

Text

sākṣi-gopālera kathā śuni, loka-mukhe
sei kathā kahena, prabhu śune mahā-sukhe

Synonyms

sākṣi-gopālera — of the witness Gopāla; kathā — the narration; śuni — hearing; loka-mukhe — from the people; sei kathā — that narration; kahena — Nityānanda Prabhu narrates; prabhu — Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; śune — hears; mahā-sukhe — in great pleasure.

Translation

At that time, Nityānanda Prabhu had heard the story of Sākṣi-gopāla from the townspeople. He now recited this again, and Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu heard the narration with great pleasure.

Purport

The Sākṣi-gopāla temple is situated between the Khurdā Road railway station and the Jagannātha Purī station. The Deity is not presently situated in Kaṭaka, but when Nityānanda Prabhu traveled there, the Deity was present. Kaṭaka is a town in Orissa situated on the Mahānadī River. When Sākṣi-gopāla was brought from Vidyānagara in southern India, He stayed for some time at Kaṭaka. Thereafter, He was situated for some time in the Jagannātha temple. It seems that in the temple of Jagannātha there was some disagreement between Jagannātha and Sākṣi-gopāla, a disagreement called prema-kalaha, a quarrel of love. In order to settle this love quarrel, the King of Orissa constructed a village about eleven miles from Jagannātha Purī. The village was called Satyavādī, and Gopāla was stationed there. Thereafter, a new temple was constructed. Now there is a Sākṣi-gopāla station, and people go to Satyavādī to see the witness Gopāla.

Text

pūrve vidyānagarera dui ta’ brāhmaṇa
tīrtha karibāre duṅhe karilā gamana

Synonyms

pūrve — previously; vidyānagarera — of the town known as Vidyānagara; dui — two; ta’ — certainly; brāhmaṇabrāhmaṇas; tīrtha karibāre — to tour places of pilgrimage; duṅhe — both of them; karilā — began; gamana — journey.

Translation

Formerly at Vidyānagara in South India there were two brāhmaṇas who made a long tour to see different places of pilgrimage.

Text

gayā, vārāṇasī, prayāga — sakala kariyā
mathurāte āilā duṅhe ānandita hañā

Synonyms

gayā — the pilgrimage site of the name Gayā; vārāṇasī — Benares, or Kāśī; prayāga — Allahabad; sakala — all; kariyā — touring; mathurāte — Mathurā; āilā — they reached; duṅhe — both; ānandita — pleased; hañā — becoming.

Translation

First of all they visited Gayā, then Kāśī, then Prayāga. Finally, with great pleasure, they came to Mathurā.

Text

vana-yātrāya vana dekhi’ dekhe govardhana
dvādaśa-vana dekhi’ śeṣe gelā vṛndāvana

Synonyms

vana-yātrāya — in touring the different forests; vana dekhi’ — while seeing the forests; dekhe — they see; govardhana — Govardhana Hill; dvādaśa-vana dekhi’ — visiting the twelve forests in Vṛndāvana; śeṣe — at last; gelā — reached; vṛndāvana — Vṛndāvana.

Translation

After reaching Mathurā, they started visiting the different forests of Vṛndāvana and came to Govardhana Hill. They visited all twelve forests [vanas] and at last came to the town of Vṛndāvana.

Purport

The five forests situated on the eastern side of the river Yamunā are Bhadra, Bilva, Loha, Bhāṇḍīra and Mahāvana. The seven forests situated on the western side of the Yamunā are Madhu, Tāla, Kumuda, Bahulā, Kāmya, Khadira and Vṛndāvana. After visiting all these forests, these pilgrims went to a place known as Pañcakrośī Vṛndāvana. Out of the twelve forests, the Vṛndāvana forest extends from the town of Vṛndāvana up to Nanda-grāma and Varṣāṇā, a distance of thirty-two miles, within which the Pañcakrośī Vṛndāvana town is situated.

Text

vṛndāvane govinda-sthāne mahā-devālaya
se mandire gopālera mahā-sevā haya

Synonyms

vṛndāvane — within Pañcakrośī Vṛndāvana; govinda-sthāne — at the place where the present Govinda temple is situated; mahā-deva-ālaya — a great temple; se mandire — in that temple; gopālera — of the Deity of Gopāla; mahā-sevā — gorgeous worship; haya — there is.

Translation

In the village of Pañcakrośī Vṛndāvana, at the site where the Govinda temple is now situated, there was a great temple where gorgeous worship of Gopāla was performed.

Text

keśī-tīrtha, kālīya-hradādike kaila snāna
śrī-gopāla dekhi’ tāhāṅ karilā viśrāma

Synonyms

keśī-tīrtha — the bathing place on the bank of the Yamunā known as Keśī-ghāṭa; kālīya-hrada — the bathing place on the bank of the Yamunā known as Kāliya-ghāṭa; ādike — in such different bathing places; kaila — did; snāna — bathing; śrī-gopāla dekhi’ — by visiting the temple of Gopāla; tāhāṅ — there; karilā — took; viśrāma — rest.

Translation

After taking baths at different bathing places along the river Yamunā, such as Keśī-ghāṭa and Kāliya-ghāṭa, the pilgrims visited the temple of Gopāla. Afterwards, they took rest in that temple.

Text

gopāla-saundarya duṅhāra mana nila hari’
sukha pāñā rahe tāhāṅ dina dui-cāri

Synonyms

gopāla-saundarya — the beauty of the Gopāla Deity; duṅhāra — of both of them; mana — the minds; nila — took away; hari’ — carrying; sukha pāñā — feeling this transcendental happiness; rahe — remained; tāhāṅ — in that temple; dina — days; dui-cāri — two or four.

Translation

The beauty of the Gopāla Deity stole away their minds, and feeling great happiness, they remained there for two or four days.

Text

dui-vipra-madhye eka vipra — vṛddha-prāya
āra vipra — yuvā, tāṅra karena sahāya

Synonyms

dui-vipra-madhye — between the two brāhmaṇas; eka vipra — one brāhmaṇa; vṛddha-prāya — elderly man; āra vipra — the second brāhmaṇa; yuvā — young man; tāṅra — of the older brāhmaṇa; karena — does; sahāya — assistance.

Translation

One of the two brāhmaṇas was an old man, and the other was young. The young man was assisting the old one.

Text

choṭa-vipra kare sadā tāṅhāra sevana
tāṅhāra sevāya viprera tuṣṭa haila mana

Synonyms

choṭa-vipra — the younger brāhmaṇa; kare — does; sadā — always; tāṅhāra — his (the old brāhmaṇa’s); sevana — service; tāṅhāra — his; sevāya — by the service; viprera — of the old brāhmaṇa; tuṣṭa — pacified; haila — became; mana — the mind.

Translation

Indeed, the young brāhmaṇa always rendered service to the older one, and the old man, being very satisfied with his service, was pleased with him.

Text

vipra bale — tumi mora bahu sevā kailā
sahāya hañā more tīrtha karāilā

Synonyms

vipra bale — the elderly brāhmaṇa says; tumi — you; mora — my; bahu — various; sevā — service; kailā — have rendered; sahāya — assistant; hañā — being; more — to me; tīrtha — pilgrimage; karāilā — helped to do.

Translation

The older man told the younger, “You have rendered various types of service to me. You have assisted me in traveling to all these places of pilgrimage.

Text

putreo pitāra aiche nā kare sevana
tomāra prasāde āmi nā pāilāma śrama

Synonyms

putreo — even my own son; pitāra — of the father; aiche — in this way; — not; kare — renders; sevana — service; tomāra — your; prasāde — by the mercy; āmi — I; — not; pāilāma — have gotten; śrama — fatigue.

Translation

“Even my own son does not render such service. By your mercy, I did not become fatigued while on this tour.

Text

kṛta-ghnatā haya tomāya nā kaile sammāna
ataeva tomāya āmi diba kanyā-dāna

Synonyms

kṛta-ghnatā — ungratefulness; haya — it is; tomāya — to you; — not; kaile — if doing; sammāna — respect; ataeva — therefore; tomāya — to you; āmi — I; diba — shall give; kanyā-dāna — my daughter as charity.

Translation

“If I did not show you any respect, I would be ungrateful. Therefore, I promise to give you my daughter in charity.”

Text

choṭa-vipra kahe, “śuna, vipra-mahāśaya
asambhava kaha kene, yei nāhi haya

Synonyms

choṭa-vipra — the younger brāhmaṇa; kahe — replies; śuna — hear; vipra-mahāśaya — my dear brāhmaṇa; asambhava — unlikely; kaha — you say; kene — why; yei — which; nāhi — not; haya — happens.

Translation

The younger brāhmaṇa replied, “My dear sir, please hear me. You are saying something very unusual. Such a thing never happens.

Text

mahā-kulīna tumi — vidyā-dhanādi-pravīṇa
āmi akulīna, āra dhana-vidyā-hīna

Synonyms

mahā-kulīna — highly aristocratic; tumi — you; vidyā — education; dhana-ādi — riches; pravīṇa — enriched; āmi — I; akulīna — not aristocratic; āra — and; dhana-vidyā-hīna — without any wealth and education.

Translation

“You are a most aristocratic family man, well educated and very rich. I am not at all aristocratic, and I am without a decent education and have no wealth.

Purport

Due to pious activities, one can be enriched by four opulences: one may obtain birth in an aristocratic family, become highly educated, become very beautiful or get a sufficient quantity of riches. These are symptoms of pious activities performed in one’s past life. In India it is still current for an aristocratic family never to consider a marriage with a common family. Though the caste may be the same, to maintain the aristocracy such marriages are rejected. No poor man will dare marry the daughter of a rich man. Because of this, when the elderly brāhmaṇa offered the young brāhmaṇa his daughter, the young brāhmaṇa did not believe that it would be possible to marry her. Therefore he asked the elderly brāhmaṇa why he was proposing something unprecedented (asambhava). It was unheard of for an aristocratic person to offer his daughter to a person who was both uneducated and poor.

Text

kanyā-dāna-pātra āmi nā ha-i tomāra
kṛṣṇa-prītye kari tomāra sevā-vyavahāra

Synonyms

kanyā-dāna-pātra — a bridegroom suitable for one’s daughter; āmi — I; — not; ha-i — am; tomāra — of you; kṛṣṇa-prītye — only for satisfaction of Kṛṣṇa; kari — I do; tomāra — of you; sevā — of service; vyavahāra — activities.

Translation

“Sir, I am not a suitable bridegroom for your daughter. I render service to you only for the satisfaction of Kṛṣṇa.

Purport

Both brāhmaṇas were pure Vaiṣṇavas. The younger man took special care of the older one simply to please Kṛṣṇa. In Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (11.19.21) Kṛṣṇa says, mad-bhakta-pūjābhyadhikā: “It is better to render service to My devotee.” Thus, according to the Gauḍīya-Vaiṣṇava philosophy of Caitanya Mahāprabhu, it is better to be a servant of the servant of God. One should not try to serve Kṛṣṇa directly. A pure Vaiṣṇava serves a servant of Kṛṣṇa and identifies himself as a servant of a servant of Kṛṣṇa. This is pleasing to Lord Kṛṣṇa. Śrīla Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura confirms this philosophy: chāḍiyā vaiṣṇava-sevā nistāra peyeche kebā. Unless one serves a liberated Vaiṣṇava, he cannot attain liberation by directly serving Kṛṣṇa. He must serve the servant of Kṛṣṇa.

Text

brāhmaṇa-sevāya kṛṣṇera prīti baḍa haya
tāṅhāra santoṣe bhakti-sampad bāḍaya”

Synonyms

brāhmaṇa-sevāya — by rendering service to a brāhmaṇa; kṛṣṇera — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; prīti — the satisfaction; baḍa — very great; haya — is; tāṅhāra santoṣe — by pleasing the Lord; bhakti — of devotional service; sampad — the opulence; bāḍaya — increases.

Translation

“Lord Kṛṣṇa is very much pleased by service rendered to brāhmaṇas, and when the Lord is pleased, the opulence of one’s devotional service increases.”

Purport

In this regard, Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura comments that the younger brāhmaṇa rendered service to the older one with the purpose of pleasing Kṛṣṇa. It was not a matter of ordinary worldly dealings. Kṛṣṇa is pleased when a Vaiṣṇava is rendered service. Because the younger brāhmaṇa served the older one, Lord Gopāla agreed to become a witness of the marriage negotiation in order to maintain the prestige of both devotees. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu would certainly not have liked to hear about marital dealings unless such dealings were exchanged between two Vaiṣṇavas. Marriage arrangements and ceremonies belong to ordinary material karma-kāṇḍa sections of the scriptures. The Vaiṣṇavas, however, are not interested in any kind of karma-kāṇḍa dealings. Śrīla Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura says: karma-kāṇḍa jñāna-kāṇḍa kevala viṣera bhāṇḍa. For a Vaiṣṇava, the karma-kāṇḍa and jñāna-kāṇḍa sections of the Vedas are unnecessary. Indeed, a real Vaiṣṇava takes these sections as a poison pot (viṣera bhāṇḍa). Sometimes we take part in a marriage ceremony for our disciples, but this does not mean that we are interested in karma-kāṇḍa activities. Sometimes, not knowing the Vaiṣṇava philosophy, an outsider criticizes such activity, maintaining that a sannyāsī should not take part in a marriage ceremony between a young boy and a young girl. However, this is not a karma-kāṇḍa activity, because our purpose is to spread the Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement. We are giving all facility to the general populace to take to Kṛṣṇa consciousness, and in order to fix the devotees in concentration on the service of the Lord, marriage is sometimes allowed. We have experienced that such married couples actually render very important service to the mission. Therefore, one should not misunderstand when a sannyāsī takes part in a marriage ceremony. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and Nityānanda Prabhu took great pleasure in hearing about the marriage ceremony between the young brāhmaṇa and the daughter of the elderly brāhmaṇa.

Text

baḍa-vipra kahe, — “tumi nā kara saṁśaya
tomāke kanyā diba āmi, karila niścaya”

Synonyms

baḍa-vipra — the older brāhmaṇa; kahe — replies; tumi — you; — not; kara — do; saṁśaya — doubt; tomāke — to you; kanyā — the daughter; diba — shall give; āmi — I; karila — made; niścaya — certainty.

Translation

The older brāhmaṇa replied, “My dear boy, do not doubt me. I will give you my daughter in charity. I have already decided this.”

Text

choṭa-vipra bale, — “tomāra strī-putra saba
bahu jñāti-goṣṭhī tomāra bahuta bāndhava

Synonyms

choṭa-vipra — the young brāhmaṇa; bale — says; tomāra — your; strī-putra — wife and sons; saba — all; bahu — many; jñāti — of family relations; goṣṭhī — group; tomāra — your; bahuta — many; bāndhava — friends.

Translation

The young brāhmaṇa said, “You have a wife and sons, and you have a large circle of relatives and friends.

Text

tā’-sabāra sammati vinā nahe kanyā-dāna
rukmiṇīra pitā bhīṣmaka tāhāte pramāṇa

Synonyms

’-sabāra — of all of them; sammati — consent; vinā — without; nahe — not; kanyā-dāna — giving the daughter in charity; rukmiṇīra — of Queen Rukmiṇī; pitā — father; bhīṣmaka — Bhīṣmaka; tāhāte — of that; pramāṇa — evidence.

Translation

“Without the consent of all your friends and relatives, it is not possible to give me your daughter in charity. Just consider the story of Queen Rukmiṇī and her father, Bhīṣmaka.

Text

bhīṣmakera icchā, — kṛṣṇe kanyā samarpite
putrera virodhe kanyā nārila arpite”

Synonyms

bhīṣmakera — of King Bhīṣmaka; icchā — the desire; kṛṣṇe — unto Kṛṣṇa; kanyā — daughter; samarpite — to give; putrera — of his son; virodhe — by the objection; kanyā — daughter; nārila — was unable; arpite — to offer.

Translation

“King Bhīṣmaka wanted to give his daughter, Rukmiṇī, in charity to Kṛṣṇa, but Rukmī, his eldest son, objected. Therefore he could not carry out his decision.”

Purport

bandhūnām icchatāṁ dātuṁkṛṣṇāya bhaginīṁ nṛpa
tato nivārya kṛṣṇa-dviḍ
rukmī caidyam amanyata

King Bhīṣmaka of Vidarbha wanted to offer Kṛṣṇa his daughter, Rukmiṇī, but Rukmī, the eldest of his five sons, objected. Therefore Bhīṣmaka withdrew his decision and decided to offer Rukmiṇī to the King of Cedi, Śiśupāla, who was a cousin of Kṛṣṇa’s. However, Rukmiṇī conceived of a trick: she sent a letter to Kṛṣṇa asking Him to kidnap her. Thus in order to please Rukmiṇī, who was His great devotee, Kṛṣṇa kidnapped her. There ensued a great fight between Kṛṣṇa and the opposing party, headed by Rukmiṇī’s brother Rukmī. Rukmī was defeated and, because of his harsh words against Kṛṣṇa, was about to be killed, but he was saved at the request of Rukmiṇī. However, Kṛṣṇa shaved off all of Rukmī’s hair with His sword. Śrī Balarāma did not like this, and so to please Rukmiṇī, Balarāma rebuked Kṛṣṇa.

Text

baḍa-vipra kahe, — “kanyā mora nija-dhana
nija-dhana dite niṣedhibe kon jana

Synonyms

baḍa-vipra kahe — the elderly brāhmaṇa says; kanyā — the daughter; mora — my; nija-dhana — own property; nija-dhana — one’s own property; dite — to give; niṣedhibe — will object; kon — what; jana — person.

Translation

The elderly brāhmaṇa said, “My daughter is my own property. If I choose to give my property to someone, who has the power to stop me?

Text

tomāke kanyā diba, sabāke kari’ tiraskāra
saṁśaya nā kara tumi, karaha svīkāra”

Synonyms

tomāke — to you; kanyā — the daughter; diba — I shall offer; sabāke — all others; kari’ — doing; tiraskāra — neglecting; saṁśaya — doubt; — not; kara — do; tumi — you; karaha — just do; svīkāra — acceptance.

Translation

“My dear boy, I will give my daughter to you in charity, and I will neglect the position of all others. Don’t doubt me in this regard; just accept my proposal.”

Text

choṭa-vipra kahe, — “yadi kanyā dite mana
gopālera āge kaha e satya-vacana”

Synonyms

choṭa-vipra kahe — the younger brāhmaṇa replies; yadi — if; kanyā — daughter; dite — to give in charity; mana — the mind; gopālera — of the Gopāla Deity; āge — in front; kaha — say; e — these; satya-vacana — words in truth.

Translation

The younger brāhmaṇa replied, “If you have decided to give your young daughter to me, then say so before the Gopāla Deity.”

Text

gopālera āge vipra kahite lāgila
‘tumi jāna, nija-kanyā ihāre āmi dila’

Synonyms

gopālera āge — in front of the Gopāla Deity; vipra — the elderly brāhmaṇa; kahite — to speak; lāgila — began; tumi jāna — my Lord, please know; nija-kanyā — my own daughter; ihāre — to this boy; āmi — I; dila — have given in charity.

Translation

Coming before Gopāla, the elderly brāhmaṇa said, “My dear Lord, please witness that I have given my daughter to this boy.”

Purport

In India it is still the custom for a daughter to be offered to someone simply by word. This is called vāg-datta. This means that the father, brother or guardian of a girl has given his word that she will be married to a certain man. Consequently, that daughter cannot be married to anyone else. She is reserved by virtue of the honest words of the father or guardian. There are many instances in which the parents of a female child have given someone a verbal promise that their daughter will be married to his son. Both parties agree to wait until the boy and girl are grown up, and then the marriage takes place. Following this custom, which is very old in India, the elderly brāhmaṇa promised to give his daughter to the younger brāhmaṇa in charity, and he promised this before the Gopāla Deity. In India the custom is to honor any promise made before the Deity. Such a promise cannot be canceled. In Indian villages, whenever there is a quarrel between two parties, they go to a temple to settle the quarrel. Whatever is spoken in front of the Deity is taken to be true, for no one would dare lie before the Deity. This same principle was followed in the Battle of Kurukṣetra. Therefore in the very beginning of the Bhagavad-gītā it is stated: dharma-kṣetre kuru-kṣetre.

By not becoming God conscious, human society is deteriorating to the lowest standard of animal life. This Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is very essential to reviving God consciousness among the general populace. If people actually become God conscious, all quarrels can be settled outside of court, as happened in the case of the two brāhmaṇas whose disagreement was settled by the witness Gopāla.

Text

choṭa-vipra bale, — “ṭhākura, tumi mora sākṣī
tomā sākṣī bolāimu, yadi anyathā dekhi”

Synonyms

choṭa-vipra bale — the younger brāhmaṇa replied; ṭhākura — my dear Lord Gopāla; tumi — You; mora — my; sākṣī — witness; tomā — unto You; sākṣī — witness; bolāimu — I shall call as; yadi — if; anyathā — otherwise; dekhi — I see.

Translation

Then the younger brāhmaṇa addressed the Deity, saying, “My dear Lord, You are my witness. I shall call for You to testify if it is necessary later on.”

Text

eta bali’ dui-jane calilā deśere
guru-buddhye choṭa-vipra bahu sevā kare

Synonyms

eta bali’ — speaking this; dui-jane — both the brāhmaṇas; calilā — went; deśere — toward their own country; guru-buddhye — accepting the elderly brāhmaṇa as guru; choṭa-vipra — the young brāhmaṇa; bahu — various; sevā — services; kare — renders.

Translation

After these talks, the two brāhmaṇas started for home. As usual, the young brāhmaṇa accompanied the elderly brāhmaṇa as if the older brāhmaṇa were a guru [spiritual master] and rendered him service in various ways.

Text

deśe āsi’ dui-jane gelā nija-ghare
kata dine baḍa-vipra cintita antare

Synonyms

deśe āsi’ — after returning to their own country; dui-jane — both of them; gelā — went; nija-ghare — to their respective homes; kata dine — after some time; baḍa-vipra — the elderly brāhmaṇa; cintita — very anxious; antare — within.

Translation

After returning to Vidyānagara, each brāhmaṇa went to his respective home. After some time, the elderly brāhmaṇa became very anxious.

Text

tīrthe vipre vākya diluṅ, — kemate satya haya
strī, putra, jñāti, bandhu jānibe niścaya

Synonyms

tīrthe — on pilgrimage; vipre — to a brāhmaṇa; vākya — word of honor; diluṅ — I have given; kemate — how; satya — true; haya — it is; strī — wife; putra — sons; jñāti — relatives; bandhu — friends; jānibe — will know; niścaya — certainly.

Translation

He began to think, “I have given my word to a brāhmaṇa in a holy place, and what I promised will certainly come to pass. I must now disclose this to my wife, sons, other relatives and friends.”

Text

eka-dina nija-loka ekatra karila
tā-sabāra āge saba vṛttānta kahila

Synonyms

eka-dina — one day; nija-loka — all his relatives; ekatra — in one place; karila — assembled; -sabāra — of all of them; āge — in front; saba — all; vṛttānta — narration; kahila — spoke.

Translation

Thus one day the elderly brāhmaṇa called for a meeting of all his relatives and friends, and before them all he narrated what had taken place in front of Gopāla.

Text

śuni’ saba goṣṭhī tāra kare hāhā-kāra
‘aiche bāt mukhe tumi nā ānibe āra

Synonyms

śuni’ — hearing; saba — all; goṣṭhī — family members and friends; tāra — of the elderly brāhmaṇa; kare — do; --kāra — exclamation of disappointment; aiche — such; bāt — proposal; mukhe — in the mouth; tumi — you; — not; ānibe — should bring; āra — again.

Translation

When those who belonged to the family circle heard the narration of the old brāhmaṇa, they made exclamations showing their disappointment. They all requested that he not make such a proposal again.

Text

nīce kanyā dile kula yāibeka nāśa
śuniñā sakala loka karibe upahāsa’

Synonyms

nīce — to a lower family; kanyā — daughter; dile — if offering; kula — family tradition; yāibeka — will go to; nāśa — destruction; śuniñā — hearing; sakala — all; loka — friends; karibe — will do; upahāsa — joking.

Translation

They unanimously agreed, “If you offer your daughter to a degraded family, your aristocracy will be lost. When people hear of this, they will make jokes and laugh at you.”

Text

vipra bale, — “tīrtha-vākya kemane kari āna
ye ha-uk, se ha-uka, āmi diba kanyā-dāna”

Synonyms

vipra bale — the brāhmaṇa says; tīrtha-vākya — the promise made on the pilgrimage; kemane — how; kari — I shall do; āna — otherwise; ye ha-uk — whatever may be; se ha-uka — let it take place; āmi — I; diba — shall give; kanyā-dāna — my daughter in charity.

Translation

The elderly brāhmaṇa said, “How can I undo the promise I made in a holy place while on pilgrimage? Whatever may happen, I must give him my daughter in charity.”

Text

jñāti loka kahe, — ‘morā tomāke chāḍiba’
strī-putra kahe, — ‘viṣa khāiyā mariba’

Synonyms

jñāti loka — the relatives; kahe — answer; morā — we all; tomāke — you; chāḍiba — will give up; strī — wife; putra — sons; kahe — say; viṣa — poison; khāiyā — drinking; mariba — we shall die.

Translation

The relatives unanimously said, “If you give your daughter to that boy, we shall give up all connection with you.” Indeed, his wife and sons declared, “If such a thing happens, we shall take poison and die.”

Text

vipra bale, — “sākṣī bolāñā karibeka nyāya
jiti’ kanyā labe, mora vyartha dharma haya”

Synonyms

vipra bale — the brāhmaṇa says; sākṣī — a witness; bolāñā — calling for; karibeka — there will be; nyāya — justice; jiti’ — winning; kanyā — the daughter; labe — he will take; mora — my; vyartha — meaningless; dharma — religious principles; haya — will be.

Translation

The elderly brāhmaṇa said, “If I do not give my daughter to the young brāhmaṇa, he will call Śrī Gopālajī as a witness. Thus he will take my daughter by force, and in that case my religious principles will become meaningless.”

Text

putra bale, — “pratimā sākṣī, seha dūra deśe
ke tomāra sākṣī dibe, cintā kara kise

Synonyms

putra bale — his son says; pratimā — the Deity; sākṣī — witness; seha — He also; dūra — distant; deśe — in country; ke — who; tomāra — of you; sākṣī — witness; dibe — will give; cintā — anxiety; kara — you do; kise — why.

Translation

His son replied, “The Deity may be a witness, but He is in a distant country. How can He come to bear witness against you? Why are you so anxious over this?

Text

nāhi kahi — nā kahio e mithyā-vacana
sabe kahibe — ‘mora kichu nāhika smaraṇa’

Synonyms

nāhi kahi — I did not say; kahio — do not say; e — this; mithyā-vacana — false statement; sabe — only; kahibe — you shall say; mora — my; kichu — anything; nāhika — not; smaraṇa — remembrance.

Translation

“You do not have to flatly deny that you spoke such a thing. There is no need to make a false statement. Simply say that you do not remember what you said.

Text

tumi yadi kaha, — ‘āmi kichui nā jāni’
tabe āmi nyāya kari’ brāhmaṇere jini”

Synonyms

tumi — you; yadi — if; kaha — say; āmi kichui jāni — I do not remember anything; tabe — in that case; āmi — I; nyāya kari’ — arguing; brāhmaṇere — the younger brāhmaṇa; jini — shall conquer.

Translation

“If you simply say, ‘I do not remember,’ I shall take care of the rest. By argument, I shall defeat the young brāhmaṇa.”

Purport

The son of the elderly brāhmaṇa was an atheist and a follower of the Raghunātha-smṛti. He was very expert in dealing with pounds-shillings-pence, but he was fool number one. Consequently, he did not believe in the spiritual position of the Deity, nor did he have any faith in the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Therefore, as a typical idol worshiper, he considered the form of the Lord to be made of stone or wood. Thus he assured his father that the witness was only a stone Deity and was not capable of speaking. Besides that, he assured his father that the Deity was situated far away and consequently could not come to bear witness. In essence, he was saying, “Have no anxiety. You do not have to lie directly, but you should speak like a diplomat, like King Yudhiṣṭhira when he spoke to Droṇācārya — aśvatthāmā hata iti gajaḥ. Following this principle, simply say that you do not remember anything and are completely unaware of the statements given by the young brāhmaṇa. If you make the background like that, I shall know how to fill in the argument and defeat him by word jugglery. Thus I shall save you from having to give your daughter to him. In this way, our aristocracy will be saved. You have nothing to worry about.”

Text

eta śuni’ viprera cintita haila mana
ekānta-bhāve cinte vipra gopāla-caraṇa

Synonyms

eta śuni’ — hearing this; viprera — of the old brāhmaṇa; cintita — agitated; haila — became; mana — the mind; ekānta-bhāve — with single-minded attention; cinte — thinks; vipra — the brāhmaṇa; gopāla-caraṇa — of the lotus feet of Śrī Gopālajī.

Translation

When the elderly brāhmaṇa heard this, his mind became very much agitated. Feeling helpless, he simply turned his attention to the lotus feet of Gopāla.

Text

‘mora dharma rakṣā pāya, nā mare nija-jana
dui rakṣā kara, gopāla, lainu śaraṇa’

Synonyms

mora — my; dharma — religious principles; rakṣā pāya — spared; — not; mare — die; nija-jana — own kinsmen; dui — two; rakṣā kara — You kindly protect; gopāla — my Lord Gopāla; lainu — I have taken; śaraṇa — shelter under Your lotus feet.

Translation

The elderly brāhmaṇa prayed, “My dear Lord Gopāla, I have taken shelter of Your lotus feet, and therefore I request You to please protect my religious principles from disturbance and at the same time save my kinsmen from dying.”

Text

ei-mata vipra citte cintite lāgila
āra dina laghu-vipra tāṅra ghare āila

Synonyms

ei-mata — in this way; vipra — the elderly brāhmaṇa; citte — within the mind; cintite — to think; lāgila — began; āra dina — the next day; laghu-vipra — the young brāhmaṇa; tāṅra — his; ghare — to the home; āila — came.

Translation

The next day, the elderly brāhmaṇa was thinking deeply about this matter when the young brāhmaṇa came to his house.

Text

āsiñā parama-bhaktye namaskāra kari’
vinaya kariñā kahe kara dui yuḍi’

Synonyms

āsiñā — coming; parama-bhaktye — in great devotion; namaskāra kari’ — offering obeisances; vinaya kariñā — with great humility; kahe — says; kara — hands; dui — two; yuḍi’ — folding.

Translation

The young brāhmaṇa came to him and offered respectful obeisances. Then, very humbly folding his hands, he spoke as follows.

Text

‘tumi more kanyā dite karyācha aṅgīkāra
ebe kichu nāhi kaha, ki tomāra vicāra’

Synonyms

tumi — you; more — to me; kanyā — your daughter; dite — to give in charity; karyācha — have made; aṅgīkāra — a promise; ebe — now; kichu — something; nāhi — not; kaha — you say; ki — what; tomāra — your; vicāra — conclusion.

Translation

“You have promised to give your daughter in charity to me. Now you do not say anything. What is your conclusion?”

Text

eta śuni’ sei vipra rahe mauna dhari’
tāṅra putra mārite āila hāte ṭheṅgā kari’

Synonyms

eta śuni’ — hearing this; sei vipra — the elderly brāhmaṇa; rahe — remains; mauna dhari’ — holding silence; tāṅra — his; putra — son; mārite — to strike; āila — came out; hāte — in hand; ṭheṅgā — stick; kari’ — taking.

Translation

After the young brāhmaṇa submitted this statement, the elderly brāhmaṇa remained silent. Taking this opportunity, his son immediately came out with a stick to strike the younger man.

Text

‘āre adhama! mora bhagnī cāha vivāhite
vāmana hañā cāṅda yena cāha ta’ dharite’

Synonyms

āre adhama — O most degraded one; mora — my; bhagnī — sister; cāha — you want; vivāhite — to marry; vāmana — a dwarf; hañā — being; cāṅda — the moon; yena — as if; cāha — you want; ta’ — certainly; dharite — to capture.

Translation

The son said, “Oh, you are most degraded! You want to marry my sister, just like a dwarf who wants to catch the moon!”

Text

ṭheñā dekhi’ sei vipra palāñā gela
āra dina grāmera loka ekatra karila

Synonyms

ṭheñā dekhi’ — seeing the stick in his hand; sei vipra — the young brāhmaṇa; palāñā gela — fled from that place; āra dina — the next day; grāmera loka — the inhabitants of the village; ekatra karila — gathered in one place.

Translation

Seeing a stick in the hand of the son, the younger brāhmaṇa fled. The next day, however, he gathered together all the people of the village.

Text

saba loka baḍa-vipre ḍākiyā ānila
tabe sei laghu-vipra kahite lāgila

Synonyms

saba loka — all the village inhabitants; baḍa-vipre — to the senior brāhmaṇa; ḍākiyā — calling; ānila — brought; tabe — then; sei laghu-vipra — the junior brāhmaṇa; kahite lāgila — began to speak.

Translation

All the people of the village then called for the elderly brāhmaṇa and brought him to their meeting place. The young brāhmaṇa then began to speak before them as follows.

Text

‘iṅha more kanyā dite karyāche aṅgīkāra
ebe ye nā dena, pucha iṅhāra vyavahāra’

Synonyms

iṅha — this gentleman; more — to me; kanyā — his daughter; dite — to give in charity; karyāche — has made; aṅgīkāra — promise; ebe — now; ye — indeed; — not; dena — he gives; pucha — kindly ask; iṅhāra — of him; vyavahāra — the behavior.

Translation

“This gentleman has promised to hand over his daughter to me, yet now he does not follow his promise. Please ask him about his behavior.”

Text

tabe sei viprere puchila sarva-jana
‘kanyā kene nā deha, yadi diyācha vacana’

Synonyms

tabe — then; sei — that; viprerebrāhmaṇa; puchila — asked; sarva-jana — all the people; kanyā — daughter; kene — why; deha — you do not give in charity; yadi — if; diyācha — have given; vacana — word of honor.

Translation

All the people gathered there asked the elderly brāhmaṇa, “If you have already promised to give him your daughter in charity, why are you not fulfilling your promise? You have given your word of honor.”

Text

vipra kahe, — ‘śuna, loka, mora nivedana
kabe ki baliyāchi, mora nāhika smaraṇa’

Synonyms

vipra kahe — the senior brāhmaṇa replied; śuna — please hear; loka — all people; mora — my; nivedana — submission; kabe — when; ki — what; baliyāchi — I have said; mora — my; nāhika — there is not; smaraṇa — remembrance.

Translation

The elderly brāhmaṇa said, “My dear friends, please hear what I have to submit. I do not exactly remember making a promise like that.”

Text

eta śuni’ tāṅra putra vākya-cchala pāñā
pragalbha ha-iyā kahe sammukhe āsiñā

Synonyms

eta śuni’ — hearing this; tāṅra putra — his son; vākya-cchala — for jugglery of words; pāñā — getting a chance; pragalbha — impudent; ha-iyā — becoming; kahe — says; sammukhe — in the front; āsiñā — coming.

Translation

When the elderly brāhmaṇa’s son heard this, he took the opportunity to juggle some words. Becoming very impudent, he stood before the assembly and spoke as follows.

Text

‘tīrtha-yātrāya pitāra saṅge chila bahu dhana
dhana dekhi ei duṣṭera laite haila mana

Synonyms

tīrtha-yātrāya — when touring the holy places; pitāra — my father; saṅge — with; chila — there was; bahu — much; dhana — money; dhana — money; dekhi — seeing; ei — this; duṣṭera — of the rogue; laite — to take; haila — it was; mana — the intention.

Translation

“While touring various holy places of pilgrimage, my father carried much money. Seeing the money, this rogue decided to take it away.

Text

āra keha saṅge nāhi, ei saṅge ekala
dhuturā khāoyāñā bāpe karila pāgala

Synonyms

āra — anyone; keha — else; saṅge — in company; nāhi — there was not; ei — this brāhmaṇa; saṅge — in company; ekala — alone; dhuturā — an intoxicant; khāoyāñā — making him eat; bāpe — my father; karila — made; pāgala — mad.

Translation

“There was no one besides this man with my father. Giving him an intoxicant known as dhuturā to eat, this rogue made my father mad.

Text

saba dhana lañā kahe — ‘core la-ila dhana’
‘kanyā dite cāhiyāche’ — uṭhāila vacana

Synonyms

saba — all; dhana — money; lañā — taking; kahe — says; core — a thief; la-ila — took; dhana — all the money; kanyā — the daughter; dite — to give in charity; cāhiyāche — has promised; uṭhāila — has raised; vacana — a slogan.

Translation

“Having taken all my father’s money, this rogue claimed that it was taken by some thief. Now he is claiming that my father has promised to give him his daughter in charity.

Text

tomarā sakala loka karaha vicāre
‘mora pitāra kanyā dite yogya ki ihāre’

Synonyms

tomarā — you; sakala — all; loka — people; karaha — just make; vicāre — judgment; mora — my; pitāra — of the father; kanyā — the daughter; dite — to give in charity; yogya — befitting; ki — is it; ihāre — to him.

Translation

“All of you assembled here are gentlemen. Please judge whether it is befitting to offer this poor brāhmaṇa my father’s daughter.”

Text

eta śuni’ lokera mane ha-ila saṁśaya
‘sambhave, — dhana-lobhe loka chāḍe dharma-bhaya’

Synonyms

eta śuni’ — hearing all this; lokera — of all the people; mane — in the minds; ha-ila — there was; saṁśaya — doubt; sambhave — possible; dhana-lobhe — by greed for money; loka — some man; chāḍe — gives up; dharma-bhaya — religious principles.

Translation

Hearing all these statements, all the people gathered there became a little doubtful. They thought it quite possible that because of attraction for riches one might give up his religious principles.

Text

tabe choṭa-vipra kahe, “śuna, mahājana
nyāya jinibāre kahe asatya-vacana

Synonyms

tabe — at that time; choṭa-vipra — the young brāhmaṇa; kahe — says; śuna — please hear; mahā-jana — all gentlemen; nyāya — the argument; jinibāre — to win; kahe — he says; asatya-vacana — untruthful statements.

Translation

At that time the young brāhmaṇa said, “My dear gentlemen, please hear. Just to gain victory in an argument, this man is lying.

Text

ei vipra mora sevāya tuṣṭa yabe hailā
‘tore āmi kanyā diba’ āpane kahilā

Synonyms

ei vipra — this brāhmaṇa; mora — my; sevāya — by the service; tuṣṭa — fully satisfied; yabe — when; hailā — he was; tore — to you; āmi — I; kanyā — daughter; diba — shall give; āpane — of his own accord; kahilā — promised.

Translation

“Being very satisfied with my service, this brāhmaṇa said to me of his own accord, ‘I promise to hand over my daughter to you.’

Text

tabe muñi niṣedhinu, — śuna, dvija-vara
tomāra kanyāra yogya nahi muñi vara

Synonyms

tabe — at that time; muñi — I; niṣedhinu — forbade; śuna — hear; dvija-vara — O best of the brāhmaṇas; tomāra — your; kanyāra — for the daughter; yogya — suitable; nahi — not; muñi — I; vara — husband.

Translation

“At that time I forbade him to do this, telling him, ‘O best of the brāhmaṇas, I am not a fit husband for your daughter.

Text

kāhāṅ tumi paṇḍita, dhanī, parama kulīna
kāhāṅ muñi daridra, mūrkha, nīca, kula-hīna

Synonyms

kāhāṅ — whereas; tumi — you; paṇḍita — learned scholar; dhanī — rich man; parama — first class; kulīna — aristocracy; kāhāṅ — whereas; muñi — I; daridra — poor man; mūrkha — not educated; nīca — fallen; kula-hīna — without aristocracy.

Translation

“ ‘Whereas you are a learned scholar, a rich man belonging to an aristocratic family, I am a poor man, uneducated and with no claim to aristocracy.’

Text

tabu ei vipra more kahe bāra bāra
tore kanyā diluṅ, tumi karaha svīkāra

Synonyms

tabu — still; ei — this; viprabrāhmaṇa; more — to me; kahe — says; bāra bāra — again and again; tore — to you; kanyā — my daughter; diluṅ — I have given in charity; tumi — you; karaha — make; svīkāra — acceptance.

Translation

“Still this brāhmaṇa insisted. Again and again he asked me to accept his proposal, saying, ‘I have given you my daughter. Please accept her.’

Text

tabe āmi kahilāṅ — śuna, mahā-mati
tomāra strī-putra-jñātira nā habe sammati

Synonyms

tabe — at that time; āmi — I; kahilāṅ — said; śuna — please hear; mahā-mati — O intelligent brāhmaṇa; tomāra — your; strī-putra — wife and children; jñātira — kinsmen; habe sammati — will not agree.

Translation

“I then said, ‘Please hear. You are a learned brāhmaṇa. Your wife, friends and relatives will never agree to this proposal.

Text

kanyā dite nāribe, habe asatya-vacana
punarapi kahe vipra kariyā yatana

Synonyms

kanyā — daughter; dite — to give; nāribe — you will not be able; habe — it will become; asatya-vacana — a false statement; punarapi — again; kahe — he says; vipra — the brāhmaṇa; kariyā yatana — with great attention.

Translation

“ ‘My dear sir, you will not be able to fulfill your promise. Your promise will be broken.’ Yet, again and again the brāhmaṇa emphasized his promise.

Text

kanyā tore diluṅ, dvidhā nā kariha cite
ātma-kanyā diba, kebā pāre niṣedhite

Synonyms

kanyā — the daughter; tore — to you; diluṅ — I have given; dvidhā — hesitation; — do not; kariha — do; cite — within your mind; ātma-kanyā — my own daughter; diba — I shall give; kebā — who; pāre — is able; niṣedhite — to forbid.

Translation

“ ‘I have offered you my daughter. Do not hesitate. She is my daughter, and I shall give her to you. Who can forbid me?’

Text

tabe āmi kahilāṅ dṛḍha kari’ mana
gopālera āge kaha e-satya vacana

Synonyms

tabe — at that time; āmi — I; kahilāṅ — said; dṛḍha karimana — fixing my mind; gopālera āge — in front of the Gopāla Deity; kaha — speak; e-satya vacana — this truthful statement.

Translation

“At that time I concentrated my mind and requested the brāhmaṇa to make the promise before the Gopāla Deity.

Text

tabe iṅho gopālera āgete kahila
tumi jāna, ei vipre kanyā āmi dila

Synonyms

tabe — at that time; iṅho — this gentleman; gopālera — of the Gopāla Deity; āgete — in front; kahila — he said; tumi jāna — my Lord, please know; ei vipre — unto this young brāhmaṇa; kanyā — my daughter; āmi — I; dila — have offered.

Translation

“Then this gentleman said in front of the Gopāla Deity, ‘My dear Lord, please bear witness. I have offered my daughter to this brāhmaṇa in charity.’

Text

tabe āmi gopālere sākṣī kariñā
kahilāṅ tāṅra pade minati kariñā

Synonyms

tabe — at that time; āmi — I; gopālere — to the Gopāla Deity; sākṣī — the witness; kariñā — making; kahilāṅ — said; tāṅra pade — at His lotus feet; minati — humility; kariñā — making.

Translation

“Accepting the Gopāla Deity as my witness, I then submitted the following at His lotus feet.

Text

yadi ei vipra more nā dibe kanyā-dāna
sākṣī bolāimu tomāya, ha-io sāvadhāna

Synonyms

yadi — if; ei — this; viprabrāhmaṇa; more — to me; — not; dibe — will give; kanyā-dāna — his daughter in charity; sākṣī bolāimu — I shall call as a witness; tomāya — You; ha-io sāvadhāna — kindly be attentive.

Translation

“ ‘If this brāhmaṇa later hesitates to give me his daughter, my dear Lord, I shall call on You as a witness. Please note this with care and attention.’

Text

ei vākye sākṣī mora āche mahājana
yāṅra vākya satya kari māne tribhuvana”

Synonyms

ei vākye — in this statement; sākṣī — witness; mora — my; āche — there is; mahājana — a great personality; yāṅra — whose; vākya — words; satya — true; kari — taking as; māne — accepts; tri-bhuvana — the whole world.

Translation

“Thus I have called upon a great personality in this transaction. I have asked the Supreme Godhead to be my witness. The entire world accepts the words of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.”

Purport

Although the young brāhmaṇa described himself as having no claims to aristocracy and being an uneducated common man, still he had one good qualification: he believed that the Supreme Personality of Godhead was the topmost authority, he accepted the words of Lord Kṛṣṇa without hesitation, and he had firm faith in the Lord’s consistency. According to Prahlāda Mahārāja, another authority on the Supreme Personality of Godhead, such a staunch and faithful devotee of the Lord must be understood to be a most learned scholar: tan manye ’dhītam uttamam (Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam 7.5.24). A pure devotee who has firm faith in the words of the Supreme Personality of Godhead is to be considered a most learned scholar, the topmost aristocrat and the richest man in the whole world. All godly qualities automatically exist in such a devotee. In the preaching work of the Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement, we, as the servant of the servant of the servant of the servant of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, fully believe in the words of Kṛṣṇa and His servants, the disciplic succession. In this way we are presenting the words of Kṛṣṇa throughout the world. Even though we are neither a rich man nor a very learned scholar, and even though we do not belong to any aristocracy, this movement is still being welcomed and is very easily spreading all over the world. Although we are very poor and have no professional source of income, Kṛṣṇa supplies money whenever we need it. Whenever we need some men, Kṛṣṇa supplies them. Thus it is stated in the Bhagavad-gītā (6.22): yaṁ labdhvā cāparaṁ lābhaṁ manyate nādhikaṁ tataḥ. Actually, if we can attain the favor of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa, we do not need anything else. We certainly do not need those things which a mundane person considers to be material assets.

Text

tabe baḍa-vipra kahe, “ei satya kathā
gopāla yadi sākṣī dena, āpane āsi’ ethā
tabe kanyā diba āmi, jāniha niścaya”
tāṅra putra kahe, — ‘ei bhāla bāta haya’

Synonyms

tabe — at that time; baḍa-vipra — the elderly brāhmaṇa; kahe — says; ei satya kathā — this is true; gopāla — the Gopāla Deity; yadi — if; sākṣī — witness; dena — gives; āpane — personally; āsi’ — coming; ethā — here; tabe — at that time; kanyā — daughter; diba — must give in charity; āmi — I; jāniha — you all know it; niścaya — certainly; tāṅra — his; putra — son; kahe — says; ei — this; bhāla — nice; bāta — statement; haya — is.

Translation

Taking this opportunity, the elderly brāhmaṇa immediately confirmed that this was really true. He said, “If Gopāla personally comes here to serve as a witness, I shall surely give my daughter to the young brāhmaṇa.”

Purport

The elderly brāhmaṇa’s son immediately confirmed this, saying, “Yes, this is a very nice settlement.”

As the Supersoul within the heart of all living entities, Kṛṣṇa knows everyone’s desire, everyone’s request and everyone’s prayer. Although all these may be contradictory, the Lord has to create a situation in which everyone will be pleased. This is an instance of a marriage negotiation between an elderly brāhmaṇa and a youthful one. The elderly brāhmaṇa was certainly willing to give his daughter in charity to the young brāhmaṇa, but his son and relatives became impediments to this transaction. The elderly brāhmaṇa considered how to get out of this situation and still offer his daughter to the young brāhmaṇa. His son, an atheist and a very cunning fellow, was thinking of how to stop the marriage. The father and son were thinking in a contradictory way, yet Kṛṣṇa created a situation wherein they agreed. They both agreed that if the Gopāla Deity would come and serve as a witness, the daughter would be given to the young brāhmaṇa.

Text

baḍa-viprera mane, — ‘kṛṣṇa baḍa dayāvān
avaśya mora vākya teṅho karibe pramāṇa’

Synonyms

baḍa-viprera mane — within the mind of the elderly brāhmaṇa; kṛṣṇa — Lord Kṛṣṇa; baḍa — very; dayāvān — merciful; avaśya — certainly; mora — my; vākya — words; teṅho — He; karibe — will make; pramāṇa — evidence.

Translation

The elderly brāhmaṇa thought, “Since Lord Kṛṣṇa is very merciful, He will certainly come to prove my statement.”

Text

putrera mane, — ‘pratimā nā āsibe sākṣī dite’
ei buddhye dui-jana ha-ilā sammate

Synonyms

putrera mane — in the mind of the son; pratimā — the Deity; — not; āsibe — will come; sākṣī dite — to give witness; ei — this; buddhye — in understanding; dui-jana — both the father and the son; ha-ilā sammate — agreed.

Translation

The atheistic son thought, “It is not possible for Gopāla to come and bear witness.” Thinking thus, the father and son agreed.

Text

choṭa-vipra bale, — ‘patra karaha likhana
punaḥ yena nāhi cale e-saba vacana’

Synonyms

choṭa-vipra — the young brāhmaṇa; bale — says; patra — paper; karaha — do; likhana — writing; punaḥ — again; yena — so that; nāhi — not; cale — change; e-saba — all these; vacana — statements.

Translation

The young brāhmaṇa took this opportunity to speak: “Please write this down on paper in black and white so that you may not again change your word of honor.”

Text

tabe saba loka meli’ patra ta’ likhila
duṅhāra sammati lañā madhyastha rākhila

Synonyms

tabe — then; saba loka — all the people; meli’ — gathered together; patra — leaf paper; ta’ — indeed; likhila — wrote; duṅhāra — of both of them; sammati — the agreement; lañā — taking; madhya-stha — as mediator; rākhila — remained.

Translation

All the assembled people got this statement down in black and white and, taking the signatures of agreement from both of them, served as the mediators.

Text

tabe choṭa-vipra kahe, — śuna, sarva-jana
ei vipra — satya-vākya, dharma-parāyaṇa

Synonyms

tabe — at that time; choṭa-vipra — the young brāhmaṇa; kahe — says; śuna — please hear; sarva-jana — O all gentlemen present here; ei vipra — this elderly brāhmaṇa; satya-vākya — always truthful; dharma-parāyaṇa — religious.

Translation

The young brāhmaṇa then said, “Will all you gentlemen present please hear me? This elderly brāhmaṇa is certainly truthful and is following religious principles.

Text

sva-vākya chāḍite iṅhāra nāhi kabhu mana
svajana-mṛtyu-bhaye kahe asatya-vacana

Synonyms

sva-vākya — his own promise; chāḍite — to give up; iṅhāra — of this brāhmaṇa; nāhi — not; kabhu — at any time; mana — the mind; sva-jana — of his own kinsmen; mṛtyu-bhaye — fearing the suicide; kahe — says; asatya-vacana — untruthful words.

Translation

“He had no desire to break his promise, but fearing that his kinsmen would commit suicide, he deviated from the truth.

Text

iṅhāra puṇye kṛṣṇe āni’ sākṣī bolāiba
tabe ei viprera satya-pratijñā rākhiba

Synonyms

iṅhāra puṇye — by his piety; kṛṣṇe — Lord Kṛṣṇa; āni’ — bringing; sākṣī — witness; bolāiba — I shall call; tabe — at that time; ei viprera — of this brāhmaṇa; satya — truthful; pratijñā — the promise; rākhiba — I shall keep.

Translation

“By the piety of the elderly brāhmaṇa, I shall call the Supreme Personality of Godhead as a witness. Thus I shall keep his truthful promise intact.”

Text

eta śuni’ nāstika loka upahāsa kare
keha bale, īśvara — dayālu, āsiteha pāre

Synonyms

eta śuni’ — hearing this; nāstika — atheistic; loka — class of men; upahāsa — joking; kare — do; keha bale — someone says; īśvara — God; dayālu — merciful; āsiteha pāre — He is able to come.

Translation

Hearing the emphatic statement of the younger brāhmaṇa, some atheists in the meeting began to cut jokes. However, someone else said, “After all, the Lord is merciful, and if He likes, He can come.”

Text

tabe sei choṭa-vipra gelā vṛndāvana
daṇḍavat kari’ kahe saba vivaraṇa

Synonyms

tabe — after this; sei — that; choṭa-vipra — young brāhmaṇa; gelā — went; vṛndāvana — to Vṛndāvana; daṇḍavat kari’ — after offering respects; kahe — tells; saba — all; vivaraṇa — the description.

Translation

After the meeting, the young brāhmaṇa started for Vṛndāvana. Upon arriving there, he first offered his respectful obeisances to the Deity and then narrated everything in full detail.

Text

“brahmaṇya-deva tumi baḍa dayā-maya
dui viprera dharma rākha hañā sadaya

Synonyms

brahmaṇya-deva — O Lord of brahminical culture; tumi — You; baḍa — very; dayā-maya — merciful; dui — two; viprera — of brāhmaṇas; dharma — the religious principles; rākha — protect; hañā — becoming; sa-daya — merciful.

Translation

He said, “My Lord, You are the protector of brahminical culture, and You are also very merciful. Therefore, kindly show Your great mercy by protecting the religious principles of us two brāhmaṇas.

Text

kanyā pāba, — mora mane ihā nāhi sukha
brāhmaṇera pratijñā yāya — ei baḍa duḥkha

Synonyms

kanyā pāba — I shall get the daughter; mora — my; mane — in the mind; ihā — this; nāhi — is not; sukha — happiness; brāhmaṇera — of a pure brāhmaṇa; pratijñā — the promise; yāya — becomes lost; ei — this; baḍa — very much; duḥkha — unhappiness.

Translation

“My dear Lord, I am not thinking to become happy by getting the daughter as a bride. I am simply thinking that the brāhmaṇa has broken his promise, and that is giving me great pain.”

Purport

It was not at all the intention of the young brāhmaṇa to get the daughter of the elderly brāhmaṇa in marriage and thus enjoy material happiness and sense gratification. It was not for that reason that the young brāhmaṇa went to Vṛndāvana to ask the Supreme Personality of Godhead to act as a witness. His only concern was that the elderly brāhmaṇa had promised something, and if Gopāla did not bear witness to that transaction, then the older brāhmaṇa would incur a spiritual blemish. Therefore, the young brāhmaṇa wanted protection and help from the Deity. The young brāhmaṇa was thus a pure Vaiṣṇava, and he had no desire for sense gratification. He wanted only to serve the Supreme Personality of Godhead and the older brāhmaṇa, who was also a Vaiṣṇava and very much devoted to the Lord.

Text

eta jāni’ tumi sākṣī deha, dayā-maya
jāni’ sākṣī nāhi deya, tāra pāpa haya

Synonyms

eta jāni’ — knowing this; tumi — You; sākṣī — witness; deha — please give; dayā-maya — O most merciful one; jāni’ — knowing; sākṣī — witness; nāhi deya — does not give; tāra — for him; pāpa — sin; haya — there is.

Translation

The young brāhmaṇa continued, “My dear Sir, You are very merciful and You know everything. Therefore, kindly be a witness in this case. A person who knows things as they are and still does not bear witness becomes involved in sinful activities.”

Purport

The dealings between a devotee and the Lord are very simple. The young brāhmaṇa said to the Lord, “You know everything, but if You do not bear witness, You will be involved in sinful activities.” There is no possibility, however, of the Lord’s being involved in sinful activities. A pure devotee, even though he knows everything of the Supreme Lord, can speak with the Lord exactly as if He were a common man. Although the dealings between the Lord and His devotee are always very simple and open, there is formality. All these things happen because of the connection between the Lord and the devotee.

Text

kṛṣṇa kahe, — vipra, tumi yāha sva-bhavane
sabhā kari’ more tumi kariha smaraṇe

Synonyms

kṛṣṇa kahe — Lord Kṛṣṇa says; vipra — My dear brāhmaṇa; tumi — you; yāha — go back; sva-bhavane — to your own home; sabhā kari’ — calling a meeting of all the men; more — of Me; tumi — you; kariha — just do; smaraṇe — remembering.

Translation

Lord Kṛṣṇa replied, “My dear brāhmaṇa, go back to your home and call a meeting of all the men. In that meeting, just try to remember Me.

Text

āvirbhāva hañā āmi tāhāṅ sākṣī diba
tabe dui viprera satya pratijñā rākhiba

Synonyms

āvirbhāva — appearance; hañā — making; āmi — I; tāhāṅ — there; sākṣī — witness; diba — shall give; tabe — at that time; dui — two; viprera — of the brāhmaṇas; satya — truthful; pratijñā — promise; rākhiba — I shall keep.

Translation

“I shall certainly appear there, and at that time I shall protect the honor of both you brāhmaṇas by bearing witness to the promise.”

Text

vipra bale, — “yadi hao caturbhuja-mūrti
tabu tomāra vākye kāru nā habe pratīti

Synonyms

vipra bale — the young brāhmaṇa says; yadi — if; hao — You become; catuḥ-bhuja — four-handed; mūrti — Deity; tabu — still; tomāra — Your; vākye — in the word; kāru — of anyone; — not; habe — there will be; pratīti — belief.

Translation

The young brāhmaṇa replied, “My dear sir, even if You appear there as a four-handed Viṣṇu Deity, still, none of those people will believe in Your words.

Text

ei mūrti giyā yadi ei śrī-vadane
sākṣī deha yadi — tabe sarva-loka śune”

Synonyms

ei — this; mūrti — in the form; giyā — going; yadi — if; ei — this; śrī-vadane — from Your beautiful face; sākṣī — witness; deha — You give; yadi — if; tabe — then; sarva-loka — all people; śune — will hear.

Translation

“Only if You go there in this form of Gopāla and speak the words from Your beautiful face will Your testimony be heard by all the people.”

Text

kṛṣṇa kahe, — “pratimā cale, kothāha nā śuni”
vipra bale, — “pratimā hañā kaha kene vāṇī

Synonyms

kṛṣṇa kahe — Lord Kṛṣṇa says; pratimā cale — a Deity walks; kothāha — anywhere; śuni — I have not heard; vipra bale — the young brāhmaṇa replies; pratimā hañā — in Your Deity form; kaha kene vāṇī — how do You speak words.

Translation

Lord Kṛṣṇa said, “I’ve never heard of a Deity’s walking from one place to another.”

Purport

The brāhmaṇa replied, “That is true, but how is it that You are speaking to me, although You are a Deity?

Text

pratimā naha tumi — sākṣāt vrajendra-nandana
vipra lāgi’ kara tumi akārya-karaṇa”

Synonyms

pratimā — a statue; naha — are not; tumi — You; sākṣāt — directly; vrajendra-nandana — the son of Nanda Mahārāja; vipra lāgi’ — for the sake of the brāhmaṇa; kara tumi — You can do; akārya-karaṇa — an action You have never done before.

Translation

“My dear Lord, You are not a statue; You are directly the son of Mahārāja Nanda. Now, for the sake of the old brāhmaṇa, You can do something You have never done before.”

Text

hāsiñā gopāla kahe, — “śunaha, brāhmaṇa
tomāra pāche pāche āmi kariba gamana

Synonyms

hāsiñā — smiling; gopāla — the Lord Gopāla; kahe — says; śunaha — just hear; brāhmaṇa — O My dear brāhmaṇa; tomāra — you; pāche pāche — behind; āmi — I; kariba — shall do; gamana — walking.

Translation

Śrī Gopālajī then smiled and said, “My dear brāhmaṇa, just listen to Me. I shall walk behind you, and in this way I shall go with you.”

Purport

The conversation between Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa and the brāhmaṇa is proof that the Lord in His arcā-mūrti, or form made of material elements, is not material, for those elements, although separated from the Lord, are also a part of the Lord’s energy, as stated in the Bhagavad-gītā. Because the elements are the Lord’s own energy and because there is no difference between the energy and the energetic, the Lord can appear through any element. Just as the sun can act through the sunshine and thus distribute its heat and light, so Kṛṣṇa, by His inconceivable power, can appear in His original spiritual form in any material element, including stone, wood, paint, gold, silver and jewels, because the material elements are all His energy. The śāstras warn, arcye viṣṇau śilā-dhīḥ . . . nārakī saḥ: one should never think of the arcā-mūrti, the Deity within the temple, as stone, wood or any other material element. Because of his advanced devotional position, the younger brāhmaṇa knew that although the Deity of Gopāla appeared to be stone, He was not stone. He was the son of Nanda Mahārāja, Vrajendra-nandana Himself. As such, the Deity could act exactly as the Lord does in His original form as Kṛṣṇa.

Lord Kṛṣṇa was talking to the young brāhmaṇa just to test his knowledge about the arcā-vigraha. In other words, those who have understood the science of Kṛṣṇa — Kṛṣṇa’s name, form, qualities and so forth — can also talk with the Deity. To an ordinary person, however, the Deity will appear to be made of stone, wood or some other material. In the higher sense, since all material elements ultimately emanate from the supreme spiritual entity, nothing is really material. Being omnipotent, omnipresent and omniscient, Kṛṣṇa can deal with His devotee in any form without difficulty. By the mercy of the Lord, the devotee knows perfectly well about the Lord’s dealings. Indeed, he can talk face to face with the Lord.

Text

ulaṭiyā āmā tumi nā kariha daraśane
āmāke dekhile, āmi rahiba sei sthāne

Synonyms

ulaṭiyā — turning your face; āmā — Me; tumi — you; — not; kariha — do; daraśane — seeing; āmāke — Me; dekhile — if you see; āmi — I; rahiba — shall stay; sei sthāne — in that very place.

Translation

The Lord continued, “Do not try to see Me by turning around. As soon as you see Me, I shall remain stationary in that very place.

Text

nūpurera dhvani-mātra āmāra śunibā
sei śabde āmāra gamana pratīti karibā

Synonyms

nūpurera — of the ankle bells; dhvani-mātra — the sound only; āmāra — My; śunibā — you will hear; sei śabde — by hearing that sound; āmāra — My; gamana — coming; pratīti — understanding; karibā — you will do.

Translation

“You will know that I am walking behind you by the sound of My ankle bells.

Text

eka-sera anna rāndhi’ kariha samarpaṇa
tāhā khāñā tomāra saṅge kariba gamana

Synonyms

eka-sera — one kilo; anna — of rice; rāndhi’ — cooking; kariha — do; samarpaṇa — offering; tāhā — that; khāñā — eating; tomāra — of you; saṅge — in the company; kariba — I shall do; gamana — walking.

Translation

“Cook one kilo of rice daily and offer it. I shall eat that rice and follow behind you.”

Text

āra dina ājñā māgi’ calilā brāhmaṇa
tāra pāche pāche gopāla karilā gamana

Synonyms

āra dina — the next day; ājñā — permission; māgi’ — begging; calilā — started; brāhmaṇa — the young brāhmaṇa; tāra — him; pāche — behind; pāche — behind; gopāla — Lord Gopāla; karilā — began; gamana — following.

Translation

The next day, the brāhmaṇa begged permission from Gopāla and started for his country. Gopāla followed him, step by step.

Text

nūpurera dhvani śuni’ ānandita mana
uttamānna pāka kari’ karāya bhojana

Synonyms

nūpurera — of the ankle bells; dhvani — the sounds; śuni’ — hearing; ānandita — very pleased; mana — the mind; uttama-anna — first-class rice; pāka — cooking; kari’ — doing; karāya — causes; bhojana — eating.

Translation

While Gopāla followed the young brāhmaṇa, the tinkling sound of His ankle bells could be heard. The brāhmaṇa became very pleased, and he cooked first-class rice for Gopāla to eat.

Text

ei-mate cali’ vipra nija-deśe āilā
grāmera nikaṭa āsi’ manete cintilā

Synonyms

ei-mate — in this way; cali’ — walking; vipra — the brāhmaṇa; nija — own; deśe — to the country; āilā — returned; grāmera — to the village; nikaṭa — near; āsi’ — coming; manete — within his mind; cintilā — thought.

Translation

The young brāhmaṇa walked and walked in this way until he eventually arrived in his own country. When he neared his own village, he began to think as follows.

Text

‘ebe muñi grāme āinu, yāimu bhavana
lokere kahiba giyā sākṣīra āgamana

Synonyms

ebe — now; muñi — I; grāme — to the village; āinu — have come; yāimu — I shall go; bhavana — to my home; lokere — the people; kahiba — I shall tell; giyā — going there; sākṣīra — of the witness; āgamana — about the arrival.

Translation

“I have now come to my village, and I shall go to my home and tell all the people that the witness has arrived.”

Text

sākṣāte nā dekhile mane pratīti nā haya
ihāṅ yadi rahena, tabu nāhi kichu bhaya’

Synonyms

sākṣāte — directly; — not; dekhile — if seeing; mane — in the mind; pratīti — assurance; — not; haya — there is; ihāṅ — here; yadi — if; rahena — the Lord stays; tabu — still; nāhi — there is not; kichu — any; bhaya — fear.

Translation

The brāhmaṇa then began to think that if the people didn’t directly see the Gopāla Deity, they would not believe that He had arrived. “But even if Gopāla stays here,” he thought, “there is still nothing to fear.”

Text

eta bhāvi’ sei vipra phiriyā cāhila
hāsiñā gopāla-deva tathāya rahila

Synonyms

eta bhāvi’ — thinking like this; sei — that; viprabrāhmaṇa; phiriyā — turning; cāhila — saw; hāsiñā — smiling; gopāla-deva — Lord Gopāladeva, the Supreme Personality of Godhead; tathāya — there; rahila — stayed.

Translation

Thinking this, the brāhmaṇa turned to look back, and He saw that Gopāla, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, was standing there smiling.

Text

brāhmaṇere kahe, — “tumi yāha nija-ghara
ethāya rahiba āmi, nā yāba ataḥpara”

Synonyms

brāhmaṇere kahe — He asked the brāhmaṇa; tumi — you; yāha — go; nija-ghara — to your own home; ethāya — here in this place; rahiba — shall stay; āmi — I; — not; yāba — shall go; ataḥpara — hereafter.

Translation

The Lord told the brāhmaṇa, “Now you can go home. I shall stay here and shall not leave.”

Text

tabe sei vipra yāi nagare kahila
śuniñā sakala loka camatkāra haila

Synonyms

tabe — thereafter; sei — that; viprabrāhmaṇa; yāi — going; nagare — to the town; kahila — said; śuniñā — hearing; sakala — all; loka — the people; camatkāra — struck with wonder; haila — were.

Translation

The young brāhmaṇa then went to the town and informed all the people about Gopāla’s arrival. Hearing this, the people were struck with wonder.

Text

āila sakala loka sākṣī dekhibāre
gopāla dekhiñā loka daṇḍavat kare

Synonyms

āila — came; sakala — all; loka — the people; sākṣī — the witness; dekhibāre — to see; gopāla — Lord Gopāla; dekhiñā — seeing; loka — all the people; daṇḍavat — offering obeisances; kare — do.

Translation

All the townspeople went to see the witness Gopāla, and when they saw the Lord actually standing there, they all offered their respectful obeisances.

Text

gopāla-saundarya dekhi’ loke ānandita
pratimā caliñā āilā, — śuniñā vismita

Synonyms

gopāla — of Lord Gopāla; saundarya — the beauty; dekhi’ — seeing; loke — everyone; ānandita — pleased; pratimā — the Deity; caliñā — walking; āilā — came; śuniñā — hearing this; vismita — surprised.

Translation

When the people arrived, they were very pleased to see the beauty of Gopāla, and when they heard that He had actually walked there, they were all surprised.

Text

tabe sei baḍa-vipra ānandita hañā
gopālera āge paḍe daṇḍavat hañā

Synonyms

tabe — thereafter; sei — that; baḍa-vipra — elderly brāhmaṇa; ānandita — pleased; hañā — becoming; gopālera — of Lord Gopāla; āge — in front; paḍe — falls down; daṇḍavat — like a stick; hañā — becoming.

Translation

Then the elderly brāhmaṇa, being very pleased, came forward and immediately fell like a stick in front of Gopāla.

Text

sakala lokera āge gopāla sākṣī dila
baḍa-vipra choṭa-vipre kanyā-dāna kaila

Synonyms

sakala — all; lokera — of the people; āge — in the presence; gopāla — Lord Gopāla; sākṣī — witness; dila — gave; baḍa-vipra — the elderly brāhmaṇa; choṭa-vipre — unto the young brāhmaṇa; kanyā-dāna — giving the daughter in charity; kaila — did.

Translation

Thus in the presence of all the townspeople, Lord Gopāla bore witness that the elderly brāhmaṇa had offered his daughter in charity to the young brāhmaṇa.

Text

tabe sei dui vipre kahila īśvara
“tumi-dui — janme-janme āmāra kiṅkara

Synonyms

tabe — thereafter; sei — those; dui — two; vipre — unto the brāhmaṇas; kahila — spoke; īśvara — the Lord; tumi-dui — both of you; janme-janme — birth after birth; āmāra — My; kiṅkara — servants.

Translation

After the marriage ceremony was performed, the Lord informed both brāhmaṇas, “You two brāhmaṇas are My eternal servants, birth after birth.”

Purport

Like these two brāhmaṇas of Vidyānagara, there are many devotees who are eternal servants of the Lord. They are specifically known as nitya-siddha, eternally perfect. Although the nitya-siddhas appear in the material world and seem to be common members of the world, they never forget the Supreme Personality of Godhead in any condition. This is the symptom of a nitya-siddha.

There are two kinds of living entities — nitya-siddha and nitya-baddha. The nitya-siddha never forgets his relationship with the Supreme Personality, whereas the nitya-baddha is always conditioned, even before the creation. He always forgets his relationship with the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Here the Lord informs the two brāhmaṇas that they are His servants birth after birth. The phrase birth after birth refers to the material world because in the spiritual world there is no birth, death, old age or disease. By the order of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the nitya-siddha remains within this material world like an ordinary man, but the only business of the nitya-siddha is to broadcast the glories of the Lord. This incident appears to be an ordinary story about a marriage transaction involving two ordinary people. However, Kṛṣṇa accepted the two brāhmaṇas as His eternal servants. Both brāhmaṇas took much trouble in these negotiations, just like mundane people, yet they were acting as eternal servants of the Lord. All nitya-siddhas within this material world may appear to toil like ordinary men, but they never forget their position as servants of the Lord.

Another point: The elderly brāhmaṇa belonged to an aristocratic family and was learned and wealthy. The young brāhmaṇa belonged to an ordinary family and was uneducated. But these mundane qualifications do not concern a nitya-siddha engaged in the service of the Lord. We have to accept the fact that the nitya-siddhas are completely distinct from the nitya-baddhas, who are ordinary human beings. Śrīla Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura confirms this statement:

gaurāṅgera saṅgi-gaṇe,nitya-siddha kari’ māne,
se yāya vrajendra-suta pāśa
śrī-gauḍa-maṇḍala-bhūmi,
yebā jāne cintāmaṇi
tāra haya vraja-bhūme vāsa

One who accepts the associates of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu as nitya-siddhas is certain to be elevated to the spiritual kingdom to become an associate of the Supreme Lord. One should also know that Gauḍa-maṇḍala-bhūmi — those places in Bengal where Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu stayed — are equal to Vrajabhūmi, or Vṛndāvana. There is no difference between the inhabitants of Vṛndāvana and those of Gauḍa-maṇḍala-bhūmi, or Śrīdhāma Māyāpur.

Text

duṅhāra satye tuṣṭa ha-ilāṅ, duṅhe māga’ vara”
dui-vipra vara māge ānanda-antara

Synonyms

duṅhāra satye — in the truthfulness of both of you; tuṣṭa ha-ilāṅ — I have become satisfied; duṅhe — both of you; māga’ — ask; vara — some benediction; dui-vipra — both the brāhmaṇas; vara — a benediction; māge — beg; ānanda — pleased; antara — within.

Translation

The Lord continued, “I have become very much pleased by the truthfulness of you both. Now you can ask for a benediction.” Thus with great pleasure the two brāhmaṇas begged for a benediction.

Text

“yadi vara dibe, tabe raha ei sthāne
kiṅkarere dayā tava sarva-loke jāne”

Synonyms

yadi — if; vara — benediction; dibe — You will offer; tabe — then; raha — stay; ei sthāne — in this quarter; kiṅkarere — to Your servants; dayā — mercy; tava — Your; sarva-loke — all people; jāne — may know.

Translation

The brāhmaṇas said, “Please remain here so that people all over the world will know how merciful You are to Your servants.”

Text

gopāla rahilā, duṅhe karena sevana
dekhite āilā saba deśera loka-jana

Synonyms

gopāla — Lord Gopāla; rahilā — stayed; duṅhe — both of them; karena — do; sevana — service; dekhite — to see; āilā — came; saba — all; deśera — of the countries; loka-jana — the people.

Translation

Lord Gopāla stayed, and the two brāhmaṇas engaged in His service. After hearing of the incident, many people from different countries began to come to see Gopāla.

Text

se deśera rājā āila āścarya śuniñā
parama santoṣa pāila gopāle dekhiñā

Synonyms

se deśera — of that country; rājā — the King; āila — came; āścarya — about the wonder; śuniñā — hearing; parama — great; santoṣa — satisfaction; pāila — achieved; gopāle — Gopāla; dekhiñā — by seeing.

Translation

Eventually the King of that country heard this wonderful story, and he also came to see Gopāla and thus became very satisfied.

Text

mandira kariyā rājā sevā cālāila
‘sākṣi-gopāla’ bali’ tāṅra nāma khyāti haila

Synonyms

mandira — a temple; kariyā — constructing; rājā — the King; sevā — service; cālāila — regularly carried on; sākṣi-gopāla — by the name Sākṣi-gopāla; bali’ — known as; tāṅra — His; nāma — name; khyāti — celebrated; haila — was.

Translation

The King constructed a nice temple, and regular service was executed. Gopāla became very famous under the name of Sākṣi-gopāla [the witness Gopāla].

Text

ei mata vidyānagare sākṣi-gopāla
sevā aṅgīkāra kari’ āchena cira-kāla

Synonyms

ei mata — in this way; vidyānagare — in the town of Vidyānagara; sākṣi-gopāla — the witness Gopāla; sevā — service; aṅgīkāra — acceptance; kari’ — doing; āchena — remains; cira-kāla — a long time.

Translation

Thus Sākṣi-gopāla stayed in Vidyānagara and accepted service for a very long time.

Purport

This city of Vidyānagara is situated in Trailaṅga-deśa, South India, on the bank of the river Godāvarī. The place where the Godāvarī flows into the Bay of Bengal is called Koṭadeśa. The Orissa kingdom was very powerful, and Koṭadeśa was the capital of Orissa. It was then known as Vidyānagara. Formerly this city was situated on the southern side of the river Godāvarī. At that time King Puruṣottama-deva managed to control Orissa and appoint a government. The present city of Vidyānagara is on the southeast side of the river, only twenty to twenty-five miles from Rajahmundry. During the time of Mahārāja Pratāparudra, Śrī Rāmānanda Rāya was the governor there. Vijaya-nagara is not identical with Vidyānagara.

Text

utkalera rājā puruṣottama-deva nāma
sei deśa jini’ nila kariyā saṅgrāma

Synonyms

utkalera — of Orissa; rājā — the King; puruṣottamadeva — Puruṣottama-deva; nāma — named; sei deśa — this country; jini’ — conquering; nila — took; kariyā — executing; saṅgrāma — fight.

Translation

Later there was a fight, and this country was conquered by King Puruṣottama-deva of Orissa.

Text

sei rājā jini’ nila tāṅra siṁhāsana
‘māṇikya-siṁhāsana’ nāma aneka ratana

Synonyms

sei rājā — that King (Mahārāja Puruṣottama-deva); jini’ — conquering; nila — took; tāṅra — his; siṁha-āsana — the throne; māṇikya-siṁhāsana — the throne known as Māṇikya-siṁhāsana; nāma — named; aneka — various; ratana — bedecked with jewels.

Translation

That King was victorious over the King of Vidyānagara, and he took possession of his throne, the Māṇikya-siṁhāsana, which was bedecked with many jewels.

Text

puruṣottama-deva sei baḍa bhakta ārya
gopāla-caraṇe māge, — ‘cala mora rājya’

Synonyms

puruṣottama-deva — King Puruṣottama-deva; sei — that; baḍa — very great; bhakta — devotee; ārya — Āryan; gopāla-caraṇe — at the lotus feet of Gopāla; māge — begs; cala — please come; mora — my; rājya — to the kingdom.

Translation

King Puruṣottama-deva was a great devotee and was advanced in the civilization of the Āryans. He begged at the lotus feet of Gopāla, “Please come to my kingdom.”

Text

tāṅra bhakti-vaśe gopāla tāṅre ājñā dila
gopāla la-iyā sei kaṭake āila

Synonyms

tāṅra — his; bhakti-vaśe — under the obligation of the devotional service; gopāla — Lord Gopāla; tāṅre — unto him; ājñā dila — gave permission; gopāla — the Gopāla Deity; la-iyā — taking; sei — that King; kaṭake — to the city of Kaṭaka; āila — returned.

Translation

When the King begged Him to come to his kingdom, Gopāla, who was already obliged for his devotional service, accepted his prayer. Thus the King took the Gopāla Deity and went back to Kaṭaka.

Text

jagannāthe āni’ dila māṇikya-siṁhāsana
kaṭake gopāla-sevā karila sthāpana

Synonyms

jagannāthe — unto Jagannātha; āni’ — bringing; dila — presented; māṇikya-siṁhāsana — the throne of the name Māṇikya-siṁhāsana; kaṭake — at Kaṭaka; gopāla-sevā — the service of the Gopāla Deity; karila sthāpana — established.

Translation

After winning the Māṇikya throne, King Puruṣottama-deva took it to Jagannātha Purī and presented it to Lord Jagannātha. In the meantime, he also established regular worship of the Gopāla Deity at Kaṭaka.

Text

tāṅhāra mahiṣī āilā gopāla-darśane
bhakti kari’ bahu alaṅkāra kaila samarpaṇe

Synonyms

tāṅhāra mahiṣī — his Queen; āilā — came; gopāla-darśane — to see the Gopāla Deity; bhakti kari’ — in great devotion; bahu — various; alaṅkāra — of ornaments; kaila — made; samarpaṇe — presentation.

Translation

When the Gopāla Deity was installed at Kaṭaka, the Queen of Puruṣottama-deva went to see Him and, with great devotion, presented various kinds of ornaments.

Text

tāṅhāra nāsāte bahu-mūlya muktā haya
tāhā dite icchā haila, manete cintaya

Synonyms

tāṅhāra nāsāte — on the nostril of the Queen; bahu-mūlya — very valuable; muktā — pearl; haya — there was; tāhā — that; dite — to give; icchā — the desire; haila — there was; manete — in the mind; cintaya — thinks.

Translation

The Queen had a very valuable pearl, which she wore on her nose, and she wished to give it to Gopāla. She then began to think as follows.

Text

ṭhākurera nāsāte yadi chidra thākita
tabe ei dāsī muktā nāsāya parāita

Synonyms

ṭhākurera nāsāte — in the nose of the Deity; yadi — if; chidra — a hole; thākita — there were; tabe — then; ei — this; dāsī — maidservant; muktā — pearl; nāsāya — on the nose; parāita — could put on.

Translation

“If there were a hole in the Deity’s nose, I could transfer the pearl to Him.”

Text

eta cinti’ namaskari’ gelā sva-bhavane
rātri-śeṣe gopāla tāṅre kahena svapane

Synonyms

eta cinti’ — thinking like that; namaskari’ — offering obeisances; gelā — went; sva-bhavane — to the palace of the King; rātri-śeṣe — at the end of night; gopāla — the Gopāla Deity; tāṅre — unto her; kahena — says; svapane — in a dream.

Translation

Considering this, the Queen offered her obeisances to Gopāla and returned to her palace. That night she dreamed that Gopāla appeared and began to speak to her as follows.

Text

“bālya-kāle mātā mora nāsā chidra kari’
muktā parāñāchila bahu yatna kari’

Synonyms

bālya-kāle — in My childhood; mātā — mother; mora — My; nāsā — nose; chidra kari’ — making a hole; muktā — a pearl; parāñāchila — was put on it; bahu — much; yatna — endeavor; kari’ — taking.

Translation

“During My childhood My mother made a hole in My nose and with great endeavor set a pearl there.

Text

sei chidra adyāpiha āchaye nāsāte
sei muktā parāha, yāhā cāhiyācha dite”

Synonyms

sei chidra — that hole; adyāpiha — still, until now; āchaye — is; nāsāte — in the nose; sei — that; muktā — pearl; parāha — put on; yāhā — which; cāhiyācha — you desired; dite — to give to Me.

Translation

“That very hole is still there, and you can use it to set the pearl you desired to give Me.”

Text

svapne dekhi’ sei rāṇī rājāke kahila
rājā-saha muktā lañā mandire āila

Synonyms

svapne dekhi’ — seeing the dream; sei rāṇī — the Queen; rājāke — unto the King; kahila — spoke; rājā-saha — with the King; muktā — the pearl; lañā — taking; mandire — to the temple; āila — they went.

Translation

After dreaming this, the Queen explained it to her husband, the King. Both the King and the Queen then went to the temple with the pearl.

Text

parāila muktā nāsāya chidra dekhiñā
mahā-mahotsava kaila ānandita hañā

Synonyms

parāila — set; muktā — the pearl; nāsāya — on the nose; chidra — the hole; dekhiñā — seeing; mahā-mahotsava — a great festival; kaila — performed; ānandita — pleased; hañā — being.

Translation

Seeing the hole in the nose of the Deity, they set the pearl there and, being very pleased, held a great festival.

Text

sei haite gopālera kaṭakete sthiti
ei lāgi ‘sākṣi-gopāla’ nāma haila khyāti

Synonyms

sei haite — since that time; gopālera — of Gopāla; kaṭakete — in the town of Kaṭaka; sthiti — the establishment; ei lāgi — for this reason; sākṣi-gopāla — the witness Gopāla; nāma — named; haila — became; khyāti — celebrated.

Translation

Since then, Gopāla has been situated in the city of Kaṭaka [Cuttack], and He has been known ever since as Sākṣi-gopāla.

Text

nityānanda-mukhe śuni’ gopāla-carita
tuṣṭa hailā mahāprabhu svabhakta-sahita

Synonyms

nityānanda-mukhe — from the mouth of Lord Nityānanda Prabhu; śuni’ — hearing; gopāla-carita — the narration of Gopāla; tuṣṭa hailā — became very pleased; mahāprabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; sva-bhakta-sahita — with His devotees.

Translation

Thus Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu heard the narration of Gopāla’s activities. Both He and His personal devotees became very pleased.

Text

gopālera āge yabe prabhura haya sthiti
bhakta-gaṇe dekhe — yena duṅhe eka-mūrti

Synonyms

gopālera āge — in front of Gopāla; yabe — when; prabhura — of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; haya — is; sthiti — situation; bhakta-gaṇe — all the devotees; dekhe — see; yena — as if; duṅhe — both of Them; eka-mūrti — one form.

Translation

When Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was sitting before the Gopāla Deity, all the devotees saw Him and the Deity as being of the same form.

Text

duṅhe — eka varṇa, duṅhe — prakāṇḍa-śarīra
duṅhe — raktāmbara, duṅhāra svabhāva — gambhīra

Synonyms

duṅhe — both of Them; eka varṇa — one complexion; duṅhe — both of Them; prakāṇḍa-śarīra — gigantic bodies; duṅhe — both of Them; rakta-ambara — red clothes; duṅhāra — of both; svabhāva — the natures; gambhīra — grave.

Translation

They were of the same complexion, and both had gigantic bodies. Both wore saffron cloth, and both were very grave.

Text

mahā-tejo-maya duṅhe kamala-nayana
duṅhāra bhāvāveśa, duṅhe — candra-vadana

Synonyms

mahā-tejaḥ-maya — brilliantly effulgent; duṅhe — both of Them; kamala-nayana — lotus-eyed; duṅhāra — of both of Them; bhāva-āveśa — absorbed in ecstasy; duṅhe — both of Them; candra-vadana — moon-faced.

Translation

The devotees saw that both Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu and Gopāla were brilliantly effulgent and had eyes like lotuses. They were both absorbed in ecstasy, and both Their faces resembled full moons.

Text

duṅhā dekhi’ nityānanda-prabhu mahā-raṅge
ṭhārāṭhāri kari’ hāse bhakta-gaṇa-saṅge

Synonyms

duṅhā dekhi’ — seeing the two of Them; nityānanda-prabhu — Lord Nityānanda Prabhu; mahā-raṅge — in great jubilation; ṭhārāṭhāri — indication; kari’ — doing; hāse — laughs; bhakta-gaṇa-saṅge — along with the other devotees.

Translation

When Nityānanda saw the Gopāla Deity and Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu in that way, He began to exchange remarks with the devotees, all of whom were smiling.

Text

ei-mata mahā-raṅge se rātri vañciyā
prabhāte calilā maṅgala-ārati dekhiñā

Synonyms

ei-mata — in this way; mahā-raṅge — in great pleasure; se — that; rātri — night; vañciyā — passing; prabhāte — in the morning; calilā — departed; maṅgala-ārati — the maṅgala-ārati performance; dekhiñā — seeing.

Translation

Thus with great pleasure Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu passed that night in the temple. After seeing the maṅgala-ārati ceremony in the morning, He started on His journey.

Text

bhuvaneśvara-pathe yaiche kaila daraśana
vistāri’ varṇiyāchena dāsa-vṛndāvana

Synonyms

bhuvaneśvara-pathe — on the way to Bhuvaneśvara; yaiche — as; kaila — He did; daraśana — visiting; vistāri’ — vividly; varṇiyāchena — has described; dāsa-vṛndāvana — Vṛndāvana dāsa Ṭhākura.

Translation

[In his book Caitanya-bhāgavata] Śrīla Vṛndāvana dāsa Ṭhākura has very vividly described the places visited by the Lord on the way to Bhuvaneśvara.

Purport

In his book Caitanya-bhāgavata, Antya-khaṇḍa, Śrīla Vṛndāvana dāsa Ṭhākura has very nicely described the Lord’s journey en route to Kaṭaka (Cuttack). On that journey, the Lord visited a place known as Bālihastā, or Bālakāṭīcaṭi. He then visited the city of Bhuvaneśvara, where Lord Śiva’s temple is located. The temple of Bhuvaneśvara is situated about five to six miles from Bālakāṭīcaṭi. The temple of Lord Śiva is mentioned in the Skanda Purāṇa, in the narration about the Lord’s garden and the one mango tree. A king named Kāśirāja wanted to fight with Lord Kṛṣṇa, and consequently he took shelter of Lord Śiva to acquire the power to fight the Lord. Being pleased with his worship, Lord Śiva helped him fight Kṛṣṇa. Lord Śiva’s name is Āśutoṣa, which indicates that he is very easily satisfied when one worships him, regardless of the purpose, and he gives his devotee whatever benediction the devotee wants. Therefore, people are generally very fond of worshiping Lord Śiva. Thus Kāśirāja was helped by Lord Śiva, but in the fight with Lord Kṛṣṇa he was not only defeated but killed. In this way the weapon known as Pāśupata-astra was baffled, and Kṛṣṇa set fire to the city of Kāśī. Later Lord Śiva became conscious of his mistake in helping Kāśirāja, and he begged Lord Kṛṣṇa’s forgiveness. As a benediction from Lord Kṛṣṇa, he received a place known as Ekāmra-kānana. Later, the kings of the Keśarī dynasty established their capital there, and for many hundreds of years they reigned over the state of Orissa.

Text

kamalapure āsi bhārgīnadī-snāna kaila
nityānanda-hāte prabhu daṇḍa dharila

Synonyms

kamala-pure — to the place known as Kamalapura; āsi — coming; bhārgī-nadī — in the small river of the name Bhārgīnadī; snāna kaila — took a bath; nityānanda-hāte — in the hands of Lord Nityānanda Prabhu; prabhu — Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; daṇḍa — the sannyāsa staff; dharila — left.

Translation

When Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu arrived at Kamalapura, He took His bath in the Bhārgīnadī River and left His sannyāsa staff in the hands of Lord Nityānanda.

Purport

In the Caitanya-bhāgavata (Antya-khaṇḍa, chapter two) it is said that when Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu arrived at Śrī Bhuvaneśvara, He visited the temple of Lord Śiva known as Gupta-kāśī (the concealed Vārāṇasī). Lord Śiva established this as a place of pilgrimage by bringing water from all holy places and creating the lake known as Bindu-sarovara. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu took His bath in this lake, feeling a great regard for Lord Śiva. From the spiritual point of view, people still go to take a bath in this lake. Actually, by taking a bath there, one becomes very healthy even from the material viewpoint. Taking a bath and drinking the water of this lake can cure any disease of the stomach. Regular bathing certainly cures indigestion. The river Bhārgī, or Bhārgīnadī, came to be known as the Daṇḍa-bhāṅgā-nadī after Lord Caitanya bathed in its waters. It is situated six miles north of Jagannātha Purī. The reason for the change in names is given as follows.

Text

kapoteśvara dekhite gelā bhakta-gaṇa saṅge
ethā nityānanda-prabhu kaila daṇḍa-bhaṅge
tina khaṇḍa kari’ daṇḍa dila bhāsāñā
bhakta-saṅge āilā prabhu maheśa dekhiñā

Synonyms

kapoteśvara — the Śiva temple of the name Kapoteśvara; dekhite — to see; gelā — went; bhakta-gaṇa saṅge — with the devotees; ethā — here; nityānanda-prabhu — Lord Nityānanda Prabhu; kaila — did; daṇḍa — of the sannyāsa staff; bhaṅge — breaking; tina khaṇḍa — three parts; kari’ — making; daṇḍa — the staff; dila — threw in; bhāsāñā — washing away; bhakta-saṅge — with the devotees; āilā — returned; prabhu — Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; maheśa dekhiñā — having seen the temple of Lord Śiva.

Translation

When Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu went to the temple of Lord Śiva known as Kapoteśvara, Nityānanda Prabhu, who was keeping His sannyāsa staff in custody, broke the staff in three parts and threw it into the river Bhārgīnadī. Later this river became known as Daṇḍa-bhāṅgā-nadī.

Purport

The mystery of the sannyāsa-daṇḍa (staff) of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu has been explained by Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu accepted the order of sannyāsa from a Māyāvādī sannyāsī. The Māyāvādī sannyāsīs generally carry one staff, or daṇḍa. Taking advantage of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s absence, Śrīla Nityānanda Prabhu broke the staff into three parts and threw it into the river later known as the Daṇḍa-bhāṅgā-nadī. In the sannyāsa order there are four divisions — kuṭīcaka, bahūdaka, haṁsa and paramahaṁsa. Only when the sannyāsī remains on the kuṭīcaka and bahūdaka platforms can he carry a staff. However, when one is elevated to the status of haṁsa or paramahaṁsa, after touring and preaching the bhakti cult, he must give up the sannyāsa staff.

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu is Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. It is therefore said, śrī-kṛṣṇa-caitanya, rādhā-kṛṣṇa nahe anya: “Two personalities — Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and Śrī Kṛṣṇa — are combined in the incarnation of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.” Therefore, considering Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu to be an extraordinary person, Lord Nityānanda Prabhu did not wait for the paramahaṁsa stage. He reasoned that the Supreme Personality of Godhead is automatically on the paramahaṁsa stage; therefore He does not need to carry the sannyāsa-daṇḍa. This is the reason Śrī Nityānanda Prabhu broke the staff into three pieces and threw it into the water.

Text

jagannāthera deula dekhi’ āviṣṭa hailā
daṇḍavat kari preme nācite lāgilā

Synonyms

jagannāthera — of Lord Jagannātha; deula — the temple; dekhi’ — seeing; āviṣṭa — ecstatic; hailā — became; daṇḍavat kari — offering obeisances; preme — in the ecstasy of love of God; nācite — to dance; lāgilā — began.

Translation

After seeing the temple of Jagannātha from a distant place, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu immediately became ecstatic. After offering obeisances to the temple, He began to dance in the ecstasy of love of God.

Purport

The word deula refers to the temple where the Supreme Personality of Godhead is situated. The present temple of Jagannātha Purī was constructed by King Anaṅga-bhīma. Historians say this temple must have been constructed at least two thousand years ago. During the time of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, the small buildings surrounding the original temple had not been constructed. Nor was the high platform in front of the temple present during the time of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

Text

bhakta-gaṇa āviṣṭa hañā, sabe nāce gāya
premāveśe prabhu-saṅge rāja-mārge yāya

Synonyms

bhakta-gaṇa — the devotees; āviṣṭa — ecstatic; hañā — being; sabe — all; nāce — dance; gāya — sing; prema-āveśe — absorbed in love of God; prabhu-saṅge — with Lord Caitanya; rāja-mārge — on the pathway; yāya — going.

Translation

All the devotees became ecstatic in the association of Lord Caitanya, and thus absorbed in love of God, they were dancing and singing while going along the main road.

Text

hāse, kānde, nāce prabhu huṅkāra garjana
tina-krośa patha haila — sahasra yojana

Synonyms

hāse — laughs; kānde — cries; nāce — dances; prabhu — Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; huṅkāra — ecstatic vibrations; garjana — resonations; tina-krośa — six miles; patha — the way; haila — became; sahasra yojana — thousands of miles.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu laughed, cried, danced and made many ecstatic vibrations and sounds. Although the temple was only six miles away, to Him the distance seemed thousands of miles.

Purport

When Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was in ecstasy, He considered one moment to last as long as twelve years. After seeing the Jagannātha temple from a distant place, the Lord became so ecstatic that He considered the six-mile path many thousands of miles long.

Text

calite calite prabhu āilā ‘āṭhāranālā’
tāhāṅ āsi’ prabhu kichu bāhya prakāśilā

Synonyms

calite calite — walking in this way; prabhu — the Lord; āilā — arrived; āṭhāranālā — at a place known as Āṭhāranālā; tāhāṅ — there; āsi’ — coming; prabhu — the Lord; kichu — some; bāhya — external consciousness; prakāśilā — expressed.

Translation

Thus walking and walking, the Lord eventually arrived at the place known as Āṭhāranālā. Arriving there, He expressed His external consciousness, speaking to Śrī Nityānanda Prabhu.

Purport

At the entrance to Jagannātha Purī is a bridge with eighteen arches called Āṭhāranālā. (Āṭhāra means eighteen.)

Text

nityānande kahe prabhu, — deha mora daṇḍa
nityānanda bale, — daṇḍa haila tina khaṇḍa

Synonyms

nityānande — to Lord Nityānanda; kahe — asks; prabhu — Lord Caitanya; deha — give; mora — My; daṇḍasannyāsa staff; nityānanda bale — Śrī Nityānanda replies; daṇḍa — Your sannyāsa staff; haila — became; tina khaṇḍa — divided into three parts.

Translation

When Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu had thus regained external consciousness, He asked Lord Nityānanda Prabhu, “Please return My staff.”

Purport

Nityānanda Prabhu then replied, “It has been broken into three parts.”

Text

premāveśe paḍilā tumi, tomāre dharinu
tomā-saha sei daṇḍa-upare paḍinu

Synonyms

prema-āveśe — in an ecstatic condition; paḍilā — fell down; tumi — You; tomāre — You; dharinu — I caught; tomā-saha — with You; sei — that; daṇḍa-upare — upon that staff; paḍinu — I fell down.

Translation

Nityānanda Prabhu said, “When You fell down in ecstasy, I caught You, but both of Us together fell upon the staff.

Text

dui-janāra bhare daṇḍa khaṇḍa khaṇḍa haila
sei khaṇḍa kāṅhā paḍila, kichu nā jānila

Synonyms

dui-janāra — of Us two; bhare — by the weight; daṇḍa — the staff; khaṇḍa khaṇḍa — broken to pieces; haila — became; sei — those; khaṇḍa — pieces; kāṅhā paḍila — where they fell; kichu — anything; jānila — is not known.

Translation

“Thus the staff broke under Our weight. Where the pieces have gone, I cannot say.

Text

mora aparādhe tomāra daṇḍa ha-ila khaṇḍa
ye ucita haya, mora kara tāra daṇḍa”

Synonyms

mora — My; aparādhe — by the offense; tomāra — Your; daṇḍasannyāsa staff; ha-ila — became; khaṇḍa — broken; ye — whatever; ucita — fitting; haya — is; mora — to Me; kara — do; tāra — for that; daṇḍa — punishment.

Translation

“It is certainly because of My offense that Your staff was broken. Now You can punish Me on this account as You think proper.”

Text

śuni’ kichu mahāprabhu duḥkha prakāśilā
īṣat krodha kari’ kichu kahite lāgilā

Synonyms

śuni’ — hearing this; kichu — some; mahāprabhu — Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; duḥkha — unhappiness; prakāśilā — expressed; īṣat — little; krodha — anger; kari’ — showing; kichu — something; kahite — to speak; lāgilā — began.

Translation

After hearing the story about how His staff had been broken, the Lord expressed a little sadness and, displaying a bit of anger, began to speak as follows.

Purport

Śrī Nityānanda Prabhu considered Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s acceptance of sannyāsa to be useless. He therefore relieved the Lord of the trouble of carrying the staff. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu expressed anger because He wanted to teach all other sannyāsīs that they should not give up the staff before attaining the platform of paramahaṁsa. Seeing that the regulative principles could be slackened by such action, Caitanya Mahāprabhu wanted to carry the staff personally. However, Nityānanda broke it. For this reason Caitanya Mahāprabhu displayed a little anger. It is said in the Bhagavad-gītā (3.21), yad yad ācarati śreṣṭhas tat tad evetaro janaḥ: Whatever great people do, others follow. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu wanted to follow the Vedic principles strictly in order to save inexperienced neophytes who try to imitate paramahaṁsas.

Text

nīlācale āni’ mora sabe hita kailā
sabe daṇḍa-dhana chila, tāhā nā rākhilā

Synonyms

nīlācale — to Jagannātha Purī; āni’ — bringing; mora — My; sabe — all of you; hita — benefit; kailā — did; sabe — only; daṇḍa-dhana — one staff; chila — there was; tāhā — that also; — not; rākhilā — you kept.

Translation

Caitanya Mahāprabhu said, “You have all benefited Me by bringing Me to Nīlācala. However, My only possession was that one staff, and you have not kept it.

Text

tumi-saba āge yāha īśvara dekhite
kibā āmi āge yāi, nā yāba sahite

Synonyms

tumi-saba — all of you; āge — ahead; yāha — go; īśvara dekhite — to see Jagannātha; kibā — or; āmi — I; āge — ahead; yāi — go; — not; yāba — I shall go; sahite — with you.

Translation

“So all of you should go before or behind Me to see Lord Jagannātha. I shall not go with you.”

Text

mukunda datta kahe, — prabhu, tumi yāha āge
āmi-saba pāche yāba, nā yāba tomāra saṅge

Synonyms

mukunda datta kahe — the devotee named Mukunda Datta said; prabhu — my Lord; tumi — You; yāha — go; āge — in front; āmi-saba — all of us; pāche — behind; yāba — shall go; — not; yāba — shall go; tomāra saṅge — with You.

Translation

Mukunda Datta told Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, “My Lord, You should go ahead and allow all the others to follow. We shall not go with You.”

Text

eta śuni’ prabhu āge calilā śīghra-gati
bujhite nā pāre keha dui prabhura mati

Synonyms

eta śuni’ — hearing this; prabhu — Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; āge — in front of the other devotees; calilā — began to go; śīghra-gati — very swiftly; bujhite — to understand; — not; pāre — able; keha — anyone; dui — two; prabhura — of the Lords; mati — intentions.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu then began to walk very swiftly before all the other devotees. No one could understand the real purpose of the two Lords, Caitanya Mahāprabhu and Nityānanda Prabhu.

Text

iṅho kene daṇḍa bhāṅge, teṅho kene bhāṅgāya
bhāṅgāñā krodhe teṅho iṅhāke doṣāya

Synonyms

iṅho — Nityānanda; kene — why; daṇḍa — the staff; bhāṅge — breaks; teṅho — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; kene — why; bhāṅgāya — allows to break it; bhāṅgāñā — after allowing to break it; krodhe — in anger; teṅho — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; iṅhāke — Lord Nityānanda; doṣāya — accuses.

Translation

The devotees could not understand why Nityānanda Prabhu broke the staff, why Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu permitted Him to do so, or why, after permitting Him, Caitanya Mahāprabhu became angry.

Text

daṇḍa-bhaṅga-līlā ei — parama gambhīra
sei bujhe, duṅhāra pade yāṅra bhakti dhīra

Synonyms

daṇḍa-bhaṅga-līlā — the pastime of breaking the staff; ei — this; parama — very; gambhīra — grave; sei bujhe — one can understand; duṅhāra — of both of Them; pade — to the lotus feet; yāṅra — whose; bhakti — devotional service; dhīra — fixed.

Translation

The pastime of the breaking of the staff is very deep. Only one whose devotion is fixed upon the lotus feet of the two Lords can understand it.

Purport

One who understands Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and Nityānanda Prabhu in reality can understand Their identity as well as the breaking of the staff. All the previous ācāryas, being induced to engage themselves fully in the service of the Lord, gave up attachment for material life and thus accepted the staff, which signifies full engagement of the mind, speech and body in the service of the Lord. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu accepted the regulative principles of the renounced order of life. That is completely clear. However, in the paramahaṁsa stage there is no need to accept a daṇḍa (staff), and Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was certainly in the paramahaṁsa stage. Nonetheless, to indicate that everyone should take sannyāsa at the end of life in order to engage fully in the service of the Lord, even paramahaṁsas like Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and His confidential devotees follow the regulative principles unfailingly. Indeed, that was His purpose. Nityānanda Prabhu, who was His eternal servitor, believed that there was no need for Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu to carry the staff, and to declare to the world that Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was above all regulations, He broke it into three pieces. The pastime known as daṇḍa-bhaṅga-līlā is thus explained by Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura.

Text

brahmaṇya-deva-gopālera mahimā ei dhanya
nityānanda — vaktā yāra, śrotā — śrī-caitanya

Synonyms

brahmaṇya-deva — the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is merciful to the brāhmaṇas; gopālera — of Gopāla; mahimā — glories; ei — these; dhanya — glorified; nityānanda — Lord Nityānanda Prabhu; vaktā — the speaker; yāra — of the narration; śrotā — the hearer; śrī-caitanya — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

Translation

The glories of Lord Gopāla, who is merciful to brāhmaṇas, are very great. The narration of Sākṣi-gopāla was spoken by Nityānanda Prabhu and heard by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

Purport

There are four points of instruction one should consider in the story of Sākṣi-gopāla. First, the Deity (arcā-vigraha) of Śrī Gopāla is eternally sac-cid-ānanda-vigraha, the transcendental form of the Lord. Second, the Deity surpasses material regulative principles and extends the reality of transcendental principles. Third, one can be situated in a transcendental position after becoming a brāhmaṇa, but as a brāhmaṇa, one has to follow the regulative principles very strictly. Lastly, brahmaṇya-deva indicates Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa Himself, who is worshiped thus: namo brahmaṇya-devāya go-brāhmaṇa-hitāya ca/ jagad-dhitāya kṛṣṇāya govindāya namo namaḥ. This indicates that a devotee who is under the protection of Kṛṣṇa is automatically situated as a brāhmaṇa, and such a brāhmaṇa is not illusioned. This is factual.

Text

śraddhā-yukta hañā ihā śune yei jana
acire milaye tāre gopāla-caraṇa

Synonyms

śraddhā-yukta — with faith and love; hañā — being; ihā — this narration; śune — hears; yei — which; jana — person; acire — very soon; milaye — gets; tāre — he; gopāla-caraṇa — the lotus feet of Lord Gopāla.

Translation

One who hears this narration of Lord Gopāla with faith and love very soon attains the lotus feet of Lord Gopāla.

Text

śrī-rūpa-raghunātha-pade yāra āśa
caitanya-caritāmṛta kahe kṛṣṇadāsa

Synonyms

śrī-rūpa — Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī; raghunātha — Śrīla Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī; pade — at the lotus feet; yāra — whose; āśa — expectation; caitanya-caritāmṛta — the book named Caitanya-caritāmṛta; kahe — describes; kṛṣṇa-dāsa — Śrīla Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī.

Translation

Praying at the lotus feet of Śrī Rūpa and Śrī Raghunātha, always desiring their mercy, I, Kṛṣṇadāsa, narrate Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta, following in their footsteps.

Purport

Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports to Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā, fifth chapter, describing the activities of Sākṣi-gopāla.