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CHAPTER TWENTY

Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu Instructs Sanātana Gosvāmī in the Science of the Absolute Truth

The following summary of this chapter is given by Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura in his Amṛta-pravāha-bhāṣya. When Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī was imprisoned by Nawab Hussain Shah, he received news from Rūpa Gosvāmī that Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu had gone to Mathurā. Sanātana Gosvāmī thereafter satisfied the superintendent of the jail by sweet solicitations and bribery. After giving the jailer seven thousand gold coins, Sanātana Gosvāmī was released. He then crossed the Ganges and fled. One of his servants, Īśāna, followed him, carrying eight gold coins. Sanātana Gosvāmī and his servant then spent the night in a small hotel on the way to Benares. The hotel owner knew that Sanātana Gosvāmī and his servant had eight gold coins, and he decided to kill them and take the money. Making plans in this way, the hotel owner received them as honorable guests. Sanātana Gosvāmī, however, asked his servant how much money he had, and taking seven of the gold coins, Sanātana offered them to the hotel owner. Thus the owner helped them cross the hilly tract and proceed toward Vārāṇasī. On the way, Sanātana Gosvāmī met his brother-in-law, Śrīkānta, at Hājipura, and Śrīkānta helped him after he had heard about all Sanātana’s troubles. Thus Sanātana Gosvāmī finally arrived at Vārāṇasī and stood before the door of Candraśekhara. Caitanya Mahāprabhu called him in and ordered him to change his dress so that he would look like a gentleman. For his garment, he used an old cloth of Tapana Miśra’s. Later, he exchanged his valuable blanket for a torn quilt. At this time Caitanya Mahāprabhu was very pleased with him, and thus Śrī Sanātana Gosvāmī received knowledge of the Absolute Truth from the Lord Himself.

First they discussed the constitutional position of the living entities, and Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu explained to Sanātana Gosvāmī how the living entity is one of Lord Kṛṣṇa’s energies. After this, the Lord explained the way of devotional service. While discussing the Absolute Truth, Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the Lord analyzed Brahman, Paramātmā and Bhagavān, as well as the expansions of the Lord called svayaṁ-rūpa, tad-ekātma and āveśa, which are divided into various branches known as vaibhava and prābhava. Thus the Lord described the many forms of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He also described the incarnations of God within the material world, incarnations such as the puruṣa-avatāras, manvantara-avatāras, guṇa-avatāras and śaktyāveśa-avatāras. The Lord also discussed the divisions of Kṛṣṇa’s different ages, such as bālya and paugaṇḍa, and the different pastimes of the different ages. He explained how Kṛṣṇa attained His permanent form when He reached youth. In this way Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu explained and described everything to Sanātana Gosvāmī.

Text

vande ’nantādbhutaiśvaryaṁ
śrī-caitanya-mahāprabhum
nīco ’pi yat-prasādāt syād
bhakti-śāstra-pravartakaḥ

Synonyms

vande — I offer my respectful obeisances; ananta — unlimited; adbhuta — wonderful; aiśvaryam — possessing opulences; śrī-caitanya-mahāprabhum — unto Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; nīcaḥ api — even a person in the lowest status of life; yat-prasādāt — by whose mercy; syāt — may become; bhakti-śāstra — of the science of devotional service; pravartakaḥ — an inaugurator.

Translation

Let me offer my respectful obeisances unto Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, who has unlimited, wonderful opulences. By His mercy, even a person born as the lowest of men can spread the science of devotional service.

Text

jaya jaya śrī-caitanya jaya nityānanda
jayādvaita-candra jaya gaura-bhakta-vṛnda

Synonyms

jaya jaya — all glories; śrī-caitanya — to Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; jaya — all glories; nityānanda — to Nityānanda; jaya — all glories; advaita-candra — to Advaita Ācārya; jaya — all glories; gaura-bhakta-vṛnda — to all devotees of Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

Translation

All glories to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu! All glories to Nityānanda Prabhu! All glories to Advaita Ācārya! And all glories to all the devotees of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu!

Text

ethā gauḍe sanātana āche bandi-śāle
śrī-rūpa-gosāñīra patrī āila hena-kāle

Synonyms

ethā — here; gauḍe — in Bengal; sanātana — Sanātana Gosvāmī; āche — was; bandi-śāle — in prison; śrī-rūpa-gosāñīra — of Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī; patrī — the letter; āila — came; hena-kāle — at that time.

Translation

While Sanātana Gosvāmī was imprisoned in Bengal, a letter arrived from Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī.

Purport

Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura informs us that this letter from Rūpa Gosvāmī to Sanātana Gosvāmī is mentioned by the annotator of the Udbhaṭa-candrikā. Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī wrote a note to Sanātana Gosvāmī from Bāklā. This note indicated that Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was coming to Mathurā, and it stated:

yadu-pateḥ kva gatā mathurā-purī
raghu-pateḥ kva gatottara-kośalā
iti vicintya kuruṣva manaḥ sthiraṁ
na sad idaṁ jagad ity avadhāraya

“Where has the Mathurā-purī of Yadupati gone? Where has the Northern Kośalā of Raghupati gone? By reflection, make the mind steady, thinking, ‘This universe is not eternal.’ ”

Text

patrī pāñā sanātana ānandita hailā
yavana-rakṣaka-pāśa kahite lāgilā

Synonyms

patrī pāñā — receiving the note; sanātana — Sanātana Gosvāmī; ānandita hailā — became very pleased; yavana — meat-eater; rakṣaka — the superintendent of the jail; pāśa — before; kahite lāgilā — began to say.

Translation

When Sanātana Gosvāmī received this note from Rūpa Gosvāmī, he became very pleased. He immediately went to the jail superintendent, who was a meat-eater, and spoke as follows.

Text

“tumi eka jindā-pīra mahā-bhāgyavān
ketāba-korāṇa-śāstre āche tomāra jñāna

Synonyms

tumi — you; eka jindā-pīra — a living saint; mahā-bhāgyavān — very fortunate; ketāba — books; korāṇa — the Koran; śāstre — in the scripture; āche — there is; tomāra — your; jñāna — knowledge.

Translation

Sanātana Gosvāmī told the Muslim jailkeeper, “Dear sir, you are a saintly person and are very fortunate. You have full knowledge of the revealed scriptures such as the Koran and similar books.

Text

eka bandī chāḍe yadi nija-dharma dekhiyā
saṁsāra ha-ite tāre mukta karena gosāñā

Synonyms

eka bandī — one imprisoned person; chāḍe — one releases; yadi — if; nija-dharma — one’s own religion; dekhiyā — consulting; saṁsāra ha-ite — from material bondage; tāre — him; mukta karena — releases; gosāñā — the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

Translation

“If one releases a conditioned soul or imprisoned person according to religious principles, he himself is also released from material bondage by the Supreme Personality of Godhead.”

Purport

It appears from this statement that Sanātana Gosvāmī, who was formerly a minister of the Nawab, was trying to cheat the Muslim superintendent. A jail superintendent had only an ordinary education, or practically no education, and he was certainly not supposed to be very advanced in spiritual knowledge. But just to satisfy him, Sanātana Gosvāmī praised him as a very learned scholar of the scriptures. The jailkeeper could not deny that he was a learned scholar, because when one is elevated to an exalted position, one thinks oneself fit for that position. Sanātana Gosvāmī was correctly explaining the effects of spiritual activity, and the jailkeeper connected his statement with his release from jail.

There are innumerable conditioned souls rotting in the material world, imprisoned by māyā under the spell of sense gratification. The living entity is so entranced by the spell of māyā that in conditioned life even a pig feels satisfied. There are two kinds of covering powers exhibited by māyā. One is called prakṣepātmikā, and the other is called āvaraṇātmikā. When one is determined to get out of material bondage, the prakṣepātmikā-śakti, the spell of diversion, impels one to remain in conditioned life fully satisfied by sense gratification. Due to the other power (āvaraṇātmikā), a conditioned soul feels satisfied even if he is rotting in the body of a pig or a worm in stool. To release a conditioned soul from material bondage is very difficult because the spell of māyā is so strong. Even when the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself descends to deliver conditioned souls, asking them to surrender unto Him, the conditioned souls do not agree to the Lord’s proposal. Therefore Śrī Sanātana Gosvāmī said, “Somehow or other, if one helps another gain release from the bondage of māyā, he is certainly recognized immediately by the Supreme Personality of Godhead.” As Lord Kṛṣṇa states in the Bhagavad-gītā (18.69):

na ca tasmān manuṣyeṣukaścin me priya-kṛttamaḥ
bhavitā na ca me tasmād
anyaḥ priyataro bhuvi

The greatest service one can render to the Lord is to try to infuse devotional service into the heart of the conditioned soul so that the conditioned soul may be released from conditioned life. Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura has said that a Vaiṣṇava is recognized by his preaching work — that is, by convincing the conditioned soul about his eternal position, which is explained here as nija-dharma. It is the living entity’s eternal position to serve the Lord; therefore to help one get release from material bondage is to awaken one to the dormant understanding that he is the eternal servant of Kṛṣṇa. Jīvera ‘svarūpa’ haya — kṛṣṇera ‘nitya-dāsa’. This will be further explained by the Lord Himself to Sanātana Gosvāmī.

Text

pūrve āmi tomāra kariyāchi upakāra
tumi āmā chāḍi’ kara pratyupakāra

Synonyms

pūrve — formerly; āmi — I; tomāra — your; kariyāchi — have done; upakāra — welfare; tumi — you; āmā — me; chāḍi’ — releasing; kara — do; prati-upakāra — return welfare.

Translation

Sanātana Gosvāmī continued, “Previously I have done much for you. Now I am in difficulty. Please return my goodwill by releasing me.

Text

pāṅca sahasra mudrā tumi kara aṅgīkāra
puṇya, artha, — dui lābha ha-ibe tomāra”

Synonyms

pāṅca sahasra — five thousand; mudrā — golden coins; tumi — you; kara aṅgīkāra — please accept; puṇya — pious activity; artha — material gain; dui lābha — two kinds of achievement; ha-ibe — will be; tomāra — yours.

Translation

“Here are five thousand gold coins. Please accept them. By releasing me, you will receive the results of pious activities and gain material profit as well. Thus you will profit in two ways simultaneously.”

Text

tabe sei yavana kahe, — “śuna, mahāśaya
tomāre chāḍiba, kintu kari rāja-bhaya”

Synonyms

tabe — thereafter; sei — that; yavana — meat-eater; kahe — says; śuna — just hear; mahāśaya — my dear sir; tomāre — you; chāḍiba — I would release; kintu — but; kari rāja-bhaya — I am afraid of the government.

Translation

In this way Sanātana Gosvāmī convinced the jailkeeper, who replied, “Please hear me, my dear sir. I am willing to release you, but I am afraid of the government.”

Text

sanātana kahe, — “tumi nā kara rāja-bhaya
dakṣiṇa giyāche yadi leuṭi’ āoyaya
tāṅhāre kahio — sei bāhya-kṛtye gela
gaṅgāra nikaṭa gaṅgā dekhi’ jhāṅpa dila

Synonyms

sanātana kahe — Sanātana replied; tumi — you; — not; kara — do; rāja-bhaya — fear of the government; dakṣiṇa — to the south; giyāche — has gone; yadi — if; leuṭi’ — returning; āoyaya — comes; tāṅhāre — to him; kahio — you say; sei — he; bāhya-kṛtye — to evacuate; gela — went; gaṅgāra nikaṭa — near the bank of the Ganges; gaṅgā dekhi’ — seeing the Ganges; jhāṅpa dila — jumped.

Translation

Sanātana replied, “There is no danger. The Nawab has gone to the south. If he returns, tell him that Sanātana went to pass stool near the bank of the Ganges and that as soon as he saw the Ganges, he jumped in.

Text

aneka dekhila, tāra lāg nā pāila
dāḍukā-sahita ḍubi kāhāṅ vahi’ gela

Synonyms

aneka — for a long time; dekhila — I looked; tāra — of him; lāg — contact; pāila — could not obtain; dāḍukā-sahita — with the shackles; ḍubi — drowning; kāhāṅ — somewhere; vahigela — washed away.

Translation

“Tell him, ‘I looked for him a long time, but I could not find any trace of him. He jumped in with his shackles, and therefore he was drowned and washed away by the waves.’

Text

kichu bhaya nāhi, āmi e-deśe nā raba
daraveśa hañā āmi makkāke yāiba”

Synonyms

kichu — any; bhaya — fear; nāhi — there is not; āmi — I; e-deśe — in this country; raba — shall not remain; daraveśa hañā — becoming a mendicant; āmi — I; makkāke yāiba — shall go to Mecca.

Translation

“There is no reason for you to be afraid, for I shall not remain in this country. I shall become a mendicant and go to the holy city of Mecca.”

Text

tathāpi yavana-mana prasanna nā dekhilā
sāta-hājāra mudrā tāra āge rāśi kailā

Synonyms

tathāpi — still; yavana-mana — the mind of the meat-eater; prasanna — satisfied; — not; dekhilā — he saw; sāta-hājāra — seven thousand; mudrā — golden coins; tāra — of him; āge — in front; rāśi kailā — made a stack.

Translation

Sanātana Gosvāmī could see that the mind of the meat-eater was still not satisfied. He then stacked seven thousand gold coins before him.

Text

lobha ha-ila yavanera mudrā dekhiyā
rātre gaṅgā-pāra kaila dāḍukā kāṭiyā

Synonyms

lobha ha-ila — there was attraction for the money; yavanera — of the meat-eater; mudrā dekhiyā — seeing the golden coins; rātre — at night; gaṅgā-pāra kaila — he got him across the Ganges; dāḍukā — shackles; kāṭiyā — breaking.

Translation

When the meat-eater saw the coins, he was attracted to them. He then agreed, and that night he cut Sanātana’s shackles and let him cross the Ganges.

Text

gaḍa-dvāra-patha chāḍilā, nāre tāhāṅ yāite
rātri-dina cali’ āilā pātaḍā-parvate

Synonyms

gaḍa-dvāra-patha — the path of the fortress; chāḍilā — gave up; nāre — not able; tāhāṅ — there; yāite — to go; rātri-dina — night and day; cali’ — walking; āilā — arrived; pātaḍā-parvate — in the hilly tract of land known as Pātaḍā.

Translation

In this way, Sanātana Gosvāmī was released. However, he was not able to walk along the path of the fortress. Walking day and night, he finally arrived at the hilly tract of land known as Pātaḍā.

Text

tathā eka bhaumika haya, tāra ṭhāñi gelā
‘parvata pāra kara āmā’ — vinati karilā

Synonyms

tathā — there; eka bhaumika — one landowner; haya — there is; tāra ṭhāñi — unto him; gelā — he went; parvata — the hilly tract; pāra kara — cross over; āmā — me; vinati — submission; karilā — he made.

Translation

After reaching Pātaḍā, he met a landholder and submissively requested him to get him across that hilly tract of land.

Text

sei bhūñāra saṅge haya hāta-gaṇitā
bhūñāra kāṇe kahe sei jāni’ ei kathā

Synonyms

sei bhūñāra — the landlord; saṅge — with; haya — there is; hāta-gaṇitā — an expert in palmistry; bhūñāra — of the landlord; kāṇe — in the ear; kahe — says; sei — that man; jāni’ — knowing; ei kathā — this statement.

Translation

A man who was expert in palmistry was at that time staying with the landlord. Knowing about Sanātana, he whispered the following in the landlord’s ear.

Text

‘iṅhāra ṭhāñi suvarṇera aṣṭa mohara haya’
śuni’ ānandita bhūñā sanātane kaya

Synonyms

iṅhāra ṭhāñi — in the possession of this man; suvarṇera — of gold; aṣṭa — eight; mohara — coins; haya — there are; śuni’ — hearing; ānandita — pleased; bhūñā — the landlord; sanātane — to Sanātana; kaya — says.

Translation

The palmist said, “This man Sanātana possesses eight gold coins.” Hearing this, the landlord was very pleased and spoke the following to Sanātana Gosvāmī.

Text

“rātrye parvata pāra kariba nija-loka diyā
bhojana karaha tumi randhana kariyā”

Synonyms

rātrye — at night; parvata — the hilly tract; pāra kariba — I shall cross; nija-loka diyā — with my own men; bhojana karaha — just take your meal; tumi — you; randhana kariyā — cooking.

Translation

The landlord said, “I shall get you across that hilly tract at night with my own men. Now just cook for yourself and take your lunch.”

Text

eta bali’ anna dila kariyā sammāna
sanātana āsi’ tabe kaila nadī-snāna

Synonyms

eta bali’ — saying this; anna dila — supplied food grain; kariyā sammāna — showing great respect; sanātana — Sanātana Gosvāmī; āsi’ — coming; tabe — then; kaila — did; nadī-snāna — bathing in the river.

Translation

Saying this, the landlord offered Sanātana grain to cook. Sanātana then went to the riverside and took his bath.

Text

dui upavāse kailā randhana-bhojane
rāja-mantrī sanātana vicārilā mane

Synonyms

dui upavāse — fasting for two days; kailā — performed; randhana-bhojane — cooking and eating; rāja-mantrī — the former minister of the Nawab; sanātana — Sanātana; vicārilā — considered; mane — in the mind.

Translation

Because Sanātana had been fasting for two days, he cooked the food and ate it. However, having formerly been a minister of the Nawab, he began to contemplate the situation.

Text

‘ei bhūñā kene more sammāna karila?’
eta cinti’ sanātana īśāne puchila

Synonyms

ei bhūñā — this landlord; kene — why; more — unto me; sammāna karila — offered so much respect; eta cinti’ — thinking this; sanātana — Sanātana; īśāne — from Īśāna, his servant; puchila — inquired.

Translation

As a former minister for the Nawab, Sanātana could certainly understand diplomacy. He therefore thought, “Why is this landlord offering me such respect?” Thinking in this way, he questioned his servant, whose name was Īśāna.

Text

‘tomāra ṭhāñi jāni kichu dravya āchaya’
īśāna kahe, — ‘mora ṭhāñi sāta mohara haya’

Synonyms

tomāra ṭhāñi — in your possession; jāni — I understand; kichu — some; dravya — valuable thing; āchaya — there is; īśāna kahe — Īśāna replied; mora ṭhāñi — in my possession; sāta mohara — seven gold coins; haya — there are.

Translation

Sanātana asked his servant, “Īśāna, I think you have some valuable things with you.”

Purport

Īśāna replied, “Yes, I have seven gold coins.”

Text

śuni’ sanātana tāre karilā bhartsana
‘saṅge kene āniyācha ei kāla-yama?’

Synonyms

śuni’ — hearing; sanātana — Sanātana Gosvāmī; tāre — him; karilā bhartsana — chastised; saṅge — with you; kene — why; āniyācha — have you brought; ei — this; kāla-yama — death knell.

Translation

Hearing this, Sanātana Gosvāmī chastised his servant, saying, “Why have you brought this death knell with you?”

Text

tabe sei sāta mohara hastete kariyā
bhūñāra kāche yāñā kahe mohara dhariyā

Synonyms

tabe — thereafter; sei sāta mohara — these seven gold coins; hastete kariyā — taking in the hands; bhūñāra kāche — to the landlord; yāñā — going; kahe — says; mohara dhariyā — holding the gold coins.

Translation

Thereupon, Sanātana Gosvāmī took the seven gold coins in his hands and went to the landlord. Holding the gold coins before him, he spoke as follows.

Text

“ei sāta suvarṇa mohara āchila āmāra
ihā lañā dharma dekhi’ parvata kara pāra

Synonyms

ei sāta — these seven; suvarṇa mohara — golden coins; āchila — were; āmāra — mine; ihā lañā — accepting them; dharma dekhi’ — observing religious principles; parvata — the hilly tract of land; kara pāra — kindly get me across.

Translation

“I have these seven gold coins with me. Please accept them, and from a religious point of view please get me across that hilly tract of land.

Text

rāja-bandī āmi, gaḍa-dvāra yāite nā pāri
puṇya habe, parvata āmā deha’ pāra kari”

Synonyms

rāja-bandī — a prisoner of the government; āmi — I; gaḍa-dvāra yāite — to go openly on the road by the ramparts; pāri — I am not able; puṇya — pious activity; habe — there will be; parvata — the hilly tract of land; āmā — to me; deha’ — give help; pāra kari — by crossing over.

Translation

“I am a prisoner of the government, and I cannot go along the way of the ramparts. It will be very pious of you to take this money and kindly get me across this hilly tract of land.”

Text

bhūñā hāsi’ kahe, — “āmi jāniyāchi pahile
aṣṭa mohara haya tomāra sevaka-āṅcale

Synonyms

bhūñā — the landlord; hāsi’ — smiling; kahe — said; āmi — I; jāniyāchi — knew; pahile — before this; aṣṭa mohara — eight golden coins; haya — there are; tomāra — your; sevaka-āṅcale — in the pocket of the servant.

Translation

Smiling, the landlord said, “Before you offered them, I already knew that there were eight gold coins in your servant’s possession.

Text

tomā māri’ mohara la-itāma ājikāra rātrye
bhāla haila, kahilā tumi, chuṭilāṅa pāpa haite

Synonyms

tomā māri’ — killing you; mohara — golden coins; la-itāma — I would have taken; ājikāra rātrye — on this night; bhāla haila — it was very good; kahilā tumi — you have spoken; chuṭilāṅa — I am relieved; pāpa haite — from such a sin.

Translation

“On this very night I would have killed you and taken your coins. It is very good that you have voluntarily offered them to me. I am now relieved from such a sinful activity.

Text

santuṣṭa ha-ilāṅa āmi, mohara nā la-iba
puṇya lāgi’ parvata tomā’ pāra kari’ diba”

Synonyms

santuṣṭa — satisfied; ha-ilāṅa — have become; āmi — I; mohara — the golden coins; la-iba — I shall not take; puṇya lāgi’ — simply for pious activity; parvata — the hilly tract of land; tomā’ — you; pāra karidiba — I shall get across.

Translation

“I am very satisfied with your behavior. I shall not accept these gold coins, but I shall get you across that hilly tract of land simply to perform a pious activity.”

Text

gosāñi kahe, — “keha dravya la-ibe āmā māri’
āmāra prāṇa rakṣā kara dravya aṅgīkari’ ”

Synonyms

gosāñi kahe — Sanātana Gosvāmī said; keha — someone else; dravya — the valuable coins; la-ibe — will take; āmā māri’ — killing me; āmāra — my; prāṇa — life; rakṣā kara — save; dravya aṅgīkari’ — by accepting these coins.

Translation

Sanātana Gosvāmī replied, “If you do not accept these coins, someone else will kill me for them. It is better that you save me from the danger by accepting the coins.”

Text

tabe bhūñā gosāñira saṅge cāri pāika dila
rātrye rātrye vana-pathe parvata pāra kaila

Synonyms

tabe — thereupon; bhūñā — the landlord; gosāñira saṅge — with Sanātana Gosvāmī; cāri pāika — four watchmen; dila — gave; rātrye rātrye — during the whole night; vana-pathe — on the jungle path; parvata — the hilly tract of land; pāra kaila — took him across.

Translation

After this settlement was made, the landlord gave Sanātana Gosvāmī four watchmen to accompany him. They went through the forest path for the whole night and thus brought him over the hilly tract of land.

Text

tabe pāra hañā gosāñi puchilā īśāne
“jāni, — śeṣa dravya kichu āche tomā sthāne”

Synonyms

tabe — thereafter; pāra hañā — after crossing; gosāñi — Sanātana Gosvāmī; puchilā — asked; īśāne — Īśāna; jāni — I know; śeṣa dravya — something valuable left; kichu — some; āche — there is; tomā sthāne — with you.

Translation

After crossing the hills, Sanātana Gosvāmī told his servant, “Īśāna, I think you still have some balance left from the gold coins.”

Text

īśāna kahe, — “eka mohara āche avaśeṣa”
gosāñi kahe, — “mohara lañā yāha’ tumi deśa”

Synonyms

īśāna kahe — Īśāna replied; eka — one; mohara — gold coin; āche — is; avaśeṣa — left; gosāñi — Sanātana Gosvāmī; kahe — replied; mohara lañā — taking this gold coin; yāha — return; tumi — you; deśa — to your country.

Translation

Īśāna replied, “I still have one gold coin in my possession.”

Purport

Sanātana Gosvāmī then said, “Take the coin and return to your home.”

Text

tāre vidāya diyā gosāñi calilā ekalā
hāte karoṅyā, chiṅḍā kānthā, nirbhaya ha-ilā

Synonyms

tāre vidāya diyā — bidding him farewell; gosāñi — Sanātana Gosvāmī; calilā ekalā — began to travel alone; hāte — in the hand; karoṅyā — a beggar’s pot; chiṅḍā kānthā — a torn quilt; nirbhaya ha-ilā — he became free from all anxiety.

Translation

After departing from Īśāna, Sanātana Gosvāmī began traveling alone with a waterpot in his hand. Simply covered with a torn quilt, he thus lost all his anxiety.

Text

cali’ cali’ gosāñi tabe āilā hājipure
sandhyā-kāle vasilā eka udyāna-bhitare

Synonyms

calicali’ — walking and walking; gosāñi — Sanātana Gosvāmī; tabe — then; āilā — arrived; hājipure — at Hājipura; sandhyā-kāle — in the evening; vasilā — sat down; eka — one; udyāna-bhitare — within a garden.

Translation

Walking and walking, Sanātana Gosvāmī finally arrived at a place called Hājipura. That evening he sat down within a garden.

Text

sei hājipure rahe — śrīkānta tāra nāma
gosāñira bhaginī-pati, kare rāja-kāma

Synonyms

sei — that; hājipure — in Hājipura; rahe — there is; śrīkānta — Śrīkānta; tāra — his; nāma — name; gosāñira — of Sanātana Gosvāmī; bhaginī-pati — sister’s husband; kare — executes; rāja-kāma — government service.

Translation

In Hājipura there was a gentlemen named Śrīkānta, who happened to be the husband of Sanātana Gosvāmī’s sister. He was engaged there in government service.

Text

tina lakṣa mudrā rājā diyāche tāra sthāne
ghoḍā mūlya lañā pāṭhāya pātsāra sthāne

Synonyms

tina lakṣa — 300,000; mudrā — golden coins; rājā — the king or nawab; diyāche — has given; tāra sthāne — in his custody; ghoḍā — of horses; mūlya lañā — taking the price; pāṭhāya — sends; pātsāra sthāne — to the care of the emperor.

Translation

Śrīkānta had 300,000 gold coins with him, which had been given to him by the emperor for the purchase of horses. Thus Śrīkānta was buying horses and dispatching them to the emperor.

Text

ṭuṅgi upara vasi’ sei gosāñire dekhila
rātrye eka-jana-saṅge gosāñi-pāśa āila

Synonyms

ṭuṅgi upara vasi’ — sitting in an elevated place; sei — that Śrīkānta; gosāñire — Sanātana Gosvāmī; dekhila — saw; rātrye — at night; eka-jana-saṅge — with a servant; gosāñi-pāśa — near Sanātana Gosvāmī; āila — he came.

Translation

When Śrīkānta was sitting in an elevated place, he could see Sanātana Gosvāmī. That night he took a servant and went to see Sanātana Gosvāmī.

Text

dui-jana mili’ tathā iṣṭa-goṣṭhī kaila
bandhana-mokṣaṇa-kathā gosāñi sakali kahila

Synonyms

dui-jana mili’ — meeting together; tathā — there; iṣṭa-goṣṭhī — various types of conversation; kaila — did; bandhana-mokṣaṇa — of the arrest and release; kathā — the story; gosāñi — Sanātana Gosvāmī; sakali — everything; kahila — narrated.

Translation

When they met, they had many conversations. Sanātana Gosvāmī told him in detail about his arrest and release.

Text

teṅho kahe, — “dina-dui raha ei-sthāne
bhadra hao, chāḍa’ ei malina vasane”

Synonyms

teṅho kahe — he said; dina-dui — at least for two days; raha — stay; ei-sthāne — in this place; bhadra hao — become like a gentleman in appearance; chāḍa’ — give up; ei — this; malina — dirty; vasane — dress.

Translation

Śrīkānta then told Sanātana Gosvāmī, “Stay here for at least two days and dress up like a gentleman. Abandon these dirty garments.”

Text

gosāñi kahe, — ‘eka-kṣaṇa ihā nā rahiba
gaṅgā pāra kari’ deha’ e-kṣaṇe caliba”

Synonyms

gosāñi kahe — Sanātana Gosvāmī said; eka-kṣaṇa — even for one moment; ihā — here; rahiba — I shall not stay; gaṅgā pāra karideha’ — help me cross the river Ganges; e-kṣaṇe — immediately; caliba — I shall go.

Translation

Sanātana Gosvāmī replied, “I shall not stay here even for a moment. Please help me cross the Ganges. I shall leave immediately.”

Text

yatna kari’ teṅho eka bhoṭa-kambala dila
gaṅgā pāra kari’ dila — gosāñi calila

Synonyms

yatna kari’ — with great care; teṅho — he (Śrīkānta); eka — one; bhoṭa-kambala — woolen blanket; dila — gave; gaṅgā pāra karidila — got him across the river Ganges; gosāñi calila — Sanātana Gosvāmī departed.

Translation

With great care, Śrīkānta gave him a woolen blanket and helped him cross the Ganges. Thus Sanātana Gosvāmī departed again.

Text

tabe vārāṇasī gosāñi āilā kata-dine
śuni ānandita ha-ilā prabhura āgamane

Synonyms

tabe — in this way; vārāṇasī — to Vārāṇasī; gosāñi — Sanātana Gosvāmī; āilā — came; kata-dine — after a few days; śuni — hearing; ānandita — very pleased; ha-ilā — he became; prabhura — of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; āgamane — about the arrival.

Translation

After a few days, Sanātana Gosvāmī arrived at Vārāṇasī. He was very pleased to hear about Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s arrival there.

Text

candraśekharera ghare āsi’ dvārete vasilā
mahāprabhu jāni’ candraśekhare kahilā

Synonyms

candraśekharera ghare — to the house of Candraśekhara; āsi’ — going; dvārete — at the door; vasilā — sat down; mahāprabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; jāni’ — knowing; candraśekhare — to Candraśekhara; kahilā — said.

Translation

Sanātana Gosvāmī then went to the house of Candraśekhara and sat down by the door. Understanding what was happening, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu spoke to Candraśekhara.

Text

‘dvāre eka ‘vaiṣṇava’ haya, bolāha tāṅhāre’
candraśekhara dekhe — ‘vaiṣṇava’ nāhika dvāre

Synonyms

dvāre — at your door; eka vaiṣṇava — one Vaiṣṇava devotee; haya — there is; bolāha tāṅhāi-e — please call him; candraśekhara — Candraśekhara; dekhe — sees; vaiṣṇava — a devotee; nāhika — there is not; dvāre — at the door.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu said, “There is a devotee at your door. Please call him in.” Going outside, Candraśekhara could not see a Vaiṣṇava at his door.

Text

‘dvārete vaiṣṇava nāhi’ — prabhure kahila
‘keha haya’ kari’ prabhu tāhāre puchila

Synonyms

dvārete — at my door; vaiṣṇava nāhi — there is no Vaiṣṇava; prabhure kahila — he informed Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; keha haya — is there anyone; kari’ — in this way; prabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; tāhāre puchila — inquired from him.

Translation

When Candraśekhara informed the Lord that no Vaiṣṇava was at his door, the Lord asked him, “Is there anyone at all at your door?”

Text

teṅho kahe, — eka ‘daraveśa’ āche dvāre
‘tāṅre āna’ prabhura vākye kahila tāṅhāre

Synonyms

teṅho kahe — he replied; eka daraveśa — one Muslim mendicant; āche — there is; dvāre — at the door; tāṅre āna — bring him; prabhura — of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; vākye — the order; kahila — said; tāṅhāre — unto him.

Translation

Candraśekhara replied, “There is a Muslim mendicant.”

Purport

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu immediately said, “Please bring him here.” Candraśekhara then spoke to Sanātana Gosvāmī, who was still sitting beside the door.

Text

‘prabhu tomāya bolāya, āisa, daraveśa!’
śuni’ ānande sanātana karilā praveśa

Synonyms

prabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; tomāya — unto you; bolāya — calls; āisa — come here; daraveśa — O Muslim mendicant; śuni’ — hearing; ānande — in great pleasure; sanātana — Sanātana Gosvāmī; karilā praveśa — entered.

Translation

“O Muslim mendicant, please come in. The Lord is calling you.” Sanātana Gosvāmī was very pleased to hear this order, and he entered Candraśekhara’s house.

Text

tāṅhāre aṅgane dekhi’ prabhu dhāñā āilā
tāṅre āliṅgana kari’ premāviṣṭa hailā

Synonyms

tāṅhāre — him; aṅgane — in the courtyard; dekhi’ — seeing; prabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; dhāñā āilā — came to see him with great haste; tāṅre — him; āliṅgana kari’ — embracing; prema-āviṣṭa hailā — became overwhelmed with ecstatic love.

Translation

As soon as Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu saw Sanātana Gosvāmī in the courtyard, He immediately went up to him with great haste. After embracing him, the Lord was overwhelmed with ecstatic love.

Text

prabhu-sparśe premāviṣṭa ha-ilā sanātana
‘more nā chuṅiha’ — kahe gadgada-vacana

Synonyms

prabhu-sparśe — by the touch of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; prema-āviṣṭa — overwhelmed with ecstatic love; ha-ilā — became; sanātana — Sanātana Gosvāmī; more — me; — do not; chuṅiha — touch; kahe — says; gadgada-vacana — in a faltering voice.

Translation

As soon as Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu touched Sanātana Gosvāmī, Sanātana was also overwhelmed with ecstatic love. In a faltering voice, he said, “O my Lord, do not touch me.”

Text

dui-jane galāgali rodana apāra
dekhi’ candraśekharera ha-ila camatkāra

Synonyms

dui-jane — the two persons; galāgali — shoulder to shoulder; rodana — crying; apāra — unlimited; dekhi’ — seeing; candraśekharera — of Candraśekhara; ha-ila — there was; camatkāra — astonishment.

Translation

Shoulder to shoulder, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and Sanātana Gosvāmī began to cry unlimitedly. Candraśekhara was very much astonished to see this.

Text

tabe prabhu tāṅra hāta dhari’ lañā gelā
piṇḍāra upare āpana-pāśe vasāilā

Synonyms

tabe — thereafter; prabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; tāṅra — of Sanātana Gosvāmī; hāta dhari’ — catching the hand; lañā gelā — took him inside; piṇḍāra upare — on an elevated place; āpana-pāśe — near Him; vasāilā — made Sanātana Gosvāmī sit down.

Translation

Catching his hand, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu took Sanātana Gosvāmī inside and made him sit on an elevated place next to Him.

Text

śrī-haste karena tāṅra aṅga sammārjana
teṅho kahe, — ‘more, prabhu, nā kara sparśana’

Synonyms

śrī-haste — by the spiritual hand; karena — does; tāṅra aṅga — of his body; sammārjana — cleansing; teṅho kahe — he said; more — me; prabhu — my Lord; kara sparśana — do not touch.

Translation

When Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu began cleansing Sanātana Gosvāmī’s body with His own transcendental hand, Sanātana Gosvāmī said, “O my Lord, please do not touch me.”

Text

prabhu kahe, — “tomā sparśi ātma pavitrite
bhakti-bale pāra tumi brahmāṇḍa śodhite

Synonyms

prabhu kahe — Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu replied; tomā sparśi — I touch you; ātma pavitrite — to purify Myself; bhakti-bale — the strength of your devotional service; pāra — are able; tumi — you; brahmāṇḍa — the whole universe; śodhite — to purify.

Translation

The Lord replied, “I am touching you just to purify Myself, because by the force of your devotional service you can purify the whole universe.

Text

bhavad-vidhā bhāgavatās
tīrtha-bhūtāḥ svayaṁ prabho
tīrthī-kurvanti tīrthāni
svāntaḥ-sthena gadā-bhṛtā

Synonyms

bhavat-vidhāḥ — like you; bhāgavatāḥ — advanced devotees; tīrtha-bhūtāḥ — personified holy places of pilgrimage; svayam — personally; prabho — my lord; tīrthī-kurvanti — make into holy places; tīrthāni — all the holy places of pilgrimage; sva-antaḥ-sthena — situated within their hearts; gadā-bhṛtā — by Lord Viṣṇu, who carries a club.

Translation

“ ‘Saints of your caliber are themselves places of pilgrimage. Because of their purity, they are constant companions of the Lord, and therefore they can purify even the places of pilgrimage.’

Purport

This verse was spoken by Mahārāja Yudhiṣṭhira to Vidura in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (1.13.10). Vidura was returning home after visiting sacred places of pilgrimage, and Mahārāja Yudhiṣṭhira was receiving his saintly uncle. In essence, Mahārāja Yudhiṣṭhira was saying, “My dear Lord Vidura, you yourself are a holy place because you are an advanced devotee. People like you always carry Lord Viṣṇu in their hearts. You can revitalize all holy places after they have been polluted by the pilgrimages of sinners.”

A sinful person goes to a holy place of pilgrimage to be purified. In a holy place, there are many saintly people and temples of Lord Viṣṇu; however, the holy place becomes infected with the sins of many visitors. When an advanced devotee goes to a holy place, he counteracts all the sins of the pilgrims. Therefore Mahārāja Yudhiṣṭhira addressed Vidura in this way.

Since an advanced devotee carries Lord Viṣṇu within his heart, he is a moving temple and a moving Viṣṇu. An advanced devotee does not need to go to holy places, for wherever he stays is a holy place. In this connection, Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura states, tīrtha-yātrā pariśrama, kevala manera bhrama: visiting holy places is simply another type of bewilderment. Since an advanced devotee does not need to go to a holy place, why does he go? The answer is that he goes simply to purify the place.

Text

na me ’bhaktaś catur-vedī
mad-bhaktaḥ śva-pacaḥ priyaḥ
tasmai deyaṁ tato grāhyaṁ
sa ca pūjyo yathā hy aham

Synonyms

na — not; me — My; abhaktaḥ — devoid of pure devotional service; catuḥ-vedī — a scholar in the four Vedas; mat-bhaktaḥ — My devotee; śva-pacaḥ — even from a family of dog-eaters; priyaḥ — very dear; tasmai — to him (a pure devotee, even though born in a very low family); deyam — should be given; tataḥ — from him; grāhyam — should be accepted (remnants of food); saḥ — that person; ca — also; pūjyaḥ — worshipable; yathā — as much as; hi — certainly; aham — I.

Translation

“[Lord Kṛṣṇa said:] ‘Even though a person is a very learned scholar of the Sanskrit Vedic literatures, he is not accepted as My devotee unless he is pure in devotional service. However, even though a person is born in a family of dog-eaters, he is very dear to Me if he is a pure devotee who has no motive to enjoy fruitive activity or mental speculation. Indeed, all respects should be given to him, and whatever he offers should be accepted. Such devotees are as worshipable as I am.’

Purport

This verse is included in the Hari-bhakti-vilāsa (10.127), compiled by Sanātana Gosvāmī.

Text

viprād dvi-ṣaḍ-guṇa-yutād aravinda-nābha-
pādāravinda-vimukhāt śva-pacaṁ variṣṭham
manye tad-arpita-mano-vacanehitārtha-
prāṇaṁ punāti sa kulaṁ na tu bhūri-mānaḥ

Synonyms

viprāt — than a brāhmaṇa; dvi-ṣaṭ-guṇa-yutāt — who is qualified with twelve brahminical qualifications; aravinda-nābha — of Lord Viṣṇu, who has a lotuslike navel; pāda-aravinda — unto the lotus feet; vimukhāt — than a person bereft of devotion; śva-pacam — a caṇḍāla, or a person accustomed to eating dogs; variṣṭham — more glorified; manye — I think; tat-arpita — dedicated unto Him; manaḥ — mind; vacana — words; īhita — activities; artha — wealth; prāṇam — life; punāti — purifies; saḥ — he; kulam — his family; na tu — but not; bhūri-mānaḥ — a brāhmaṇa proud of possessing such qualities.

Translation

“ ‘One may be born in a brāhmaṇa family and have all twelve brahminical qualities, but if he is not devoted to the lotus feet of Lord Kṛṣṇa, who has a navel shaped like a lotus, he is not as good as a caṇḍāla who has dedicated his mind, words, activities, wealth and life to the service of the Lord. Simply to take birth in a brāhmaṇa family or to have brahminical qualities is not sufficient. One must become a pure devotee of the Lord. If a śva-paca or caṇḍāla is a devotee, he delivers not only himself but his whole family, whereas a brāhmaṇa who is not a devotee but simply has brahminical qualifications cannot even purify himself, what to speak of his family.’ ”

Purport

This verse is spoken by Prahlāda Mahārāja in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (7.9.10). A brāhmaṇa is supposed to be qualified with twelve qualities. As stated in the Mahābhārata:

dharmaś ca satyaṁ ca damas tapaś ca
amātsaryaṁ hrīs titikṣānasūyā
yajñaś ca dānaṁ ca dhṛtiḥ śrutaṁ ca
vratāni vai dvādaśa brāhmaṇasya

“A brāhmaṇa must be perfectly religious. He must be truthful, and he must be able to control his senses. He must execute severe austerities, and he must be detached, humble and tolerant. He must not envy anyone, and he must be expert in performing sacrifices and giving whatever he has in charity. He must be fixed in devotional service and expert in the knowledge of the Vedas. These are the twelve qualifications for a brāhmaṇa.”

The Bhagavad-gītā (18.42) describes the brahminical qualities in this way:

śamo damas tapaḥ śaucaṁkṣāntir ārjavam eva ca
jñānaṁ vijñānam āstikyaṁ
brahma-karma svabhāva-jam

“Peacefulness, self-control, austerity, purity, tolerance, honesty, knowledge, wisdom and religiousness — these are the natural qualities by which the brāhmaṇas work.”

In the Muktāphala-ṭīkā, it is said:

śamo damas tapaḥ śaucaṁkṣānty-ārjava-viraktayaḥ
jñāna-vijñāna-santoṣāḥ
satyāstikye dvi-ṣaḍ guṇāḥ

“Mental equilibrium, sense control, austerity, cleanliness, tolerance, simplicity, detachment, theoretical and practical knowledge, satisfaction, truthfulness and firm faith in the Vedas are the twelve qualities of a brāhmaṇa.

Text

tomā dekhi, tomā sparśi, gāi tomāra guṇa
sarvendriya-phala, — ei śāstra-nirūpaṇa

Synonyms

tomā dekhi — by seeing you; tomā sparśi — by touching you; gāi tomāra guṇa — by praising your transcendental qualities; sarva-indriya-phala — the fulfillment of the activities of all the senses; ei — this; śāstra-nirūpaṇa — the verdict of the revealed scriptures.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu continued, “By seeing you, by touching you and by glorifying your transcendental qualities, one can perfect the purpose of all sense activity. This is the verdict of the revealed scriptures.

Purport

This is confirmed in the following verse from the Hari-bhakti-sudhodaya (13.2).

Text

akṣṇoḥ phalaṁ tvādṛśa-darśanaṁ hi
tanoḥ phalaṁ tvādṛśa-gātra-saṅgaḥ
jihvā-phalaṁ tvādṛśa-kīrtanaṁ hi
su-durlabhā bhāgavatā hi loke

Synonyms

akṣṇoḥ — of the eyes; phalam — the perfect result of the action; tvādṛśa — a person like you; darśanam — to see; hi — certainly; tanoḥ — of the body; phalam — the perfection of activities; tvādṛśa — of a person like you; gātra-saṅgaḥ — touching the body; jihvā-phalam — the perfection of the tongue; tvādṛśa — a person like you; kīrtanam — glorifying; hi — certainly; su-durlabhāḥ — very rare; bhāgavatāḥ — pure devotees of the Lord; hi — certainly; loke — in this world.

Translation

“ ‘My dear Vaiṣṇava, seeing a person like you is the perfection of one’s eyesight, touching your lotus feet is the perfection of the sense of touch, and glorifying your good qualities is the tongue’s real activity, for in the material world it is very difficult to find a pure devotee of the Lord.’ ”

Text

eta kahi kahe prabhu, — “śuna, sanātana
kṛṣṇa — baḍa dayāmaya, patita-pāvana

Synonyms

eta kahi — saying this; kahe — continued to speak; prabhu — Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; śuna — please hear; sanātana — My dear Sanātana; kṛṣṇa — Lord Kṛṣṇa; baḍa — very much; dayā-maya — merciful; patita-pāvana — deliverer of the fallen souls.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu continued, “My dear Sanātana, please hear from Me. Kṛṣṇa is very merciful, and He is the deliverer of all fallen souls.

Text

mahā-raurava haite tomā karilā uddhāra
kṛpāra samudra kṛṣṇa gambhīra apāra”

Synonyms

mahā-raurava haite — from the deepest hellish condition of life; tomā — you; karilā uddhāra — has delivered; kṛpāra samudra — the ocean of mercy; kṛṣṇa — Kṛṣṇa; gambhīra — very grave; apāra — unlimitedly.

Translation

“My dear Sanātana, Kṛṣṇa has saved you from Mahāraurava, life’s deepest hell. He is an ocean of mercy, and His activities are very grave.”

Purport

As stated in the Bhagavad-gītā (18.61), īśvaraḥ sarva-bhūtānāṁ hṛd-deśe ’rjuna tiṣṭhati. Staying within everyone’s heart, Lord Kṛṣṇa works very gravely. No one can understand how He is working, but as soon as the Lord understands the sincere activity of a person in devotional service, He helps him in such a way that the devotee cannot understand how things are happening. If the devotee is determined to serve the Lord, the Lord is always prepared to help him (dadāmi buddhi-yogaṁ taṁ yena mām upayānti te). Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu is telling Sanātana Gosvāmī how merciful the Lord is. Sanātana Gosvāmī was a minister in the service of Nawab Hussain Shah. He was always mixing with materially inclined people, particularly with Muslims, meat-eaters. Although he was in intimate touch with them, by Kṛṣṇa’s mercy he came to find such association distasteful. Therefore he left them. As stated by Śrīnivāsa Ācārya, tyaktvā tūrṇam aśeṣa-maṇḍala-pati-śreṇīṁ sadā tuccha-vat. Kṛṣṇa enlightened Sanātana Gosvāmī in such a way that he was able to give up his exalted post as minister. Thinking his material position insignificant, Sanātana was prepared to become a mendicant. Appreciating the activities of Sanātana Gosvāmī, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu praised his action and thanked Kṛṣṇa for His mercy upon him.

Text

sanātana kahe, — ‘kṛṣṇa āmi nāhi jāni
āmāra uddhāra-hetu tomāra kṛpā māni’

Synonyms

sanātana kahe — Sanātana Gosvāmī said; kṛṣṇa — Lord Kṛṣṇa; āmi — I; nāhi jāni — do not know; āmāra — my; uddhāra-hetu — the cause of release; tomāra — Your; kṛpā — mercy; māni — I accept.

Translation

Sanātana replied, “I do not know who Kṛṣṇa is. As far as I am concerned, I have been released from prison only by Your mercy.”

Text

‘kemane chuṭilā’ bali prabhu praśna kailā
ādyopānta saba kathā teṅho śunāilā

Synonyms

kemane chuṭilā — how were you released; bali — saying; prabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; praśna kailā — inquired; ādya-upānta — from beginning to the end; saba — all; kathā — the narration; teṅho — he; śunāilā — described.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu then asked Sanātana Gosvāmī, “How were you released from prison?” Sanātana then described the story from beginning to end.

Text

prabhu kahe, — “tomāra dui-bhāi prayāge mililā
rūpa, anupama — duṅhe vṛndāvana gelā”

Synonyms

prabhu kahe — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu said; tomāra — your; dui-bhāi — two brothers; prayāge mililā — met Me at Prayāga; rūpa — Rūpa Gosvāmī; anupama — his brother Anupama; duṅhe — both of them; vṛndāvana gelā — have gone to Vṛndāvana.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu said, “I met your two brothers, Rūpa and Anupama, at Prayāga. They have now gone to Vṛndāvana.”

Text

tapana-miśrere āra candraśekharere
prabhu-ājñāya sanātana mililā doṅhāre

Synonyms

tapana-miśrere — unto Tapana Miśra; āra — and; candraśekharere — unto Candraśekhara; prabhu-ājñāya — by the order of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; sanātana — Sanātana; mililā — met; doṅhāre — both of them.

Translation

By the order of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, Sanātana Gosvāmī met both Tapana Miśra and Candraśekhara.

Text

tapana-miśra tabe tāṅre kailā nimantraṇa
prabhu kahe, — ‘kṣaura karāha, yāha, sanātana’

Synonyms

tapana-miśra — Tapana Miśra; tabe — then; tāṅre — unto him (Sanātana Gosvāmī); kailā — made; nimantraṇa — invitation; prabhu kahe — Caitanya Mahāprabhu said; kṣaura karāha — get shaved; yāha — go; sanātana — My dear Sanātana.

Translation

Tapana Miśra then extended an invitation to Sanātana, and Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu asked Sanātana to go get a shave.

Text

candraśekharere prabhu kahe bolāñā
‘ei veṣa dūra kara, yāha iṅhāre lañā’

Synonyms

candraśekharere — unto Candraśekhara; prabhu kahe — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu said; bolāñā — calling; ei veṣa — this kind of dress; dūra kara — take away; yāha — go; iṅhāre lañā — taking him with you.

Translation

After this, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu called Candraśekhara and asked him to take Sanātana Gosvāmī with him. He also asked him to take away Sanātana’s present dress.

Text

bhadra karāñā tāṅre gaṅgā-snāna karāila
śekhara āniyā tāṅre nūtana vastra dila

Synonyms

bhadra karāñā — making gentle; tāṅre — him; gaṅgā-snāna — bathing in the Ganges; karāila — caused to do; śekhara — Candraśekhara; āniyā — bringing; tāṅre — to him; nūtana — new; vastra — clothing; dila — delivered.

Translation

Candraśekhara then made Sanātana Gosvāmī look like a gentleman. He took him to bathe in the Ganges, and afterwards he brought him a new set of clothes.

Purport

The words bhadra karāñā are significant in this verse. Due to his long hair, mustache and beard, Sanātana Gosvāmī looked like a daraveśa, or hippie. Since Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu did not like Sanātana Gosvāmī’s hippie features, he immediately asked Candraśekhara to get him shaved clean. If anyone with long hair or a beard wants to join this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement and live with us, he must similarly shave himself clean. The followers of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu consider long hair objectionable.

Sanātana Gosvāmī was saved from a hellish condition (Mahāraurava) by the grace of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Mahāraurava is a hell wherein animal killers are placed. In this regard, refer to Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (5.26.10-12).

Text

sei vastra sanātana nā kaila aṅgīkāra
śuniyā prabhura mane ānanda apāra

Synonyms

sei vastra — that new dress; sanātana — Sanātana Gosvāmī; kaila — did not; aṅgīkāra — accept; śuniyā — hearing; prabhura — of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; mane — in the mind; ānanda apāra — unlimited happiness.

Translation

Candraśekhara offered a new set of garments to Sanātana Gosvāmī, but Sanātana did not accept them. When Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu heard news of this, He became unlimitedly happy.

Text

madhyāhna kariyā prabhu gelā bhikṣā karibāre
sanātane lañā gelā tapana-miśrera ghare

Synonyms

madhyāhna kariyā — finishing bathing at noon; prabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; gelā — went; bhikṣā karibāre — to accept lunch; sanātane — Sanātana Gosvāmī; lañā — taking; gelā — went; tapana-miśrera ghare — to the house of Tapana Miśra.

Translation

After bathing at noon, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu went to the house of Tapana Miśra for lunch. He took Sanātana Gosvāmī with Him.

Text

pāda-prakṣālana kari’ bhikṣāte vasilā
‘sanātane bhikṣā deha’ — miśrere kahilā

Synonyms

pāda-prakṣālana — washing the feet; kari’ — doing; bhikṣāte — to lunch; vasilā — sat down; sanātane bhikṣā deha — give Sanātana lunch also; miśrere kahilā — He asked Tapana Miśra.

Translation

After washing His feet, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu sat down for lunch. He asked Tapana Miśra to supply Sanātana Gosvāmī lunch also.

Text

miśra kahe, — ‘sanātanera kichu kṛtya āche
tumi bhikṣā kara, prasāda tāṅre diba pāche’

Synonyms

miśra kahe — Tapana Miśra said; sanātanera — of Sanātana Gosvāmī; kichu — some; kṛtya — duty; āche — there is; tumi bhikṣā kara — You take Your lunch; prasāda — the remnants of Your food; tāṅre — unto him; diba — I shall deliver; pāche — at the end.

Translation

Tapana Miśra then said, “Sanātana has some duty to perform; therefore he cannot accept lunch now. At the conclusion of the meal, I shall supply Sanātana with some remnants.”

Text

bhikṣā kari’ mahāprabhu viśrāma karila
miśra prabhura śeṣa-pātra sanātane dila

Synonyms

bhikṣā kari’ — after taking His lunch; mahāprabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; viśrāma karila — took rest; miśra — Tapana Miśra; prabhura — of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; śeṣa-pātra — the plate of remnants; sanātane dila — delivered to Sanātana.

Translation

After eating, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu took rest for a while. Tapana Miśra then gave Sanātana Gosvāmī the remnants of food left by Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

Text

miśra sanātane dilā nūtana vasana
vastra nāhi nilā, teṅho kaila nivedana

Synonyms

miśra — Tapana Miśra; sanātane — unto Sanātana; dilā — delivered; nūtana vasana — new cloth; vastra — the cloth; nāhi nilā — he did not accept; teṅho — he; kaila — made; nivedana — submission.

Translation

When Tapana Miśra offered Sanātana Gosvāmī a new cloth, he did not accept it. Instead, he spoke as follows.

Text

“more vastra dite yadi tomāra haya mana
nija paridhāna eka deha’ purātana”

Synonyms

more — unto me; vastra dite — to offer cloth; yadi — if; tomāra — your; haya — there is; mana — mind; nija — own; paridhāna — cloth; eka — one; deha’ — give; purātana — old.

Translation

“If you want to give me some cloth according to your desire, please give me an old cloth you have used.”

Text

tabe miśra purātana eka dhuti dila
teṅho dui bahirvāsa-kaupīna karila

Synonyms

tabe — thereafter; miśra — Tapana Miśra; purātana — old; eka — one; dhuti — dhotī; dila — delivered; teṅho — he (Sanātana Gosvāmī); dui — two; bahirvāsa — outer coverings; kaupīna — underwear; karila — made.

Translation

When Tapana Miśra gave Sanātana Gosvāmī a used dhotī, Sanātana immediately tore it into pieces to make two sets of outer cloth and underwear.

Text

mahārāṣṭrīya dvije prabhu milāilā sanātane
sei vipra tāṅre kaila mahā-nimantraṇe

Synonyms

mahārāṣṭrīya — from Maharashtra; dvije — the brāhmaṇa; prabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; milāilā — introduced; sanātane — unto Sanātana Gosvāmī; sei — that; vipra — brāhmaṇa; tāṅre — unto him; kaila — did; mahā — full; nimantraṇe — invitation.

Translation

When Caitanya Mahāprabhu introduced the Maharashtrian brāhmaṇa to Sanātana, the brāhmaṇa immediately invited Sanātana Gosvāmī for full meals.

Text

“sanātana, tumi yāvat kāśīte rahibā
tāvat āmāra ghare bhikṣā ye karibā”

Synonyms

sanātana — O Sanātana; tumi — you; yāvat — as long as; kāśīte — in Benares; rahibā — will remain; tāvat — so long; āmāra — my; ghare — at the home; bhikṣā — lunch; ye — that; karibā — please accept.

Translation

The brāhmaṇa said, “My dear Sanātana, as long as you remain at Kāśī, please accept lunch at my place.”

Text

sanātana kahe, — “āmi mādhukarī kariba
brāhmaṇera ghare kene ekatra bhikṣā laba?”

Synonyms

sanātana kahe — Sanātana replied; āmi — I; mādhukarī kariba — shall practice acceptance of food by mādhukarī means; brāhmaṇera ghare — in the house of a brāhmaṇa; kene — why; ekatra — in one place; bhikṣā laba — I should accept lunch.

Translation

Sanātana replied, “I shall practice the process of mādhukarī. Why should I accept full meals in the house of a brāhmaṇa?”

Purport

The word mādhukarī comes from the word madhukara, which refers to bees collecting honey from flower to flower. A mādhukarī is a saintly person or a mendicant who does not accept a full meal at one house but begs from door to door, taking a little food from each householder’s place. In this way he does not overeat or give householders unnecessary trouble. A person in the renounced order may beg but not cook. His begging should not be a burden for the householders. The mādhukarī process is strictly to be followed by a bābājī, that is, one who has attained the paramahaṁsa stage. This practice is still current in Vṛndāvana, and there are many places where alms are offered. Unfortunately, there are many beggars who have come to Vṛndāvana to accept alms but not follow the principles of Sanātana Gosvāmī. People try to imitate him and lead an idle life by practicing mādhukarī. It is almost impossible to strictly follow Sanātana Gosvāmī or Rūpa Gosvāmī. It is better to accept food offered to Kṛṣṇa in the temple than to try to imitate Sanātana Gosvāmī and Rūpa Gosvāmī.

yuktāhāra-vihārasyayukta-ceṣṭasya karmasu
yukta-svapnāvabodhasya
yogo bhavati duḥkha-hā

“He who is regulated in his habits of eating, sleeping, recreation and work can mitigate all material pains by practicing the yoga system.” (Bg. 6.17)

The ideal sannyāsī strictly follows the ways practiced by the Gosvāmīs.

Text

sanātanera vairāgye prabhura ānanda apāra
bhoṭa-kambala pāne prabhu cāhe bāre bāra

Synonyms

sanātanera — of Sanātana Gosvāmī; vairāgye — by the renunciation; prabhura — of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; ānanda — happiness; apāra — unlimited; bhoṭa-kambala — the woolen blanket; pāne — towards; prabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; cāhe — looks; bāre bāra — repeatedly.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu felt unlimited happiness to observe Sanātana Gosvāmī’s strict following of the principles of sannyāsa. However, He repeatedly glanced at the woolen blanket Sanātana Gosvāmī was wearing.

Text

sanātana jānila ei prabhure nā bhāya
bhoṭa tyāga karibāre cintilā upāya

Synonyms

sanātana jānila — Sanātana Gosvāmī could understand; ei — this; prabhure — by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; bhāya — is not approved; bhoṭa — the woolen blanket; tyāga — giving up; karibāre — to do; cintilā — considered; upāya — a means.

Translation

Because Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was repeatedly glancing at this valuable woolen blanket, Sanātana Gosvāmī could understand that the Lord did not approve of it. He then began to consider a way to give it up.

Text

eta cinti’ gelā gaṅgāya madhyāhna karite
eka gauḍiyā kānthā dhuñā diyāche śukāite

Synonyms

eta cinti’ — thinking this; gelā — went; gaṅgāya — to the bank of the Ganges; madhyāhna — bathing at noon; karite — to do; eka — one; gauḍiyā — Bengali Vaiṣṇava; kānthā — quilt; dhuñā — washing; diyāche — spread out; śukāite — to dry.

Translation

Thinking in this way, Sanātana went to the bank of the Ganges to bathe. While there, he saw that a mendicant from Bengal had washed his quilt and spread it out to dry.

Text

tāre kahe, — “ore bhāi, kara upakāre
ei bhoṭa lañā ei kāṅthā deha’ more”

Synonyms

tāre kahe — he said to him; ore bhāi — O my brother; kara upakāre — kindly do a favor; ei bhoṭa — this woolen blanket; lañā — taking; ei — this; kāṅthā — quilt; deha’ — give; more — to me.

Translation

Sanātana Gosvāmī then told the Bengali mendicant, “My dear brother, please do me a favor. Trade me your quilt for this woolen blanket.”

Text

sei kahe, — “rahasya kara prāmāṇika hañā?
bahu-mūlya bhoṭa dibā kena kāṅthā lañā?”

Synonyms

sei kahe — he said; rahasya — joking; kara — you do; prāmāṇika hañā — although being a man of authority; bahu-mūlya — very valuable; bhoṭa — woolen blanket; dibā — you would give; kena — why; kāṅthā lañā — taking this quilt.

Translation

The mendicant replied, “Sir, you are a respectable gentleman. Why are you joking with me? Why would you trade your valuable blanket for my torn quilt?”

Text

teṅho kahe, — “rahasya nahe, kahi satya-vāṇī
bhoṭa laha, tumi deha’ more kāṅthā-khāni”

Synonyms

teṅho kahe — he said; rahasya nahe — there is no joking; kahi satya-vāṇī — I am speaking the truth; bhoṭa laha — take this blanket; tumi — you; deha’ — give; more — to me; kāṅthā-khāni — the quilt.

Translation

Sanātana said, “I am not joking; I am speaking the truth. Kindly take this blanket in exchange for your torn quilt.”

Text

eta bali’ kāṅthā la-ila, bhoṭa tāṅre diyā
gosāñira ṭhāṅi āilā kāṅthā gale diyā

Synonyms

eta bali’ — saying this; kāṅthā la-ila — he took the quilt; bhoṭa — the blanket; tāṅre — unto him; diyā — giving; gosāñira ṭhāṅi — to Caitanya Mahāprabhu; āilā — returned; kāṅthā — quilt; gale — onto the shoulder; diyā — keeping.

Translation

Saying this, Sanātana Gosvāmī exchanged the blanket for the quilt. He then returned to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu with the quilt on his shoulder.

Text

prabhu kahe, — ‘tomāra bhoṭa-kambala kothā gela?’
prabhu-pade saba kathā gosāñi kahila

Synonyms

prabhu kahe — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu said; tomāra — your; bhoṭa-kambala — woolen blanket; kothā gela — where did it go; prabhu-pade — unto the lotus feet of Lord Caitanya; saba — all; kathā — narration; gosāñi — Sanātana Gosvāmī; kahila — said.

Translation

When Sanātana Gosvāmī returned, the Lord asked, “Where is your woolen blanket?” Sanātana Gosvāmī then narrated the whole story to the Lord.

Text

prabhu kahe, — “ihā āmi kariyāchi vicāra
viṣaya-roga khaṇḍāila kṛṣṇa ye tomāra
se kene rākhibe tomāra śeṣa viṣaya-bhoga?
roga khaṇḍi’ sad-vaidya nā rākhe śeṣa roga

Synonyms

prabhu kahe — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu said; ihā — this; āmi — I; kariyāchi vicāra — considered deliberately; viṣaya-roga — the disease of material attraction; khaṇḍāila — has now nullified; kṛṣṇa — Lord Kṛṣṇa; ye — since; tomāra — your; se — Lord Kṛṣṇa; kene — why; rākhibe — should allow you to keep; tomāra — your; śeṣa — last; viṣaya-bhoga — attraction for material things; roga khaṇḍi’ — vanquishing the disease; sat-vaidya — a good physician; rākhe — does not keep; śeṣa — the last part; roga — disease.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu then said, “I have already deliberately considered this matter. Since Lord Kṛṣṇa is very merciful, He has nullified your attachment for material things. Why should Kṛṣṇa allow you to maintain a last bit of material attachment? After vanquishing a disease, a good physician does not allow any of the disease to remain.

Text

tina mudrāra bhoṭa gāya, mādhukarī grāsa
dharma-hāni haya, loka kare upahāsa”

Synonyms

tina mudrāra bhoṭa — a woolen blanket costing three gold coins; gāya — on the body; mādhukarī grāsa — and practicing the mādhukarī system; dharma-hāni haya — that is a religious discrepancy; loka kare upahāsa — people will joke.

Translation

“It is contradictory to practice mādhukarī and at the same time wear a valuable blanket. One loses his spiritual strength by doing this, and one will also become an object of jokes.”

Text

gosāñi kahe, — “ye khaṇḍila kuviṣaya-bhoga
tāṅra icchāya gela mora śeṣa viṣaya-roga”

Synonyms

gosāñi kahe — Sanātana Gosvāmī said; ye khaṇḍila — the person who has vanquished; ku-viṣaya-bhoga — enjoyment of sinful material life; tāṅra icchāya — by His desire; gela — has gone; mora — my; śeṣa — last bit; viṣaya-roga — material disease.

Translation

Sanātana Gosvāmī replied, “The Supreme Personality of Godhead has saved me from the sinful life of material existence. By His desire, my last piece of material attraction is now gone.”

Text

prasanna hañā prabhu tāṅre kṛpā kaila
tāṅra kṛpāya praśna karite tāṅra śakti haila

Synonyms

prasanna hañā — being very pleased; prabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; tāṅre — unto him; kṛpā kaila — offered His causeless mercy; tāṅra kṛpāya — by His mercy; praśna karite — to inquire; tāṅra — his; śakti haila — there was strength.

Translation

Being pleased with Sanātana Gosvāmī, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu bestowed His causeless mercy upon him. By the Lord’s mercy, Sanātana Gosvāmī received the spiritual strength to inquire from Him.

Text

pūrve yaiche rāya-pāśe prabhu praśna kailā
tāṅra śaktye rāmānanda tāṅra uttara dilā
ihāṅ prabhura śaktye praśna kare sanātana
āpane mahāprabhu kare ‘tattva’-nirūpaṇa

Synonyms

pūrve — formerly; yaiche — as; rāya-pāśe — unto Rāmānanda Rāya; prabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; praśna kailā — inquired; tāṅra śaktye — only by His mercy; rāmānanda — Rāmānanda Rāya; tāṅra — his; uttara — answers; dilā — gave; ihāṅ — here; prabhura — of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; śaktye — by the strength; praśna — questions; kare — puts; sanātana — Sanātana Gosvāmī; āpane — personally; mahāprabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; kare — does; tattva — the truth; nirūpaṇa — discerning.

Translation

Formerly, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu had asked Rāmānanda Rāya spiritual questions, and by the Lord’s causeless mercy, Rāmānanda Rāya could properly reply. Now, by the Lord’s mercy, Sanātana Gosvāmī questioned the Lord, and Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu personally supplied the truth.

Text

kṛṣṇa-svarūpa-mādhuryaiś-
varya-bhakti-rasāśrayam
tattvaṁ sanātanāyeśaḥ
kṛpayopadideśa saḥ

Synonyms

kṛṣṇa-svarūpa — of the real identity of Śrī Kṛṣṇa; mādhurya — of conjugal love; aiśvarya — of opulence; bhakti — of devotional service; rasa — of transcendental mellows; āśrayam — the shelter; tattvam — the truth; sanātanāya — unto Śrī Sanātana; īśaḥ — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, the Supreme Lord; kṛpayā — by His causeless mercy; upadideśa — instructed; saḥ — He.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, personally told Sanātana Gosvāmī about Lord Kṛṣṇa’s real identity. He also told him about the Lord’s conjugal love, His personal opulence and the mellows of devotional service. All these truths were explained to Sanātana Gosvāmī by the Lord Himself out of His causeless mercy.

Text

tabe sanātana prabhura caraṇe dhariyā
dainya vinati kare dante tṛṇa lañā

Synonyms

tabe — thereafter; sanātana — Sanātana Gosvāmī; prabhura — of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; caraṇe — the lotus feet; dhariyā — catching; dainya — humility; vinati — bowing; kare — does; dante — in the teeth; tṛṇa — a straw; lañā — taking.

Translation

Putting a straw in his mouth and bowing down, Sanātana Gosvāmī clasped the lotus feet of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and humbly spoke as follows.

Text

“nīca jāti, nīca-saṅgī, patita adhama
kuviṣaya-kūpe paḍi’ goṅāinu janama!

Synonyms

nīca jāti — born of a low family; nīca-saṅgī — associated with low men; patita — fallen; adhama — the lowest; ku-viṣaya-kūpe — in a well of material enjoyment; paḍi’ — having fallen down; goṅāinu — I have passed; janama — my life.

Translation

Sanātana Gosvāmī said, “I was born in a low family, and my associates are all low-class men. I myself am fallen and am the lowest of men. Indeed, I have passed my whole life fallen in the well of sinful materialism.

Purport

Actually Śrī Sanātana Gosvāmī belonged to a brāhmaṇa family because he belonged to the Sārasvata division of the brāhmaṇas and was well cultured and well educated. Somehow or other he accepted a ministership in the Muslim government; therefore he had to associate with meat-eaters, drunkards and gross materialists. Sanātana Gosvāmī considered himself fallen, for in the association of such men, he also fell victim to material enjoyment. Having passed his life in that way, he considered that he had wasted his valuable time. This statement about how one can become fallen in this material world is made by the greatest authority in the Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava-sampradāya. Actually the whole world is presently fallen into material existence. Everyone is a meat-eater, drunkard, woman-hunter, gambler and whatnot. People are enjoying material life by committing the four basic sins. Although they are fallen, if they simply submit themselves at the lotus feet of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, they will be saved from sinful reactions.

Text

āpanāra hitāhita kichui nā jāni!
grāmya-vyavahāre paṇḍita, tāi satya māni

Synonyms

āpanāra — of my personal self; hita — welfare; ahita — inauspiciousness; kichui — anything; jāni — I do not know; grāmya-vyavahāre — in ordinary dealings; paṇḍita — a learned man; tāi satya māni — I accept that as truth.

Translation

“I do not know what is beneficial for me or what is detrimental. Nonetheless, in ordinary dealings people consider me a learned scholar, and I am also thinking of myself as such.

Text

kṛpā kari’ yadi more kariyācha uddhāra
āpana-kṛpāte kaha ‘kartavya’ āmāra

Synonyms

kṛpā kari’ — by Your causeless mercy; yadi — if; more — unto me; kariyācha — You have done; uddhāra — deliverance; āpana-kṛpāte — by Your own mercy; kaha — please speak; kartavya āmāra — my duty.

Translation

“Out of Your causeless mercy, You have delivered me from the materialistic path. Now, by the same causeless mercy, please tell me what my duty is.

Text

‘ke āmi’, ‘kene āmāya jāre tāpa-traya’
ihā nāhi jāni — ‘kemane hita haya’

Synonyms

ke āmi — who am I; kene — why; āmāya — unto me; jāre — give trouble; tāpa-traya — the three kinds of miserable conditions; ihā — this; nāhi jāni — I do not know; kemane — how; hita — my welfare; haya — there is.

Translation

“Who am I? Why do the threefold miseries always give me trouble? If I do not know this, how can I be benefited?

Purport

The threefold material miseries are miseries arising from the body and the mind, miseries arising from dealings with other living entities, and miseries arising from natural disturbances. Sometimes we suffer bodily when we are attacked by a fever, and sometimes we suffer mentally when a close relative dies. Other living entities also cause us misery. There are living entities born of the human embryo, of eggs, perspiration and vegetation. Miserable conditions brought about by natural catastrophes are controlled by the higher demigods. There may be severe cold or thunderbolts, or a person may be haunted by ghosts. These threefold miseries are always before us, and they entrap us in a dangerous situation. Padaṁ padaṁ yad vipadām. There is danger in every step of life.

Text

‘sādhya’-‘sādhana’-tattva puchite nā jāni
kṛpā kari’ saba tattva kaha ta’ āpani”

Synonyms

sādhya — of the goal of spiritual life; sādhana — of the process of obtaining that goal; tattva — truth; puchite — to inquire; jāni — I do not know; kṛpā kari’ — by Your causeless mercy; saba tattva — all such truths; kaha taāpani — please personally explain to me.

Translation

“Actually I do not know how to inquire about the goal of life and the process for obtaining it. Being merciful upon me, please explain all these truths.”

Text

prabhu kahe, — “kṛṣṇa-kṛpā tomāte pūrṇa haya
saba tattva jāna, tomāra nāhi tāpa-traya

Synonyms

prabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; kahe — said; kṛṣṇa-kṛpā — the mercy of Kṛṣṇa; tomāte — on you; pūrṇa — full; haya — there is; saba tattva — all truths; jāna — you know; tomāra — of you; nāhi — there is not; tāpa-traya — the threefold miseries.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu said, “Lord Kṛṣṇa has bestowed His full mercy upon you so that all these things are known to you. For you, the threefold miseries certainly do not exist.

Text

kṛṣṇa-śakti dhara tumi, jāna tattva-bhāva
jāni’ dārḍhya lāgi’ puche, — sādhura svabhāva

Synonyms

kṛṣṇa-śakti — the energy of Lord Kṛṣṇa; dhara — possess; tumi — you; jāna — know; tattva-bhāva — the factual position; jāni’ — although knowing all these things; dārḍhya lāgi’ — for the sake of strictness; puche — he inquires; sādhura — of a saintly person; svabhāva — the nature.

Translation

“Since you possess Lord Kṛṣṇa’s potency, you certainly know these things. However, it is the nature of a sādhu to inquire. Although he knows these things, the sādhu inquires for the sake of strictness.

Text

acirād eva sarvārthaḥ
sidhyaty eṣām abhīpsitaḥ
sad-dharmasyāvabodhāya
yeṣāṁ nirbandhinī matiḥ

Synonyms

acirāt — very soon; eva — certainly; sarva-arthaḥ — the goal of life; sidhyati — becomes fulfilled; eṣām — of these persons; abhīpsitaḥ — desired; sat-dharmasya — of the path of progressive devotional service; avabodhāya — for understanding; yeṣām — those whose; nirbandhinī — unflinching; matiḥ — intelligence.

Translation

“ ‘Those who are eager to awaken their spiritual consciousness and who thus have unflinching, undeviated intelligence certainly attain the desired goal of life very soon.’

Purport

This verse, quoted from the Nāradīya Purāṇa, is found in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (1.2.103).

Text

yogya-pātra hao tumi bhakti pravartāite
krame saba tattva śuna, kahiye tomāte

Synonyms

yogya-pātra — fit person; hao — are; tumi — you; bhakti — devotional service; pravartāite — to propagate; krame — one after another; saba — all; tattva — truths; śuna — please hear; kahiye — I shall speak; tomāte — to you.

Translation

“You are fit to propagate the cult of devotional service. Therefore gradually hear all the truths about it from Me. I shall tell you about them.

Text

jīvera ‘svarūpa’ haya — kṛṣṇera ‘nitya-dāsa’
kṛṣṇera ‘taṭasthā-śakti’ ‘bhedābheda-prakāśa’
sūryāṁśa-kiraṇa, yaiche agni-jvālā-caya
svābhāvika kṛṣṇera tina-prakāra ‘śakti’ haya

Synonyms

jīvera — of the living entity; svarūpa — the constitutional position; haya — is; kṛṣṇera — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; nitya-dāsa — eternal servant; kṛṣṇera — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; taṭasthā — marginal; śakti — potency; bheda-abheda — one and different; prakāśa — manifestation; sūrya-aṁśa — part and parcel of the sun; kiraṇa — a ray of sunshine; yaiche — as; agni-jvālā-caya — molecular particle of fire; svābhāvika — naturally; kṛṣṇera — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; tina-prakāra — three varieties; śakti — energies; haya — there are.

Translation

“It is the living entity’s constitutional position to be an eternal servant of Kṛṣṇa because he is the marginal energy of Kṛṣṇa and a manifestation simultaneously one with and different from the Lord, like a molecular particle of sunshine or fire. Kṛṣṇa has three varieties of energy.

Purport

Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura explains these verses as follows: Śrī Sanātana Gosvāmī asked Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, “Who am I?” In answer, the Lord replied, “You are a pure living entity. You are neither the gross material body nor the subtle body composed of mind and intelligence. Actually you are a spirit soul, eternally part and parcel of the Supreme Soul, Kṛṣṇa. Therefore you are His eternal servant. You belong to Kṛṣṇa’s marginal potency. There are two worlds — the spiritual world and the material world — and you are situated between the material and spiritual potencies. You have a relationship with both the material and the spiritual world; therefore you are called the marginal potency. You are related with Kṛṣṇa as one and simultaneously different. Because you are spirit soul, you are one in quality with the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but because you are a very minute particle of spirit soul, you are different from the Supreme Soul. Therefore your position is simultaneously one with and different from the Supreme Soul. The examples given are those of the sun itself and the small particles of sunshine and of a blazing fire and the small particles of fire.” Another explanation of these verses can be found in Ādi-līlā, chapter two, verse 96.

Text

eka-deśa-sthitasyāgner
jyotsnā vistāriṇī yathā
parasya brahmaṇaḥ śaktis
tathedam akhilaṁ jagat

Synonyms

eka-deśa — in one place; sthitasya — being situated; agneḥ — of fire; jyotsnā — the illumination; vistāriṇī — expanded everywhere; yathā — just as; parasya — of the Supreme; brahmaṇaḥ — of the Absolute Truth; śaktiḥ — the energy; tathā — similarly; idam — this; akhilam — entire; jagat — universe.

Translation

“ ‘Just as the illumination of a fire, which is situated in one place, is spread all over, the energies of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Parabrahman, are spread all over this universe.’

Purport

This is a quotation from the Viṣṇu Purāṇa (1.22.53).

Text

kṛṣṇera svābhāvika tina-śakti-pariṇati
cic-chakti, jīva-śakti, āra māyā-śakti

Synonyms

kṛṣṇera — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; svābhāvika — natural; tina — three; śakti — of energies; pariṇati — transformations; cit-śakti — spiritual potency; jīva-śakti — spiritual sparks, living entities; āra — and; māyā-śakti — illusory energy.

Translation

“Lord Kṛṣṇa naturally has three energetic transformations, and these are known as the spiritual potency, the living entity potency and the illusory potency.

Text

viṣṇu-śaktiḥ parā proktā
kṣetrajñākhyā tathā parā
avidyā-karma-saṁjñānyā
tṛtīyā śaktir iṣyate

Synonyms

viṣṇu-śaktiḥ — the potency of Lord Viṣṇu; parā — spiritual; proktā — it is said; kṣetra-jña-ākhyā — the potency known as kṣetrajña; tathā — as well as; parā — spiritual; avidyā — ignorance; karma — fruitive activities; saṁjñā — known as; anyā — other; tṛtīyā — third; śaktiḥ — potency; iṣyate — known thus.

Translation

“ ‘Originally, Kṛṣṇa’s energy is spiritual, and the energy known as the living entity is also spiritual. However, there is another energy, called illusion, which consists of fruitive activity. That is the Lord’s third potency.’

Purport

This is a quotation from the Viṣṇu Purāṇa (6.7.61). For a further explanation of this verse, refer to Ādi-līlā, chapter seven, verse 119.

Text

śaktayaḥ sarva-bhāvānām
acintya-jñāna-gocarāḥ
yato ’to brahmaṇas tās tu
sargādyā bhāva-śaktayaḥ
bhavanti tapatāṁ śreṣṭha
pāvakasya yathoṣṇatā

Synonyms

śaktayaḥ — energies; sarva-bhāvānām — of all types of creation; acintya — inconceivable; jñāna-gocarāḥ — by the range of man’s knowledge; yataḥ — from whom; ataḥ — therefore; brahmaṇaḥ — from the Absolute Truth; tāḥ — those; tu — but; sarga-ādyāḥ — bringing about creation, maintenance and annihilation; bhāva-śaktayaḥ — the creative energies; bhavanti — are; tapatām — of all the ascetics; śreṣṭha — O chief; pāvakasya — of fire; yathā — as; uṣṇatā — heat.

Translation

“ ‘All the creative energies, which are inconceivable to a common man, exist in the Supreme Absolute Truth. These inconceivable energies act in the process of creation, maintenance and annihilation. O chief of the ascetics, just as there are two energies possessed by fire — namely heat and light — these inconceivable creative energies are the natural characteristics of the Absolute Truth.’

Purport

This is also a quotation from the Viṣṇu Purāṇa (1.3.2).

Text

yayā kṣetra-jña-śaktiḥ sā
veṣṭitā nṛpa sarva-gā
saṁsāra-tāpān akhilān
avāpnoty atra santatān

Synonyms

yayā — by which; kṣetra-jña-śaktiḥ — the living entities, known as the kṣetra-jña potency; — that potency; veṣṭitā — covered; nṛpa — O King; sarva- — capable of going anywhere in the spiritual or the material world; saṁsāra-tāpān — miseries due to the cycle of repeated birth and death; akhilān — all kinds of; avāpnoti — obtains; atra — in this material world; santatān — arising from suffering or enjoying various kinds of reactions to fruitive activities.

Translation

“ ‘O King, the kṣetra-jña-śakti is the living entity. Although he has the facility to live in either the material or the spiritual world, he suffers the threefold miseries of material existence because he is influenced by the avidyā [nescience] potency, which covers his constitutional position.

Purport

This and the following verse are also quoted from the Viṣṇu Purāṇa (6.7.62-63). For an explanation, see Madhya-līlā, chapter 6, verses 155-156.

Text

tayā tirohitatvāc ca
śaktiḥ kṣetra-jña-saṁjñitā
sarva-bhūteṣu bhū-pāla
tāratamyena vartate

Synonyms

tayā — by her; tirohitatvāt — from being under the influence; ca — also; śaktiḥ — the potency; kṣetra-jña — kṣetra-jña; saṁjñitā — known by the name; sarva-bhūteṣu — in different types of bodies; bhū-pāla — O King; tāratamyena — in different degrees; vartate — exists.

Translation

“ ‘This living entity, covered by the influence of nescience, exists in different forms in the material condition. O King, he is thus proportionately freed from the influence of the material energy, to greater or lesser degrees.’

Text

apareyam itas tv anyāṁ
prakṛtiṁ viddhi me parām
jīva-bhūtāṁ mahā-bāho
yayedaṁ dhāryate jagat

Synonyms

aparā — inferior energy; iyam — this material world; itaḥ — beyond this; tu — but; anyām — another; prakṛtim — energy; viddhi — you must know; me — of Me; parām — which is superior energy; jīva-bhūtām — they are the living entities; mahā-bāho — O mighty-armed one; yayā — by which; idam — this material world; dhāryate — is being conducted; jagat — the cosmic manifestation.

Translation

“ ‘Besides these inferior energies, O mighty-armed Arjuna, there is another, superior energy of Mine, which comprises the living entities who are exploiting the resources of this material, inferior nature.’

Purport

This is a verse from the Bhagavad-gītā (7.5). For an explanation, see Ādi-līlā, chapter seven, verse 118.

Text

kṛṣṇa bhuli’ sei jīva anādi-bahirmukha
ataeva māyā tāre deya saṁsāra-duḥkha

Synonyms

kṛṣṇa bhuli’ — forgetting Kṛṣṇa; sei jīva — that living entity; anādi — from time immemorial; bahir-mukha — attracted by the external feature; ataeva — therefore; māyā — illusory energy; tāre — to him; deya — gives; saṁsāra-duḥkha — miseries of material existence.

Translation

“Forgetting Kṛṣṇa, the living entity has been attracted by the external feature from time immemorial. Therefore the illusory energy [māyā] gives him all kinds of misery in his material existence.

Purport

When the living entity forgets his constitutional position as an eternal servant of Kṛṣṇa, he is immediately entrapped by the illusory, external energy. The living entity is originally part and parcel of Kṛṣṇa and is therefore the superior energy of Kṛṣṇa. He is endowed with inconceivable minute energy that works inconceivably within the body. However, the living entity, forgetting his position, is situated in material energy. The living entity is called the marginal energy because by nature he is spiritual but by forgetfulness he is situated in the material energy. Thus he has the power to live either in the material energy or in the spiritual energy, and for this reason he is called marginal energy. Being in the marginal position, he is sometimes attracted by the external, illusory energy, and this is the beginning of his material life. When he enters the material energy, he is subjected to the threefold time measurement — past, present and future. Past, present and future belong only to the material world; they do not exist in the spiritual world. The living entity is eternal, and he existed before the creation of this material world. Unfortunately he has forgotten his relationship with Kṛṣṇa. The living entity’s forgetfulness is described herein as anādi, which indicates that it has existed since time immemorial. One should understand that due to his desire to enjoy himself in competition with Kṛṣṇa, the living entity comes into material existence.

Text

kabhu svarge uṭhāya, kabhu narake ḍubāya
daṇḍya-jane rājā yena nadīte cubāya

Synonyms

kabhu — sometimes; svarge — to higher planetary systems; uṭhāya — he rises; kabhu — sometimes; narake — in hellish conditions of life; ḍubāya — he is drowned; daṇḍya-jane — a criminal; rājā — a king; yena — as; nadīte — in the river; cubāya — dunks.

Translation

“In the material condition, the living entity is sometimes raised to higher planetary systems and material prosperity and sometimes drowned in a hellish situation. His state is exactly like that of a criminal whom a king punishes by submerging him in water and then raising him again from the water.

Purport

In the Bṛhad-āraṇyaka Upaniṣad (4.3.16) it is stated, asaṅgo hy ayaṁ puruṣaḥ: the living entity is always free from the contamination of the material world. One who is not materially infected and who does not forget Kṛṣṇa as his master is called nitya-mukta. In other words, one who is eternally liberated from material contamination is called nitya-mukta. From time immemorial the nitya-mukta living entity has always been a devotee of Kṛṣṇa, and his only attempt has been to serve Kṛṣṇa. Thus he never forgets his eternal servitorship to Kṛṣṇa. Any living entity who forgets his eternal relationship with Kṛṣṇa is under the sway of the material condition. Bereft of the Lord’s transcendental loving service, he is subjected to the reactions of fruitive activity. When he is elevated to the higher planetary systems due to worldly pious activities, he considers himself well situated, but when he is subjected to punishment, he thinks himself improperly situated. Thus material nature awards and punishes the living entity. When the living entity is materially opulent, material nature is rewarding him. When he is materially embarrassed, material nature is punishing him.

Text

bhayaṁ dvitīyābhiniveśataḥ syād
īśād apetasya viparyayo ’smṛtiḥ
tan-māyayāto budha ābhajet taṁ
bhaktyaikayeśaṁ guru-devatātmā

Synonyms

bhayam — fear; dvitīya-abhiniveśataḥ — from the misconception of being a product of material energy; syāt — arises; īśāt — from the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa; apetasya — of one who has withdrawn (the conditioned soul); viparyayaḥ — reversal of the position; asmṛtiḥ — no conception of his relationship with the Supreme Lord; tat-māyayā — because of the illusory energy of the Supreme Lord; ataḥ — therefore; budhaḥ — one who is wise; ābhajet — must worship; tam — Him; bhaktyā — by devotional service; ekayā — undiverted to karma and jñāna; īśam — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; guru — as the spiritual master; devatā — the worshipable Lord; ātmā — the Supersoul.

Translation

“ ‘When the living entity is attracted by the material energy, which is separate from Kṛṣṇa, he is overpowered by fear. Because he is separated from the Supreme Personality of Godhead by the material energy, his conception of life is reversed. In other words, instead of being the eternal servant of Kṛṣṇa, he becomes Kṛṣṇa’s competitor. This is called viparyayo ’smṛtiḥ. To nullify this mistake, one who is actually learned and advanced worships the Supreme Personality of Godhead as his spiritual master, worshipful Deity and source of life. He thus worships the Lord by the process of unalloyed devotional service.’

Purport

This is a quotation from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (11.2.37). It is an instruction given by Kavi Ṛṣi, one of the nine saintly personalities called the nine Yogendras. When Vasudeva, Kṛṣṇa’s father, asked Devarṣi Nārada in Dvārakā about devotional service, it was mentioned that previously King Nimi, who was the King of Videha, was instructed by the nine Yogendras. When Śrī Nārada Muni discoursed on bhāgavata-dharma, devotional service, he indicated how a conditioned soul can be liberated by engaging in the loving transcendental service of the Lord. The Lord is the Supersoul, spiritual master and worshipable Deity of all conditioned souls. Not only is Kṛṣṇa the supreme worshipful Deity for all living entities, but He is also the guru, or caittya-guru, the Supersoul, who always gives the living entity good counsel. Unfortunately the living entity neglects the Supreme Person’s instructions. He thus identifies with the material energy and is consequently overpowered by a kind of fear resulting from accepting himself as the material body and considering paraphernalia related to the material body to be his property. All types of fruitive results actually come from the spirit soul, but because he has forgotten his real duty, he is embarrassed by many material consequences such as fear and attachment. The only remedy is to revert to the service of the Lord and thus be saved from material nature’s unwanted harassment.

Text

sādhu-śāstra-kṛpāya yadi kṛṣṇonmukha haya
sei jīva nistare, māyā tāhāre chāḍaya

Synonyms

sādhu — of saintly persons; śāstra — of scriptures; kṛpāya — by the mercy; yadi — if; kṛṣṇa-unmukha haya — one becomes Kṛṣṇa conscious; sei — that; jīva — living entity; nistare — becomes liberated; māyā — the illusory energy; tāhāre — him; chāḍaya — gives up.

Translation

“If the conditioned soul becomes Kṛṣṇa conscious by the mercy of saintly persons who voluntarily preach scriptural injunctions and help him to become Kṛṣṇa conscious, the conditioned soul is liberated from the clutches of māyā, who gives him up.

Purport

A conditioned soul is one who has forgotten Kṛṣṇa as his eternal master. Thinking that he is enjoying the material world, the conditioned soul suffers the threefold miseries of material existence. Saintly persons (sādhus), Vaiṣṇava devotees of the Lord, preach Kṛṣṇa consciousness on the basis of the Vedic literature. It is only by their mercy that the conditioned soul is awakened to Kṛṣṇa consciousness. When awakened, he is no longer eager to enjoy the materialistic way of life. Instead, he devotes himself to the loving transcendental service of the Lord. When one engages in the Lord’s devotional service, he becomes detached from material enjoyment:

bhaktiḥ pareśānubhavo viraktir
anyatra caiṣa trika eka-kālaḥ

This is the test by which one can tell whether he is advancing in devotional service. One must be detached from material enjoyment. Such detachment means that māyā has actually given the conditioned soul liberation from illusory enjoyment. When one is advanced in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, he does not consider himself as good as Kṛṣṇa. Whenever he thinks that he is the enjoyer of material advantages, he is imprisoned in the bodily conception. However, when he is freed from the bodily conception, he can engage in devotional service, which is his actual position of freedom from the clutches of māyā. This is all explained in the following verse from the Bhagavad-gītā (7.14).

Text

daivī hy eṣā guṇa-mayī
mama māyā duratyayā
mām eva ye prapadyante
māyām etāṁ taranti te

Synonyms

daivī — belonging to the Supreme Lord; hi — certainly; eṣā — this; guṇa-mayī — made of the three modes; mama — My; māyā — external energy; duratyayā — very difficult to surpass; mām — unto Me; eva — certainly; ye — those who; prapadyante — surrender fully; māyām — illusory energy; etām — this; taranti — cross over; te — they.

Translation

“ ‘This divine energy of Mine, consisting of the three modes of material nature, is difficult to overcome. But those who have surrendered unto Me can easily cross beyond it.’

Text

māyā-mugdha jīvera nāhi svataḥ kṛṣṇa-jñāna
jīvere kṛpāya kailā kṛṣṇa veda-purāṇa

Synonyms

māyā-mugdha — enchanted by the illusory energy; jīvera — of the conditioned soul; nāhi — there is not; svataḥ — automatically; kṛṣṇa-jñāna — knowledge of Kṛṣṇa; jīvere — unto the conditioned soul; kṛpāya — out of mercy; kailā — presented; kṛṣṇa — Lord Kṛṣṇa; veda-purāṇa — the Vedic literature and the Purāṇas (supplements to the Vedic literature).

Translation

“The conditioned soul cannot revive his Kṛṣṇa consciousness by his own effort. But out of causeless mercy, Lord Kṛṣṇa compiled the Vedic literature and its supplements, the Purāṇas.

Purport

A conditioned soul is bewildered by the Lord’s illusory energy (māyā). Māyā’s business is to keep the conditioned soul forgetful of his real relationship with Kṛṣṇa. Thus the living entity forgets his real identity as spirit soul, Brahman, and instead of realizing his factual position thinks himself the product of the material energy. According to Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (1.7.5):

yayā sammohito jīvaātmānaṁ tri-guṇātmakam
paro ’pi manute ’narthaṁ
tat-kṛtaṁ cābhipadyate

“Due to this external energy, the living entity, although transcendental to the three modes of material nature, thinks of himself as a material product and thus undergoes the reactions of material miseries.”

This is a description of māyā’s action upon the conditioned soul. Thinking himself a product of the material energy, the conditioned soul engages in the service of the material energy in so many ways. He becomes the servant of lust, anger, greed and envy. In this way one totally becomes a servant of the illusory energy. Later, the bewildered soul becomes a servant of mental speculation, but in any case he is simply covered by the illusory energy. Out of His causeless mercy and compassion, Kṛṣṇa has compiled various Vedic literatures in His incarnation as Vyāsadeva. Vyāsadeva is a śaktyāveśa-avatāra of Lord Kṛṣṇa. He has very kindly presented these literatures to awaken the conditioned soul to his senses. Unfortunately, at the present moment the conditioned souls are guided by demons who do not care to read the Vedic literatures. Although there is an immense treasure-house of knowledge, people are engaged in reading useless literature that will give them no information on how to get out of the clutches of māyā. The purpose of the Vedic literatures is explained in the following verses.

Text

‘śāstra-guru-ātma’-rūpe āpanāre jānāna
‘kṛṣṇa mora prabhu, trātā’ — jīvera haya jñāna

Synonyms

śāstra-guru-ātma-rūpe — in the form of the Vedic literature, the spiritual master and the Supersoul; āpanāre jānāna — informs about Himself; kṛṣṇa — Lord Kṛṣṇa; mora — my; prabhu — Lord; trātā — deliverer; jīvera — of the conditioned soul; haya — there is; jñāna — knowledge.

Translation

“The forgetful conditioned soul is educated by Kṛṣṇa through the Vedic literatures, the realized spiritual master and the Supersoul. Through these, he can understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead as He is, and he can understand that Lord Kṛṣṇa is his eternal master and deliverer from the clutches of māyā. In this way one can acquire real knowledge of his conditioned life and can come to understand how to attain liberation.

Purport

Being forgetful of his real position, the conditioned soul may take help from śāstra, guru and the Supersoul within his heart. Kṛṣṇa is situated within everyone’s heart as the Supersoul. As stated in the Bhagavad-gītā (18.61):

īśvaraḥ sarva-bhūtānāmhṛd-deśe ’rjuna tiṣṭhati
bhrāmayan sarva-bhūtāni
yantrārūḍhāni māyayā

“The Supreme Lord is situated in everyone’s heart, O Arjuna, and is directing the wanderings of all living entities, who are seated as on a machine made of the material energy.”

As the śaktyāveśa-avatāra Vyāsadeva, Kṛṣṇa teaches the conditioned soul through the Vedic literatures. Kṛṣṇa externally appears as the spiritual master and trains the conditioned soul to come to Kṛṣṇa consciousness. When his original Kṛṣṇa consciousness is revived, the conditioned soul is delivered from the material clutches. Thus a conditioned soul is always helped by the Supreme Personality of Godhead in three ways — by the scriptures, the spiritual master and the Supersoul within the heart. The Lord is the deliverer of the conditioned soul and is accepted as the Supreme Lord of all living entities. Kṛṣṇa says in the Bhagavad-gītā (18.66):

sarva-dharmān parityajyamām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja
ahaṁ tvāṁ sarva-pāpebhyo
mokṣayiṣyāmi mā śucaḥ

“Abandon all varieties of religion and just surrender unto Me. I shall deliver you from all sinful reactions. Do not fear.” This same instruction is found throughout all Vedic literatures. Sādhu, śāstra and guru act as the representatives of Kṛṣṇa, and the Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is also taking place all over the universe. Whoever takes advantage of this opportunity becomes liberated.

Text

veda-śāstra kahe — ‘sambandha’, ‘abhidheya’, ‘prayojana’
‘kṛṣṇa’ — prāpya sambandha, ‘bhakti’ — prāptyera sādhana

Synonyms

veda-śāstra kahe — the Vedic literature instructs; sambandha — the conditioned soul’s relationship with the Lord; abhidheya — the regulated activities of the conditioned soul for reviving that relationship; prayojana — and the ultimate goal of life to be attained by the conditioned soul; kṛṣṇa — Lord Kṛṣṇa; prāpya — to be awakened; sambandha — the original relationship; bhakti — devotional service; prāptyera sādhana — the means of attaining Kṛṣṇa.

Translation

“The Vedic literatures give information about the living entity’s eternal relationship with Kṛṣṇa, which is called sambandha. The living entity’s understanding of this relationship and his acting accordingly is called abhidheya. Returning home, back to Godhead, is the ultimate goal of life and is called prayojana.

Text

abhidheya-nāma ‘bhakti’, ‘prema’ — prayojana
puruṣārtha-śiromaṇi prema mahā-dhana

Synonyms

abhidheya — activities to revive one’s relationship; nāma — named; bhakti — devotional service; prema — love of Godhead; prayojana — the ultimate goal of life; puruṣa-artha-śiromaṇi — the topmost interest of the living entity; prema — love of Godhead; mahā-dhana — the greatest wealth.

Translation

“Devotional service, or sense activity for the satisfaction of the Lord, is called abhidheya because it can develop one’s original love of Godhead, which is the goal of life. This goal is the living entity’s topmost interest and greatest wealth. Thus one attains the platform of transcendental loving service unto the Lord.

Purport

The conditioned soul is bewildered by the external, material energy, which fully engages him in sense gratification in various ways. Due to engagement in material activities, one’s original Kṛṣṇa consciousness is covered. However, as the supreme father of all living entities, Kṛṣṇa wants His sons to return home, back to Godhead; therefore He personally comes to deliver Vedic literatures like the Bhagavad-gītā. He engages His confidential servants who serve as spiritual masters and enlighten the conditioned living entities. Being present in everyone’s heart, the Lord gives the living entities the conscience whereby they can accept the Vedas and the spiritual master. In this way the living entity can understand his constitutional position and his relationship with the Supreme Lord. As personally enunciated by the Lord Himself in the Bhagavad-gītā (15.15), vedaiś ca sarvair aham eva vedyaḥ: through the study of Vedānta, one may become fully aware of his relationship with the Supreme Lord and act accordingly. In this way one may ultimately attain the platform of loving service to the Lord. It is in the living entity’s best interest to understand the Supreme Lord. Unfortunately, the living entities have forgotten that this is in their best interest, and therefore Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam says, na te viduḥ svārtha-gatiṁ hi viṣṇum (Bhāg. 7.5.31).

Everyone wants to achieve life’s ultimate goal, but due to being absorbed in the material energy, we waste our time with sense gratification. Through the study of Vedic literatures — of which the essence is the Bhagavad-gītā — one comes to Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Thus one engages in devotional service, called abhidheya. When the living entity actually develops love of Godhead, he has reached the ultimate goal, prayojana. In other words, one who becomes fully Kṛṣṇa conscious has attained the perfection of life.

Text

kṛṣṇa-mādhurya-sevānanda-prāptira kāraṇa
kṛṣṇa-sevā kare, āra kṛṣṇa-rasa-āsvādana

Synonyms

kṛṣṇa-mādhurya — of an intimate relationship with Kṛṣṇa; sevā-ānanda — of pleasure from rendering service unto Him; prāptira — of achievement; kāraṇa — because; kṛṣṇa-sevā kare — one renders service to Kṛṣṇa; āra — and; kṛṣṇa-rasa — of the mellows of such service; āsvādana — tasting.

Translation

“When one attains the transcendental bliss of an intimate relationship with Kṛṣṇa, he renders service to Him and tastes the mellows of Kṛṣṇa consciousness.

Text

ihāte dṛṣṭānta — yaiche daridrera ghare
‘sarvajña’ āsi’ duḥkha dekhi’ puchaye tāhāre

Synonyms

ihāte — in this connection; dṛṣṭānta — the parable; yaiche — just as; daridrera ghare — in the house of a poor man; sarva-jña — an astrologer; āsi’ — coming; duḥkha — distressed condition; dekhi’ — seeing; puchaye tāhāre — inquires from him.

Translation

“The following parable may be given. Once a learned astrologer came to the house of a poor man and, seeing his distressed condition, questioned him.

Purport

Sometimes we go to an astrologer or palmist when we are in a distressed condition or when we want to know the future. The living entity in conditioned life is always distressed by the threefold miseries of material existence. Under the circumstances, he is inquisitive about his position. For instance, Sanātana Gosvāmī approached the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, to ask Him why he was in a distressed condition. This is the position of all conditioned souls. We are always in a distressed condition, and an intelligent man naturally becomes inquisitive. This position is called brahma-jijñāsā. Athāto brahma-jijñāsā (Vedānta-sūtra 1.1.1). Brahma here refers to the Vedic literature. One should consult the Vedic literature to know why the conditioned soul is always in a distressed condition. The Vedic literatures are meant to free the conditioned soul from the miserable conditions of material existence. In this chapter, the story of the astrologer Sarvajña and the poor man is very instructive.

Text

‘tumi kene duḥkhī, tomāra āche pitṛ-dhana
tomāre nā kahila, anyatra chāḍila jīvana”

Synonyms

tumi — you; kene — why; duḥkhī — distressed; tomāra — your; āche — there is; pitṛ-dhana — the riches of your father; tomāre — unto you; kahila — he did not disclose; anyatra — somewhere else; chāḍila — gave up; jīvana — his life.

Translation

“The astrologer asked, ‘Why are you unhappy? Your father was very wealthy, but he did not disclose his wealth to you because he died elsewhere.’

Text

sarvajñera vākye kare dhanera uddeśe
aiche veda-purāṇa jīve ‘kṛṣṇa’ upadeśe

Synonyms

sarvajñera — of the astrologer; vākye — the words; kare — make; dhanera — of the riches; uddeśe — news; aiche — similarly; veda-purāṇa — Vedic literatures; jīve — unto the living entity, the conditioned soul; kṛṣṇa — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; upadeśe — instructs.

Translation

“Just as the words of the astrologer Sarvajñā gave news of the poor man’s treasure, the Vedic literatures advise one about Kṛṣṇa consciousness when one is inquisitive to know why he is in a distressed material condition.

Text

sarvajñera vākye mūla-dhana anubandha
sarva-śāstre upadeśe, ‘śrī-kṛṣṇa’ — sambandha

Synonyms

sarvajñera — of the astrologer; vākye — by the assurance; mūla-dhana — with the treasure; anubandha — connection; sarva-śāstre — all Vedic literatures; upadeśe — instruct; śrī-kṛṣṇa — Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead; sambandha — the central connection.

Translation

“By the words of the astrologer, the poor man’s connection with the treasure was established. Similarly, the Vedic literature advises us that our real connection is with Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

Purport

In the Bhagavad-gītā (7.26), Śrī Kṛṣṇa says:

vedāhaṁ samatītānivartamānāni cārjuna
bhaviṣyāṇi ca bhūtāni
māṁ tu veda na kaścana

“O Arjuna, as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, I know everything that has happened in the past, all that is happening in the present, and all things that are yet to come. I also know all living entities, but Me no one knows.”

Thus Kṛṣṇa knows the cause of the distressed condition of the conditioned soul. He therefore descends from His original position to instruct the conditioned soul and inform him about his forgetfulness of his relationship with Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa exhibits Himself in His relationships in Vṛndāvana and at the Battle of Kurukṣetra so that people will be attracted to Him and will return home, back to Godhead. Kṛṣṇa also says in the Bhagavad-gītā that He is the proprietor of all universes, the enjoyer of everything that be and the friend of everyone. Bhoktāraṁ yajña-tapasāṁ sarva-loka-maheśvaram/ suhṛdaṁ sarva-bhutānāṁ (Bg. 5.29). If we revive our original intimate relationship with Kṛṣṇa, our distressed condition in the material world will be mitigated. Everyone is trying to adjust to the distressed conditions of material existence, but the basic problems cannot be solved unless one is in an intimate relationship with Kṛṣṇa.

Text

‘bāpera dhana āche’ — jñāne dhana nāhi pāya
tabe sarvajña kahe tāre prāptira upāya

Synonyms

bāpera dhana āche — the father has some treasure; jñāne — by this knowledge; dhana — treasure; nāhi pāya — one does not get; tabe — then; sarva-jña — the astrologer; kahe — says; tāre — unto the poor man; prāptira upāya — the means of getting the treasure.

Translation

“Although being assured of his father’s treasure, the poor man cannot acquire this treasure by such knowledge alone. Therefore the astrologer had to inform him of the means whereby he could actually find the treasure.

Text

‘ei sthāne āche dhana’ — yadi dakṣiṇe khudibe
‘bhīmarula-barulī’ uṭhibe, dhana nā pāibe

Synonyms

ei sthāne — at this place; āche — is; dhana — treasure; yadi — if; dakṣiṇe — on the southern side; khudibe — you will dig; bhīmarula-barulī — wasps and drones; uṭhibe — will rise; dhana — the riches; pāibe — you will not get.

Translation

“The astrologer said, ‘The treasure is in this place, but if you dig toward the southern side, the wasps and drones will rise, and you will not get your treasure.

Text

‘paścime’ khudibe, tāhā ‘yakṣa’ eka haya
se vighna karibe, — dhane hāta nā paḍaya

Synonyms

paścime — on the western side; khudibe — if you dig; tāhā — there; yakṣa — ghost; eka — one; haya — there is; se — he; vighna karibe — will create disturbances; dhane — on the treasure; hāta — hand; — not; paḍaya — touches.

Translation

“ ‘If you dig on the western side, there is a ghost who will create such a disturbance that your hands will not even touch the treasure.

Text

‘uttare’ khudile āche kṛṣṇa ‘ajagare’
dhana nāhi pābe, khudite gilibe sabāre

Synonyms

uttare — on the northern side; khudile — if you dig; āche — there is; kṛṣṇa — black; ajagare — snake; dhana — treasure; nāhi — not; pābe — you will get; khudite — digging; gilibe — will devour; sabāre — everyone.

Translation

“ ‘If you dig on the northern side, there is a big black snake that will devour you if you attempt to dig up the treasure.

Text

pūrva-dike tāte māṭī alpa khudite
dhanera jhāri paḍibeka tomāra hātete

Synonyms

pūrva-dike — on the eastern side; tāte — there; māṭī — the dirt; alpa — small quantity; khudite — digging; dhanera — of the treasure; jhāri — the pot; paḍibeka — you will get; tomāra — your; hātete — in the hands.

Translation

“ ‘However, if you dig up a small quantity of dirt on the eastern side, your hands will immediately touch the pot of treasure.’

Purport

The Vedic literatures, including the Purāṇas, state that according to the position of the conditioned soul, there are different processes — karma-kāṇḍa, jñāna-kāṇḍa, the yogic process and the bhakti-yoga process. Karma-kāṇḍa is compared to wasps and drones that will simply bite if one takes shelter of them. Jñāna-kāṇḍa, the speculative process, is simply like a ghost who creates mental disturbances. Yoga, the mystic process, is compared to a black snake that devours people by the impersonal cultivation of kaivalya. However, if one takes to bhakti-yoga, he becomes quickly successful. In other words, through bhakti-yoga, one’s hands touch the hidden treasure without difficulty.

The goal of all the revealed scriptures and Vedic injunctions is Kṛṣṇa, as He Himself says in the Bhagavad-gītā (15.15): vedaiś ca sarvair aham eva vedyaḥ. Since the Vedas enjoin one to search out Kṛṣṇa and take shelter at His lotus feet, and since no Vedic process but devotional service will enable one to do this, one has to take to devotional service. According to the Bhagavad-gītā (18.55), only the bhakti process is said to be definitive. Bhaktyā mām abhijānāti. This is the conclusive statement of the Vedas, and one has to accept this process if one is serious in searching for Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. In this connection, Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura gives the following statement: “The eastern side represents devotional service to Lord Kṛṣṇa. The southern side represents the process of fruitive activity (karma-kāṇḍa), which ends in material gain. The western side represents jñāna-kāṇḍa, the process of mental speculation, or sometimes siddhi-kāṇḍa, the mystic yoga system. The northern side represents mystic yoga, or sometimes the speculative method.” It is only the eastern side, devotional service, that enables one to attain life’s real goal. On the southern side, there are fruitive activities, by which one is subject to the punishment of Yamarāja. When one follows the system of fruitive activity, his material desires remain prominent. Consequently the results of this process are compared to wasps and drones. The living entity is bitten by the wasps and drones of fruitive activity and thus suffers in material existence birth after birth. One cannot become free from material desires by following this process. The propensity for material enjoyment never ends. Therefore the cycle of birth and death continues, and the spirit soul suffers perpetually.

The mystic yoga process is compared to a black snake that devours the living entity and injects him with poison. The ultimate goal of the yoga system is to become one with the Absolute. This means finishing one’s personal existence. But the spiritual part and parcel of the Supreme Personality of Godhead has an eternal individual existence. The Bhagavad-gītā confirms that the individual soul existed in the past, is existing in the present and will continue to exist as an individual in the future. Artificially trying to become one with the Absolute is suicidal. One cannot annihilate his natural condition.

A yakṣa, a protector of riches, will not allow anyone to take away riches for enjoyment. Such a demon will simply create disturbances. In other words, a devotee will not depend on his material resources but on the mercy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who can give real protection. This is called rakṣiṣyatīti viśvāsaḥ or (in the Bengali poetry of Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura’s Śaraṇāgati) ‘avaśya rakṣibe kṛṣṇa’ — viśvāsa pālana. The surrendered soul must accept the fact that his real protector is Kṛṣṇa, not his material acquisitions.

Considering all these points, devotional service to Kṛṣṇa is the real treasure house for the living entity. When one comes to the platform of devotional service, he always remains opulent in the association of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. One who is bereft of devotional service is swallowed by the black snake of the yoga system and bitten by the wasps and drones of fruitive activity, and he suffers consequent material miseries. Sometimes the living entity is misled into trying to merge into spiritual existence, thinking himself as good as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This means that when he comes to the spiritual platform, he will be disturbed and will again return to the material platform. According to Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.2.32):

ye ’nye ’ravindākṣa vimukta-māninas
tvayy asta-bhāvād aviśuddha-buddhayaḥ
āruhya kṛcchreṇa paraṁ padaṁ tataḥ
patanty adho ’nādṛta-yuṣmad-aṅghrayaḥ

Such people may become sannyāsīs, but unless they take shelter of Kṛṣṇa’s lotus feet, they will return to the material platform to perform philanthropic activities. In this way, one’s spiritual life is lost. This is to be understood as being devoured by the black snake.

Text

aiche śāstra kahe, — karma, jñāna, yoga tyaji’
‘bhaktye’ kṛṣṇa vaśa haya, bhaktye tāṅre bhaji

Synonyms

aiche — in that way; śāstra kahe — the Vedic literatures confirm; karma — fruitive activities; jñāna — speculative knowledge; yoga — the mystic yoga system; tyaji’ — giving up; bhaktye — by devotional service; kṛṣṇa — the Supreme Absolute Personality of Godhead; vaśa haya — becomes satisfied; bhaktye — by devotional service; tāṅre — Him; bhaji — we worship.

Translation

“The revealed scriptures conclude that one should give up fruitive activity, speculative knowledge and the mystic yoga system and instead take to devotional service, by which Kṛṣṇa can be fully satisfied.

Text

na sādhayati māṁ yogo
na sāṅkhyaṁ dharma uddhava
na svādhyāyas tapas tyāgo
yathā bhaktir mamorjitā

Synonyms

na — never; sādhayati — causes to remain satisfied; mām — Me; yogaḥ — the process of control; na — nor; sāṅkhyam — the process of gaining philosophical knowledge about the Absolute Truth; dharmaḥ — such an occupation; uddhava — My dear Uddhava; na — nor; svādhyāyaḥ — study of the Vedas; tapaḥ — austerities; tyāgaḥ — renunciation, acceptance of sannyāsa, or charity; yathā — as much as; bhaktiḥ — devotional service; mama — unto Me; ūrjitā — developed.

Translation

“[The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa, said:] ‘My dear Uddhava, neither through aṣṭāṅga-yoga [the mystic yoga system to control the senses], nor through impersonal monism or an analytical study of the Absolute Truth, nor through study of the Vedas, nor through austerities, charity or acceptance of sannyāsa can one satisfy Me as much as by developing unalloyed devotional service unto Me.

Purport

This and the following verse are quoted from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (11.14.20-21). The explanation for this verse is given in Ādi-līlā 17.76.

Text

bhaktyāham ekayā grāhyaḥ
śraddhayātmā priyaḥ satām
bhaktiḥ punāti man-niṣṭhā
śva-pākān api sambhavāt

Synonyms

bhaktyā — by devotional service; aham — I, the Supreme Personality of Godhead; ekayā — unflinching; grāhyaḥ — obtainable; śraddhayā — by faith; ātmā — the most dear; priyaḥ — to be served; satām — by the devotees; bhaktiḥ — the devotional service; punāti — purifies; mat-niṣṭhā — fixed only on Me; śva-pākān — the lowest of human beings, who are accustomed to eating dogs; api — certainly; sambhavāt — from all faults due to birth and other circumstances.

Translation

“ ‘Being very dear to the devotees and sādhus, I am attained through unflinching faith and devotional service. This bhakti-yoga system, which gradually increases attachment for Me, purifies even a human being born among dog-eaters. That is to say, everyone can be elevated to the spiritual platform by the process of bhakti-yoga.’

Text

ataeva ‘bhakti’ — kṛṣṇa-prāptyera upāya
‘abhidheya’ bali’ tāre sarva-śāstre gāya

Synonyms

ataeva — therefore; bhakti — devotional service; kṛṣṇa-prāptyera — of achieving the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa; upāya — the only means; abhidheya — abhidheya; bali’ — calling; tāre — this system; sarva-śāstre — in all revealed scriptures; gāya — is described.

Translation

“The conclusion is that devotional service is the only means for approaching the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This system is therefore called abhidheya. This is the verdict of all revealed scriptures.

Purport

As Lord Kṛṣṇa states in the Bhagavad-gītā (18.55).

bhaktyā mām abhijānātiyāvān yaś cāsmi tattvataḥ
tato māṁ tattvato jñātvā
viśate tad-anantaram

“One can understand Me as I am, as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, only by devotional service. And when one is in full consciousness of Me by such devotion, he can enter into the kingdom of God.”

The aim of life is to get rid of the material conditioning and enter into spiritual existence. Although the śāstras prescribe different methods for different men, the Supreme Personality of Godhead says that one ultimately must accept the path of devotional service as the assured path of spiritual advancement. Devotional service to the Lord is the only process actually confirmed by the Lord. Sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja (Bg. 18.66). One must become a devotee if one wants to return home, back to Godhead, and become eternally blissful.

Text

dhana pāile yaiche sukha-bhoga phala pāya
sukha-bhoga haite duḥkha āpani palāya

Synonyms

dhana pāile — when one gets riches; yaiche — just as; sukha-bhoga — enjoyment of happiness; phala — result; pāya — one gets; sukha-bhoga — real enjoyment of happiness; haite — from; duḥkha — all distresses; āpani — themselves; palāya — run away.

Translation

“When one actually becomes rich, he naturally enjoys all kinds of happiness. When one is actually in a happy mood, all distressful conditions go away by themselves. No extraneous endeavor is needed.

Text

taiche bhakti-phale kṛṣṇe prema upajaya
preme kṛṣṇāsvāda haile bhava nāśa pāya

Synonyms

taiche — similarly; bhakti-phale — by the result of devotional service; kṛṣṇe — unto Lord Kṛṣṇa; prema — love; upajaya — arises; preme — in devotional love; kṛṣṇa-āsvāda — tasting the association of Lord Kṛṣṇa; haile — when there is; bhava — the distress of the repetition of birth and death; nāśa — annihilation; pāya — obtains.

Translation

“Similarly, as a result of bhakti, one’s dormant love for Kṛṣṇa awakens. When one is so situated that he can taste the association of Lord Kṛṣṇa, material existence, the repetition of birth and death, comes to an end.

Text

dāridrya-nāśa, bhava-kṣaya, — premera ‘phala’ naya
prema-sukha-bhoga — mukhya prayojana haya

Synonyms

dāridrya-nāśa — the end of poverty-stricken life; bhava-kṣaya — annihilation of material existence; premera — of love of Godhead; phala — the result; naya — certainly is not; prema-sukha-bhoga — enjoyment of the happiness of love of God; mukhya — chief; prayojana — goal of life; haya — is.

Translation

“The goal of love of Godhead is not to become materially rich or free from material bondage. The real goal is to be situated in devotional service to the Lord and to enjoy transcendental bliss.

Purport

The results of devotional service are certainly not material benefits or liberation from material bondage. The goal of devotional service is to be eternally situated in the loving service of the Lord and to enjoy spiritual bliss from that service. One is said to be in a poverty-stricken condition when one forgets the Supreme Personality of Godhead. One has to end such a life of poverty in order to automatically end the miserable conditions of material existence. One is automatically liberated from material enjoyment when one tastes the service of Kṛṣṇa. One does not have to endeavor separately for opulence. Opulence automatically comes to the pure devotee, even though he does not desire material happiness.

Text

veda-śāstre kahe sambandha, abhidheya, prayojana
kṛṣṇa, kṛṣṇa-bhakti, prema, — tina mahā-dhana

Synonyms

veda-śāstre — in the Vedic literature; kahe — it is said; sambandha — relationship; abhidheya — execution; prayojana — goal; kṛṣṇa — Lord Kṛṣṇa; kṛṣṇa-bhakti — devotional service to the Lord; prema — love of Godhead; tina — these three; mahā-dhana — the supreme treasure.

Translation

“In the Vedic literatures, Kṛṣṇa is the central point of attraction, and His service is our activity. To attain the platform of love of Kṛṣṇa is life’s ultimate goal. Therefore Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa’s service and love of Kṛṣṇa are the three great riches of life.

Text

vedādi sakala śāstre kṛṣṇa — mukhya sambandha
tāṅra jñāne ānuṣaṅge yāya māyā-bandha

Synonyms

veda-ādi — beginning with the Vedas; sakala — all; śāstre — in the revealed scriptures; kṛṣṇa — Lord Kṛṣṇa; mukhya — chief; sambandha — central point or central attraction; tāṅra jñāne — by knowledge of Him; ānuṣaṅge — simultaneously; yāya — goes away; māyā-bandha — the bondage of material existence.

Translation

“In all revealed scriptures, beginning with the Vedas, the central point of attraction is Kṛṣṇa. When complete knowledge of Him is realized, the bondage of māyā, the illusory energy, is automatically broken.

Text

vyāmohāya carācarasya jagatas te te purāṇāgamās
tāṁ tām eva hi devatāṁ paramikāṁ jalpantu kalpāvadhi
siddhānte punar eka eva bhagavān viṣṇuḥ samastāgama-
vyāpāreṣu vivecana-vyatikaraṁ nīteṣu niścīyate

Synonyms

vyāmohāya — to increase the illusion and ignorance; cara-acarasya — of all living entities, moving and nonmoving; jagataḥ — of the world; te te — those respective; purāṇa — the supplementary Vedic literatures called the Purāṇas; āgamāḥ — and Vedas; tām tām — that respective; eva hi — certainly; devatām — demigod; paramikām — as supreme; jalpantu — let them speak about; kalpa-avadhi — until the end of the millennium; siddhānte — in conclusion; punaḥ — but; ekaḥ — one; eva — only; bhagavān — Supreme Personality of Godhead; viṣṇuḥ — Lord Viṣṇu; samasta — all; āgama — of the Vedas; vyāpāreṣu — in the dealings; vivecana-vyatikaram — to collective consideration; nīteṣu — when forcibly brought; niścīyate — is established.

Translation

“ ‘There are many types of Vedic literatures and supplementary Purāṇas. In each of them there are particular demigods who are spoken of as the chief demigods. This is just to create an illusion for moving and nonmoving living entities. Let them perpetually engage in such imaginations. However, when one analytically studies all these Vedic literatures collectively, he comes to the conclusion that Lord Viṣṇu is the one and only Supreme Personality of Godhead.’

Purport

This is a verse from the Padma Purāṇa.

Text

mukhya-gauṇa-vṛtti, kiṁvā anvaya-vyatireke
vedera pratijñā kevala kahaye kṛṣṇake

Synonyms

mukhya — chief; gauṇa — secondary; vṛtti — meaning; kiṁvā — or; anvaya-vyatireke — directly or indirectly; vedera pratijñā — ultimate declaration of the Vedas; kevala — only; kahaye — speaks; kṛṣṇake — about Kṛṣṇa.

Translation

“When one accepts the Vedic literature by interpretation or even by dictionary meaning, directly or indirectly the ultimate declaration of Vedic knowledge points to Lord Kṛṣṇa.

Text

kiṁ vidhatte kim ācaṣṭe
kim anūdya vikalpayet
ity asyā hṛdayaṁ loke
nānyo mad veda kaścana
māṁ vidhatte ’bhidhatte māṁ
vikalpyāpohyate hy aham
etāvān sarva-vedārthaḥ
śabda āsthāya māṁ bhidām
māyā-mātram anūdyānte
pratiṣidhya prasīdati

Synonyms

kim — what; vidhatte — direct; kim — what; ācaṣṭe — declare; kim — what; anūdya — taking as the object; vikalpayet — may conjecture; iti — thus; asyāḥ — of the Vedic literature; hṛdayam — intention; loke — in this world; na — not; anyaḥ — other; mat — than Me; veda — knows; kaścana — anyone; mām — Me; vidhatte — they ordain; abhidhatte — set forth; mām — Me; vikalpya — speculating; apohyate — am fixed; hi — certainly; aham — I; etāvān — of such measures; sarva-veda-arthaḥ — the purport of the Vedas; śabdaḥ — the Vedas; āsthāya — taking shelter of; mām — Me; bhidām — different; māyā — illusory energy; mātram — only; anūdya — saying; ante — at the end; pratiṣidhya — driving away; prasīdati — gets satisfaction.

Translation

“[Lord Kṛṣṇa said:] ‘What is the purpose of all Vedic literatures? On whom do they focus? Who is the object of all speculation? Outside of Me no one knows these things. Now you should know that all these activities are aimed at ordaining and setting forth Me. The purpose of the Vedic literatures is to know Me by different speculations, either by indirect understanding or by dictionary understanding. Everyone is speculating about Me. The essence of all Vedic literatures is to distinguish Me from māyā. By considering the illusory energy, one comes to the platform of understanding Me. In this way one becomes free from speculation about the Vedas and comes to Me as the conclusion. Thus one is satisfied.’

Purport

These two verses are quoted from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (11.21.42-43). When Uddhava asked Kṛṣṇa about the purpose of Vedic speculation, the Lord informed him of the process of understanding the Vedic literature. The Vedas are composed of karma-kāṇḍa, jñāna-kāṇḍa and upāsanā-kāṇḍa. One who analytically studies the purpose of the Vedas understands that by karma-kāṇḍa, sacrificial activity, one comes to the conclusion of jñāna-kāṇḍa, speculative knowledge, and that after speculation one comes to the conclusion that worship of the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the ultimate. When one comes to this conclusion, he becomes fully satisfied.

Text

kṛṣṇera svarūpa — ananta, vaibhava — apāra
cic-chakti, māyā-śakti, jīva-śakti āra

Synonyms

kṛṣṇera svarūpa — the transcendental form of Kṛṣṇa; ananta — unlimitedly expanded; vaibhava — opulence; apāra — unlimited; cit-śakti — internal potency; māyā-śakti — external potency; jīva-śakti — marginal potency; āra — and.

Translation

“The transcendental form of Lord Kṛṣṇa is unlimited and also has unlimited opulence. He possesses the internal potency, external potency and marginal potency.

Text

vaikuṇṭha, brahmāṇḍa-gaṇa — śakti-kārya haya
svarūpa-śakti śakti-kāryera — kṛṣṇa samāśraya

Synonyms

vaikuṇṭha — the spiritual world; brahmāṇḍa-gaṇa — universes of the material world; śakti-kārya haya — they are all activities of Kṛṣṇa’s potencies; svarūpa-śakti — of the internal potency; śakti-kāryera — of the activities of the external potency; kṛṣṇa — Lord Kṛṣṇa; samāśraya — the original source.

Translation

“The material and the spiritual world are transformations of Kṛṣṇa’s external and internal potencies respectively. Therefore Kṛṣṇa is the original source of both the material and the spiritual manifestations.

Text

daśame daśamaṁ lakṣyam
āśritāśraya-vigraham
śrī-kṛṣṇākhyaṁ paraṁ dhāma
jagad-dhāma namāmi tat

Synonyms

daśame — in the Tenth Canto; daśamam — the tenth subject matter; lakṣyam — to be seen; āśrita — of the sheltered; āśraya — of the shelter; vigraham — who is the form; śrī-kṛṣṇa-ākhyam — known as Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa; param — supreme; dhāma — abode; jagat-dhāma — the abode of the universes; namāmi — I offer my obeisances; tat — to Him.

Translation

“ ‘The Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam reveals the tenth object, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is the shelter of all surrendered souls. He is known as Śrī Kṛṣṇa, and He is the ultimate source of all the universes. Let me offer my obeisances unto Him.’

Purport

This is a quotation from the Bhāvārtha-dīpikā, Śrīdhara Svāmī’s commentary on Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.1.1). In the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam there is a description of the āśraya-tattva, Śrī Kṛṣṇa. There are two tattvas — āśraya-tattva and āśrita-tattva. Āśraya-tattva is the objective, and āśrita-tattva is the subjective. Since the lotus feet of Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa are the shelter of all devotees, Śrī Kṛṣṇa is called paraṁ dhāma. In the Bhagavad-gītā (10.12) it is stated, paraṁ brahma paraṁ dhāma pavitraṁ paramaṁ bhavān. Everything is resting under the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa. In Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.14.58) it is stated:

samāśritā ye pada-pallava-plavaṁ
mahat-padaṁ puṇya-yaśo murāreḥ

Under the lotus feet of Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the entire mahat-tattva is existing. Since everything is under Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s protection, Śrī Kṛṣṇa is called āśraya-tattva. Everything else is called āśrita-tattva. The material creation is also called āśrita-tattva. Liberation from material bondage and the attainment of the spiritual platform are also āśrita-tattva. Kṛṣṇa is the only āśraya-tattva. In the beginning of the creation there are Mahā-Viṣṇu, Garbhodakaśāyī Viṣṇu and Kṣīrodakaśāyī Viṣṇu. They are also āśraya-tattva. Kṛṣṇa is the cause of all causes (sarva-kāraṇa-kāraṇam). To understand Kṛṣṇa perfectly, one has to make an analytical study of āśraya-tattva and āśrita-tattva.

Text

kṛṣṇera svarūpa-vicāra śuna, sanātana
advaya-jñāna-tattva, vraje vrajendra-nandana

Synonyms

kṛṣṇera — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; svarūpa-vicāra — consideration of the eternal form; śuna — please hear; sanātana — My dear Sanātana; advaya-jñāna-tattva — the Absolute Truth without duality; vraje — in Vṛndāvana; vrajendra-nandana — the son of Nanda Mahārāja.

Translation

“O Sanātana, please hear about the eternal form of Lord Kṛṣṇa. He is the Absolute Truth, devoid of duality but present in Vṛndāvana as the son of Nanda Mahārāja.

Text

sarva-ādi, sarva-aṁśī, kiśora-śekhara
cid-ānanda-deha, sarvāśraya, sarveśvara

Synonyms

sarva-ādi — origin of everything; sarva-aṁśī — sum total of all parts and parcels; kiśora-śekhara — the supreme youth; cit-ānanda-deha — a body of spiritual blissfulness; sarva-āśraya — shelter of everyone; sarva-īśvara — the master of everyone.

Translation

“Kṛṣṇa is the original source of everything and the sum total of everything. He appears as the supreme youth, and His whole body is composed of spiritual bliss. He is the shelter of everything and master of everyone.

Purport

Kṛṣṇa is the origin of all viṣṇu-tattvas, including Mahā-Viṣṇu, Garbhodakaśāyī Viṣṇu and Kṣīrodakaśāyī Viṣṇu. He is the ultimate goal of Vaiṣṇava philosophy. Everything emanates from Him. His body is completely spiritual and is the source of all spiritual being. Although He is the source of everything, He Himself has no source. Advaitam acyutam anādim ananta-rūpam/ ādyaṁ purāṇa-puruṣaṁ nava-yauvanaṁ ca. Although He is the supreme source of everyone, He is still always a fresh youth.

Text

īśvaraḥ paramaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ
sac-cid-ānanda-vigrahaḥ
anādir ādir govindaḥ
sarva-kāraṇa-kāraṇam

Synonyms

īśvaraḥ — the controller; paramaḥ — supreme; kṛṣṇaḥ — Lord Kṛṣṇa; sat — eternal existence; cit — absolute knowledge; ānanda — absolute bliss; vigrahaḥ — whose form; anādiḥ — without beginning; ādiḥ — the origin; govindaḥ — Lord Govinda; sarva-kāraṇa-kāraṇam — the cause of all causes.

Translation

“ ‘Kṛṣṇa, who is known as Govinda, is the supreme controller. He has an eternal, blissful, spiritual body. He is the origin of all. He has no other origin, for He is the prime cause of all causes.’

Purport

This is the first verse of the fifth chapter of the Brahma-saṁhitā.

Text

svayaṁ bhagavān kṛṣṇa, ‘govinda’ para nāma
sarvaiśvarya-pūrṇa yāṅra goloka — nitya-dhāma

Synonyms

svayam — personally; bhagavān — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; kṛṣṇa — Kṛṣṇa; govinda — Govinda; para nāma — another name; sarva-aiśvarya-pūrṇa — full of all opulences; yāṅra — whose; goloka — Goloka Vṛndāvana; nitya-dhāma — eternal abode.

Translation

“The original Supreme Personality of Godhead is Kṛṣṇa. His original name is Govinda. He is full of all opulences, and His eternal abode is known as Goloka Vṛndāvana.

Text

ete cāṁśa-kalāḥ puṁsaḥ
kṛṣṇas tu bhagavān svayam
indrāri-vyākulaṁ lokaṁ
mṛḍayanti yuge yuge

Synonyms

ete — these; ca — and; aṁśa — plenary portions; kalāḥ — parts of plenary portions; puṁsaḥ — of the puruṣa-avatāras; kṛṣṇaḥ — Lord Kṛṣṇa; tu — but; bhagavān — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; svayam — Himself; indra-ari — the enemies of Lord Indra; vyākulam — full of; lokam — the world; mṛḍayanti — make happy; yuge yuge — at the right time in each age.

Translation

“ ‘All these incarnations of Godhead are either plenary portions or parts of the plenary portions of the puruṣa-avatāras. But Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself. In every age He protects the world through His different features when the world is disturbed by the enemies of Indra.’

Purport

This is a quotation from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (1.3.28). See also Ādi-līlā, chapter two, verse 67.

Text

jñāna, yoga, bhakti, — tina sādhanera vaśe
brahma, ātmā, bhagavān — trividha prakāśe

Synonyms

jñāna — knowledge; yoga — mystic power; bhakti — devotional service; tina — three; sādhanera — of the processes of spiritual life; vaśe — under the control; brahma — impersonal Brahman; ātmā — localized Paramātmā; bhagavān — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; tri-vidha prakāśe — three kinds of manifestation.

Translation

“There are three kinds of spiritual processes for understanding the Absolute Truth — the processes of speculative knowledge, mystic yoga and bhakti-yoga. According to these three processes, the Absolute Truth is manifested as Brahman, Paramātmā or Bhagavān.

Text

vadanti tat tattva-vidas
tattvaṁ yaj jñānam advayam
brahmeti paramātmeti
bhagavān iti śabdyate

Synonyms

vadanti — they say; tat — that; tattva-vidaḥ — learned souls; tattvam — the Absolute Truth; yat — which; jñānam — knowledge; advayam — nondual; brahma — Brahman; iti — thus; paramātmā — Paramātmā; iti — thus; bhagavān — Bhagavān; iti — thus; śabdyate — is known.

Translation

“ ‘Learned transcendentalists who know the Absolute Truth call this nondual substance Brahman, Paramātmā or Bhagavān.’

Purport

This is a quotation from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (1.2.11).

Those who are interested in the impersonal Brahman effulgence, which is not different from the Supreme Personality of Godhead, can attain that goal by speculative knowledge. Those who are interested in practicing mystic yoga can attain the localized aspect of Paramātmā. As stated in the Bhagavad-gītā (18.61), īśvaraḥ sarva-bhūtānāṁ hṛd-deśe ’rjuna tiṣṭhati: the Supreme Personality of Godhead is situated within the heart as Paramātmā. He witnesses the activities of the living entities and gives them permission to act.

For a further explanation, see Ādi-līlā, chapter two, verse 11.

Text

brahma — aṅga-kānti tāṅra, nirviśeṣa prakāśe
sūrya yena carma-cakṣe jyotirmaya bhāse

Synonyms

brahma — the impersonal Brahman effulgence; aṅga-kānti — the bodily rays; tāṅra — of Him; nirviśeṣa — without varieties; prakāśe — manifestation; sūrya yena — exactly like the sun; carma-cakṣe — with our ordinary material eyes; jyotiḥ-maya — simply effulgent; bhāse — appears.

Translation

“The manifestation of the impersonal Brahman effulgence, which is without variety, is the rays of Kṛṣṇa’s bodily effulgence. It is exactly like the sun. When the sun is seen by our ordinary eyes, it appears to consist simply of effulgence.

Text

yasya prabhā prabhavato jagad-aṇḍa-koṭi-
koṭiṣv aśeṣa-vasudhādi-vibhūti-bhinnam
tad brahma niṣkalam anantam aśeṣa-bhūtaṁ
govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi

Synonyms

yasya — of whom; prabhā — the effulgence; prabhavataḥ — of one who excels in power; jagat-aṇḍa — of universes; koṭi-koṭiṣu — in millions and millions; aśeṣa — unlimited; vasudhā-ādi — with planets and other manifestations; vibhūti — with opulences; bhinnam — becoming variegated; tat — that; brahma — Brahman; niṣkalam — without parts; anantam — unlimited; aśeṣa-bhūtam — being complete; govindam — Lord Govinda; ādi-puruṣam — the original person; tam — Him; aham — I; bhajāmi — worship.

Translation

“ ‘I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, who is endowed with great power. The glowing effulgence of His transcendental form is the impersonal Brahman, which is absolute, complete and unlimited and which displays the varieties of countless planets, with their different opulences, in millions and millions of universes.’

Purport

This verse is quoted from the Brahma-saṁhitā (5.40). For an explanation, refer to Ādi-līlā, chapter two, verse 14.

Text

paramātmā yeṅho, teṅho kṛṣṇera eka aṁśa
ātmāra ‘ātmā’ haya kṛṣṇa sarva-avataṁsa

Synonyms

paramātmā — the Supersoul within the heart; yeṅho — who; teṅho — He; kṛṣṇera — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; eka — one; aṁśa — plenary portion; ātmāra — of the soul; ātmā — the soul; haya — is; kṛṣṇa — Lord Kṛṣṇa; sarva — of everything; avataṁsa — source.

Translation

“The Paramātmā, the Supersoul feature, is a plenary portion of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is the original soul of all living entities. Kṛṣṇa is the source of the Paramātmā.

Text

kṛṣṇam enam avehi tvam
ātmānam akhilātmanām
jagad-dhitāya so ’py atra
dehīvābhāti māyayā

Synonyms

kṛṣṇam — in the Supreme Personality of Godhead; enam — this; avehi — just try to understand; tvam — you; ātmānam — the soul; akhila-ātmanām — of all living entities; jagat-hitāya — the benefit of the whole universe; saḥ — He; api — certainly; atra — here; dehī — a human being; iva — like; ābhāti — appears; māyayā — by His internal potency.

Translation

“ ‘You should know Kṛṣṇa to be the original soul of all ātmās [living entities]. For the benefit of the whole universe, He has, out of His causeless mercy, appeared as an ordinary human being. He has done this by the strength of His own internal potency.’

Purport

This is a quotation from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.14.55). Parīkṣit Mahārāja asked Śukadeva Gosvāmī why Kṛṣṇa was so beloved by the residents of Vṛndāvana, who loved Him even more than their own offspring or life itself. At that time Śukadeva Gosvāmī replied that everyone’s ātmā, or soul, is very, very dear, especially to all living entities who have accepted material bodies. But that ātmā, the spirit soul, is part and parcel of Kṛṣṇa. For this reason, Kṛṣṇa is very dear to every living entity. Everyone’s body is very dear to oneself, and one wants to protect the body by all means because within the body the soul is living. Due to the intimate relationship between the soul and the body, the body is important and dear to everyone. Similarly, the soul, being part and parcel of Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Lord, is very, very dear to all living entities. Unfortunately, the soul forgets his constitutional position and thinks he is only the body (deha-ātma-buddhi). Thus the soul is subjected to the rules and regulations of material nature. When a living entity, by his intelligence, reawakens his attraction for Kṛṣṇa, he can understand that he is not the body but part and parcel of Kṛṣṇa. Thus filled with knowledge, he no longer labors under attachment to the body and everything related to the body. Janasya moho ’yam ahaṁ mameti. Material existence, wherein one thinks, “I am the body, and this belongs to me,” is also illusory. One must redirect his attraction to Kṛṣṇa. Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (1.2.7) states:

vāsudeve bhagavatibhakti-yogaḥ prayojitaḥ
janayaty āśu vairāgyaṁ
jñānaṁ ca yad ahaitukam

“By rendering devotional service unto the Personality of Godhead, Śrī Kṛṣṇa, one immediately acquires causeless knowledge and detachment from the world.”

Text

atha vā bahunaitena
kiṁ jñātena tavārjuna
viṣṭabhyāham idaṁ kṛtsnam
ekāṁśena sthito jagat

Synonyms

atha — or; bahunā — much; etena — with this; kim — what use; jñātena — being known; tava — by you; arjuna — O Arjuna; viṣṭabhya — pervading; aham — I; idam — this; kṛtsnam — entire; eka-aṁśena — with one portion; sthitaḥ — situated; jagat — universe.

Translation

“ ‘But what need is there, Arjuna, for all this detailed knowledge? With a single fragment of Myself I pervade and support this entire universe.’

Purport

This is a quotation from the Bhagavad-gītā (10.42).

Text

‘bhaktye’ bhagavānera anubhava — pūrṇa-rūpa
eka-i vigrahe tāṅra ananta svarūpa

Synonyms

bhaktye — by devotional service; bhagavānera — of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; anubhava — perception; pūrṇa-rūpa — perfectly; eka-i — one; vigrahe — in the transcendental form; tāṅra — His; ananta — unlimited; svarūpa — expansions of plenary portions.

Translation

“Only by devotional activity can one understand the transcendental form of the Lord, which is perfect in all respects. Although His form is one, He can expand His form into unlimited numbers by His supreme will.

Text

svayaṁ-rūpa, tad-ekātma-rūpa, āveśa — nāma
prathamei tina-rūpe rahena bhagavān

Synonyms

svayam-rūpa — the original form; tat-ekātma-rūpa — the same form, nondifferent from svayaṁ-rūpa; āveśa — especially empowered; nāma — named; prathamei — in the beginning; tina-rūpe — in three forms; rahena — remains; bhagavān — the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

Translation

“The Supreme Personality of Godhead exists in three principal forms — svayaṁ-rūpa, tad-ekātma-rūpa and āveśa-rūpa.

Purport

Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī has described the svayaṁ-rūpa in his Laghu-bhāgavatāmṛta, Pūrva-khaṇḍa, verse 12: ananyāpekṣi yad rūpaṁ svayaṁ-rūpaḥ sa ucyate. “The form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead that does not depend on other forms is called the svayaṁ-rūpa, the original form.” This form is also described in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam: kṛṣṇas tu bhagavān svayam (1.3.28). “Kṛṣṇa is the original form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.” That Kṛṣṇa’s form as a cowherd boy in Vṛndāvana is the original form of the Personality of Godhead (svayaṁ-rūpa) is confirmed in the Brahma-saṁhitā (5.1):

īśvaraḥ paramaḥ kṛṣṇaḥsac-cid-ānanda-vigrahaḥ
anādir ādir govindaḥ
sarva-kāraṇa-kāraṇam

There is nothing superior to Govinda. He is the ultimate source and the cause of all causes. This is also confirmed in the Bhagavad-gītā (7.7), where the Lord says, mattaḥ parataraṁ nānyat: “There is no truth superior to Me.”

The tad-ekātma-rūpa forms are also described in the Laghu-bhāgavatāmṛta (Pūrva-khaṇḍa, verse 14):

yad rūpaṁ tad-abhedenasvarūpeṇa virājate
ākṛtyādibhir anyādṛk
sa tad-ekātma-rūpakaḥ

“The tad-ekātma-rūpa forms exist simultaneously with the svayaṁ-rūpa form and are nondifferent. At the same time, their bodily features and specific activities appear to be different.” The tad-ekātma-rūpa forms are divided into two categories — svāṁśa and vilāsa.

Lord Kṛṣṇa’s āveśa forms are also explained in the Laghu-bhāgavatāmṛta (Pūrva 18):

jñāna-śakty-ādi-kalayāyatrāviṣṭo janārdanaḥ
ta āveśā nigadyante
jīvā eva mahattamāḥ

“A living entity who is specifically empowered by the Lord with knowledge or strength is technically called āveśa-rūpa.” As stated in the Caitanya-caritāmṛta (Antya 7.11), kṛṣṇa-śakti vinā nahe tāra pravartana: Unless a devotee is specifically empowered by the Lord, he cannot preach the holy name of the Lord all over the world. This is an explanation of the word āveśa-rūpa.

Text

‘svayaṁ-rūpa’ ‘svayaṁ-prakāśa’ — dui rūpe sphūrti
svayaṁ-rūpe — eka ‘kṛṣṇa’ vraje gopa-mūrti

Synonyms

svayam-rūpa — the original form of the Lord; svayam-prakāśa — the personal manifestation; dui rūpe — in two forms; sphūrti — exhibition; svayam-rūpe — in the original form; eka — one; kṛṣṇa — Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead; vraje — in Vṛndāvana; gopa-mūrti — the cowherd boy.

Translation

“The original form of the Lord [svayaṁ-rūpa] is exhibited in two forms — svayaṁ-rūpa and svayaṁ-prakāśa. In His original form as svayaṁ-rūpa, Kṛṣṇa is observed as a cowherd boy in Vṛndāvana.

Text

‘prābhava-vaibhava’-rūpe dvividha prakāśe
eka-vapu bahu rūpa yaiche haila rāse

Synonyms

prābhava — prābhava; vaibhava — vaibhava; rūpe — in forms; dvi-vidha prakāśe — twofold manifestations; eka-vapu — the same original form; bahu rūpa — expanded into unlimited numbers; yaiche — like; haila — it was; rāse — while dancing in the rāsa dance with the gopīs.

Translation

“In His original form, Kṛṣṇa manifests Himself in two features — prābhava and vaibhava. He expands His one original form into many, as He did during the rāsa-līlā dance.

Text

mahiṣī-vivāhe haila bahu-vidha mūrti
‘prābhava prakāśa’ — ei śāstra-parasiddhi

Synonyms

mahiṣī-vivāhe — in the matter of marrying 16,108 wives at Dvārakā; haila — there were; bahu-vidha mūrti — many forms; prābhava prakāśa — called prābhava-prakāśa; ei — this; śāstra-parasiddhi — determined by reference to the revealed scriptures.

Translation

“When the Lord married 16,108 wives at Dvārakā, He expanded Himself into many forms. These expansions and the expansions at the rāsa dance are called prābhava-prakāśa, according to the directions of revealed scriptures.

Text

saubhary-ādi-prāya sei kāya-vyūha naya
kāya-vyūha haile nāradera vismaya nā haya

Synonyms

saubhari-ādi — beginning with the sage named Saubhari; prāya — like; sei — that; kāya-vyūha — the expansion of one’s body; naya — is not; kāya-vyūha — expansions of the body; haile — if there are; nāradera — of Nārada Muni; vismaya — the astonishment; haya — there cannot be.

Translation

“The prābhava-prakāśa expansions of Lord Kṛṣṇa are not like the expansions of the sage Saubhari. Had they been so, Nārada would not have been astonished to see them.

Text

citraṁ bataitad ekena
vapuṣā yugapat pṛthak
gṛheṣu dvy-aṣṭa-sāhasraṁ
striya eka udāvahat

Synonyms

citram — wonderful; bata — oh; etat — this; ekena — with one; vapuṣā — form; yugapat — simultaneously; pṛthak — separately; gṛheṣu — in the houses; dvi-aṣṭa-sāhasram — sixteen thousand; striyaḥ — all the queens; ekaḥ — the one Śrī Kṛṣṇa; udāvahat — married.

Translation

“ ‘It is astounding that Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa, who is one without a second, expanded Himself in sixteen thousand similar forms to marry sixteen thousand queens in their respective homes.’

Purport

This verse is spoken by Nārada Muni in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.69.2).

Text

sei vapu, sei ākṛti pṛthak yadi bhāse
bhāvāveśa-bhede nāma ‘vaibhava-prakāśe’

Synonyms

sei vapu — that form; sei ākṛti — that feature; pṛthak — different; yadi — if; bhāse — appears; bhāva-āveśa — of the ecstatic emotion; bhede — according to varieties; nāma — named; vaibhava-prakāśevaibhava-prakāśa.

Translation

“If one form or feature is differently manifested according to different emotional features, it is called vaibhava-prakāśa.

Text

ananta prakāśe kṛṣṇera nāhi mūrti-bheda
ākāra-varṇa-astra-bhede nāma-vibheda

Synonyms

ananta prakāśe — in innumerable manifestations; kṛṣṇera — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; nāhi — there is not; mūrti-bheda — difference of form; ākāra — of features; varṇa — of color; astra — of weapons; bhede — according to differentiation; nāma-vibheda — difference of names.

Translation

“When the Lord expands Himself in innumerable forms, there is no difference in the forms, but due to different features, bodily colors and weapons, the names are different.

Text

anye ca saṁskṛtātmāno
vidhinābhihitena te
yajanti tvan-mayās tvāṁ vai
bahu-mūrty eka-mūrtikam

Synonyms

anye — different persons; ca — also; saṁskṛta-ātmānaḥ — persons who are purified; vidhinā — by the regulative principles; abhihitena — stated in the revealed scriptures; te — such persons; yajanti — worship; tvat-mayāḥ — being absorbed in You; tvām — You; vai — certainly; bahu-mūrti — having many forms; eka-mūrtikam — although one.

Translation

“ ‘In different Vedic scriptures, there are prescribed rules and regulative principles for worshiping different types of forms. When one is purified by these rules and regulations, he worships You, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Although manifested in many forms, You are one.’

Purport

This verse is quoted from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.40.7). In the Vedas it is stated that the one becomes many (eko bahu syām). The Supreme Personality of Godhead expands Himself in various forms — viṣṇu-tattva, jīva-tattva and śakti-tattva.

According to the Vedic literatures, there are different regulative principles for the worship of each of these forms. If one takes advantage of the Vedic literatures and purifies himself by following the rules and regulations, ultimately he worships the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa says in the Bhagavad-gītā (4.11): mama vartmānuvartante manuṣyāḥ pārtha sarvaśaḥ. Worship of the demigods is in a sense worship of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but such worship is said to be avidhi-pūrvakam, improper. Actually demigod worship is meant for unintelligent men. One who is intelligent considers the words of the Supreme Personality of Godhead: sarva dharmān parityajya mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja. One who worships demigods worships the Supreme Lord indirectly, but according to the revealed scriptures, there is no need to worship Him indirectly. One can worship Him directly.

Text

vaibhava-prakāśa kṛṣṇera — śrī-balarāma
varṇa-mātra-bheda, saba — kṛṣṇera samāna

Synonyms

vaibhava-prakāśa — manifestation of the vaibhava feature; kṛṣṇera — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; śrī-balarāma — Śrī Balarāma; varṇa-mātra — color only; bheda — difference; saba — everything; kṛṣṇera samāna — equal to Kṛṣṇa.

Translation

“The first manifestation of the vaibhava feature of Kṛṣṇa is Śrī Balarāmajī. Śrī Balarāma and Kṛṣṇa have different bodily colors, but otherwise Śrī Balarāma is equal to Kṛṣṇa in all respects.

Purport

To understand the difference between svayaṁ-rūpa, tad-ekātma-rūpa, āveśa, prābhava and vaibhava, Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura has given the following description. In the beginning, Kṛṣṇa has three bodily features: (1) svayaṁ-rūpa, as a cowherd boy in Vṛndāvana; (2) tad-ekātma-rūpa, which is divided into svāṁśaka and vilāsa; and (3) āveśa-rūpa. The svāṁśaka, or expansions of the personal potency, are (1) Kāraṇodakaśāyī, Garbhodakaśāyī, Kṣīrodakaśāyī and (2) incarnations such as the fish, tortoise, boar and Nṛsiṁha. The vilāsa-rūpa has a prābhava division, including Vāsudeva, Saṅkarṣaṇa, Pradyumna and Aniruddha. There is also a vaibhava division, in which there are twenty-four forms, including the second Vāsudeva, Saṅkarṣaṇa, Pradyumna and Aniruddha. For each of these, there are three forms; therefore there are twelve forms altogether. These twelve forms constitute the predominant names for the twelve months of the year as well as the twelve tilaka marks on the body. Each of the four Personalities of Godhead expands into two other forms; thus there are eight forms, such as Puruṣottama, Acyuta, etc. The four forms (Vāsudeva, etc.), the twelve (Keśava, etc.), and the eight (Puruṣottama, etc.) all together constitute twenty-four forms. The forms are differently named in accordance with the placement of the weapons They hold in Their four hands.

Text

vaibhava-prakāśa yaiche devakī-tanuja
dvibhuja-svarūpa kabhu, kabhu haya caturbhuja

Synonyms

vaibhava-prakāśa — the feature of vaibhava-prakāśa; yaiche — just as; devakī-tanuja — the son of Devakī; dvi-bhuja — two-handed; svarūpa — form; kabhu — sometimes; kabhu — sometimes; haya — is; catur-bhuja — four-handed.

Translation

“An example of vaibhava-prakāśa is the son of Devakī. He sometimes has two hands and sometimes four hands.

Purport

When Lord Kṛṣṇa took His birth, He appeared outside the womb as four-handed Viṣṇu. Then Devakī and Vasudeva offered their prayers to Him and asked Him to assume His two-handed form. The Lord immediately assumed His two-handed form and ordered that He be transferred to Gokula, on the other side of the river Yamunā.

Text

ye-kāle dvibhuja, nāma — vaibhava-prakāśa
caturbhuja haile, nāma — prābhava-prakāśa

Synonyms

ye-kāle dvi-bhuja — when the Lord appears as two-handed; nāma — named; vaibhava-prakāśavaibhava-prakāśa; catur-bhuja haile — when He becomes four-handed; nāma — named; prābhava-prakāśaprābhava-prakāśa.

Translation

“When the Lord is two-handed He is called vaibhava-prakāśa, and when He is four-handed He is called prābhava-prakāśa.

Text

svayaṁ-rūpera gopa-veśa, gopa-abhimāna
vāsudevera kṣatriya-veśa, ‘āmi — kṣatriya’-jñāna

Synonyms

svayam-rūpera — of the original form; gopa-veśa — the dress of a cowherd boy; gopa-abhimāna — thinking Himself a cowherd boy; vāsudevera — of Vāsudeva, the son of Vasudeva and Devakī; kṣatriya-veśa — the dress is like that of a kṣatriya; āmi — I; kṣatriya — a kṣatriya; jñāna — knowledge.

Translation

“In His original form, the Lord dresses like a cowherd boy and thinks Himself one. When He appears as Vāsudeva, the son of Vasudeva and Devakī, His dress and consciousness are those of a kṣatriya, a warrior.

Text

saundarya, aiśvarya, mādhurya, vaidagdhya-vilāsa
vrajendra-nandane ihā adhika ullāsa

Synonyms

saundarya — the beauty; aiśvarya — the opulence; mādhurya — the sweetness; vaidagdhya-vilāsa — the intellectual pastimes; vrajendra-nandane — of the son of Nanda Mahārāja and Yaśodā; ihā — all these; adhika ullāsa — more jubilant.

Translation

“When one compares the beauty, opulence, sweetness and intellectual pastimes of Vāsudeva, the warrior, to Kṛṣṇa, the cowherd boy, son of Nanda Mahārāja, one sees that Kṛṣṇa’s attributes are more pleasant.

Text

govindera mādhurī dekhi’ vāsudevera kṣobha
se mādhurī āsvādite upajaya lobha

Synonyms

govindera — of Lord Govinda; mādhurī — the sweetness; dekhi’ — seeing; vāsudevera — of Vāsudeva; kṣobha — agitation; se — that; mādhurī — sweetness; āsvādite — to taste; upajaya — awakens; lobha — greed.

Translation

“Indeed, Vāsudeva is agitated just to see the sweetness of Govinda, and a transcendental greed awakens in Him to enjoy that sweetness.

Text

udgīrṇādbhuta-mādhurī-parimalasyābhīra-līlasya me
dvaitaṁ hanta samīkṣayan muhur asau citrīyate cāraṇaḥ
cetaḥ keli-kutūhalottaralitaṁ satyaṁ sakhe māmakaṁ
yasya prekṣya svarūpatāṁ vraja-vadhū-sārūpyam anvicchati

Synonyms

udgīrṇa — overflowing; adbhuta — wonderful; mādhurī — sweetness; parimalasya — whose fragrance; ābhīra — of a cowherd boy; līlasya — who has pastimes; me — My; dvaitam — second form; hanta — alas; samīkṣayan — showing; muhuḥ — again and again; asau — that; citrīyate — is acting like a picture; cāraṇaḥ — dramatic actor; cetaḥ — heart; keli-kutūhala — by longing for pastimes; uttaralitam — greatly excited; satyam — actually; sakhe — O dear friend; māmakam — My; yasya — of whom; prekṣya — by seeing; svarūpatām — similarity to My form; vraja-vadhū — of the damsels of Vrajabhūmi; sārūpyam — a form like the forms; anvicchati — desires.

Translation

“ ‘My dear friend, this dramatic actor appears like a second form of My own self. Like a picture, He displays My pastimes as a cowherd boy overflowing with wonderfully attractive sweetness and fragrance, which are so dear to the damsels of Vraja. When I see such a display, My heart becomes greatly excited. I long for such pastimes and desire a form exactly like that of the damsels of Vraja.’

Purport

This verse is found in the Lalita-mādhava (4.19). It was spoken by Vāsudeva in Dvārakā.

Text

mathurāya yaiche gandharva-nṛtya-daraśane
punaḥ dvārakāte yaiche citra-vilokane

Synonyms

mathurāya — at Mathurā; yaiche — just as; gandharva-nṛtya — the dance of the Gandharvas; daraśane — by seeing; punaḥ — again; dvārakāte — at Dvārakā; yaiche — just as; citra-vilokane — by seeing a picture of Kṛṣṇa.

Translation

“One instance of Vāsudeva’s attraction to Kṛṣṇa occurred when Vāsudeva saw the Gandharva dance at Mathurā. Another instance occurred in Dvārakā when Vāsudeva was surprised to see a picture of Kṛṣṇa.

Text

aparikalita-pūrvaḥ kaś camatkāra-kārī
sphuratu mama garīyān eṣa mādhurya-pūraḥ
ayam aham api hanta prekṣya yaṁ lubdha-cetāḥ
sarabhasam upabhoktuṁ kāmaye rādhikeva

Synonyms

aparikalita — not experienced; pūrvaḥ — previously; kaḥ — who; camatkāra-kārī — causing wonder; sphuratu — manifests; mama — My; garīyān — more great; eṣaḥ — this; mādhurya-pūraḥ — abundance of sweetness; ayam — this; aham — I; api — even; hanta — alas; prekṣya — seeing; yam — which; lubdha-cetāḥ — My mind being bewildered; sarabhasam — impetuously; upabhoktum — to enjoy; kāmaye — desire; rādhikā iva — like Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.

Translation

“ ‘Who manifests an abundance of sweetness greater than Mine, which has never been experienced before and which causes wonder to all? Alas, I Myself, My mind bewildered upon seeing this beauty, impetuously desire to enjoy it like Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.’

Purport

This verse spoken by Vāsudeva in Dvārakā is also recorded by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī in his Lalita-mādhava (8.34).

Text

sei vapu bhinnābhāse kichu bhinnākāra
bhāvāveśākṛti-bhede ‘tad-ekātma’ nāma tāṅra

Synonyms

sei vapu — that body; bhinna-ābhāse — manifested differently; kichu — some; bhinna-ākāra — bodily differences; bhāva-āveśa-ākṛti — forms and transcendental emotions; bhede — by different; tat-ekātma nāma — the name is tad-ekātma; tāṅra — of Kṛṣṇa.

Translation

“When that body is a little differently manifested and its features are a little different in transcendental emotion and form, it is called tad-ekātma.

Text

tad-ekātma-rūpe ‘vilāsa’, ‘svāṁśa’ — dui bheda
vilāsa, svāṁśera bhede vividha vibheda

Synonyms

tat-ekātma-rūpe — in the form of tad-ekātma; vilāsa — pastime; svāṁśa — personal expansion; dui bheda — two divisions; vilāsa — of the pastime expansion; svāṁśera — of the personal expansion; bhede — by differences; vividha — various; vibheda — distinctions.

Translation

“In the tad-ekātma-rūpa there are pastime expansions [vilāsa] and personal expansions [svāṁśa]. Consequently there are two divisions. According to pastime and personal expansion, there are various differences.

Purport

The Lord’s vilāsa expansions are described in the following verse from the Laghu-bhāgavatāmṛta (1.15):

svarūpam anyākāraṁ yattasya bhāti vilāsataḥ
prāyeṇātma-samaṁ śaktyā
sa vilāso nigadyate

“When the Lord displays numerous forms with different features by His inconceivable potency, such forms are called vilāsa-vigrahas.”

The Lord’s svāṁśa expansions are also described in the Laghu-bhāgavatāmṛta (1.17):

tādṛśo nyūna-śaktiṁ yovyanakti svāṁśa īritaḥ
saṅkarṣaṇādir matsyādir
yathā tat-tat-svadhāmasu

When a form of Kṛṣṇa is nondifferent from the original form but is less important and exhibits less potency, it is called svāṁśa. Examples of svāṁśa expansions can be found in the quadruple forms of the Lord residing in Their respective places, beginning with Saṅkarṣaṇa, Vāsudeva, Pradyumna and Aniruddha, and also in the puruṣa-avatāras, līlā-avatāras, manvantara-avatāras and yuga-avatāras.

Text

prābhava-vaibhava-bhede vilāsa — dvidhākāra
vilāsera vilāsa-bheda — ananta prakāra

Synonyms

prābhava-vaibhava-bhede — by the differences between prābhava and vaibhava; vilāsa — pastime expansion; dvidhā-ākāra — twofold; vilāsera — of pastime forms; vilāsa-bheda — by the different pastimes; ananta prakāra — unlimited varieties.

Translation

“Again the vilāsa forms are divided into twofold categories — prābhava and vaibhava. Again the pastimes of these forms are of unlimited variety.

Text

prābhava-vilāsa — vāsudeva, saṅkarṣaṇa
pradyumna, aniruddha, — mukhya cāri-jana

Synonyms

prābhava-vilāsa — the prābhava-vilāsa forms; vāsudeva — Vāsudeva; saṅkarṣaṇa — Saṅkarṣaṇa; pradyumna — Pradyumna; aniruddha — Aniruddha; mukhya cāri-jana — the four chief expansions.

Translation

“The chief quadruple expansions are named Vāsudeva, Saṅkarṣaṇa, Pradyumna and Aniruddha. These are called prābhava-vilāsa.

Text

vraje gopa-bhāva rāmera, pure kṣatriya-bhāvana
varṇa-veśa-bheda, tāte ‘vilāsa’ tāṅra nāma

Synonyms

vraje — in Vṛndāvana; gopa-bhāva — emotion of a cowherd boy; rāmera — of Balarāma; pure — in Dvārakā; kṣatriya-bhāvana — the emotion of a kṣatriya; varṇa-veśa-bheda — by differences of dress and color; tāte — therefore; vilāsa — pastime expansion; tāṅra nāma — His name.

Translation

“Balarāma, who has the same original form as Kṛṣṇa, is Himself a cowherd boy in Vṛndāvana, and He also considers Himself a member of the kṣatriya race in Dvārakā. Thus His color and dress are different, and He is called a pastime form of Kṛṣṇa.

Text

vaibhava-prakāśe āra prābhava-vilāse
eka-i mūrtye baladeva bhāva-bhede bhāse

Synonyms

vaibhava-prakāśe — in vaibhava manifestation; āra — and; prābhava-vilāse — in the prābhava pastime form; eka-i mūrtye — in one form; baladeva — Lord Baladeva; bhāva-bhede — according to different emotions; bhāse — exists.

Translation

“Śrī Balarāma is a vaibhava-prakāśa manifestation of Kṛṣṇa. He is also manifested in the original quadruple expansions of Vāsudeva, Saṅkarṣaṇa, Pradyumna and Aniruddha. These are prābhava-vilāsa expansions with different emotions.

Text

ādi-catur-vyūha — iṅhāra keha nāhi sama
ananta catur-vyūha-gaṇera prākaṭya-kāraṇa

Synonyms

ādi-catur-vyūha — the original quadruple group; iṅhāra — of this; keha nāhi — no one; sama — equal; ananta — unlimited; catur-vyūha-gaṇera — of the quadruple expansions; prākaṭya — of manifestation; kāraṇa — the cause.

Translation

“The first expansion of the caturvyūha, quadruple forms, is unique. There is nothing to compare with Them. These quadruple forms are the source of unlimited quadruple forms.

Text

kṛṣṇera ei cāri prābhava-vilāsa
dvārakā-mathurā-pure nitya iṅhāra vāsa

Synonyms

kṛṣṇera — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; ei — these; cāri — four; prābhava-vilāsaprābhava pastime forms; dvārakā-mathurā-pure — in the two cities Dvārakā and Mathurā; nitya — eternal; iṅhāra — of Them; vāsa — the residential quarters.

Translation

“These four prābhava pastime forms of Lord Kṛṣṇa reside eternally in Dvārakā and Mathurā.

Text

ei cāri haite cabbiśa mūrti parakāśa
astra-bhede nāma-bheda — vaibhava-vilāsa

Synonyms

ei cāri haite — from these four; cabbiśa — twenty-four; mūrti — forms; parakāśa — manifestation; astra-bhede — according to the different weapons; nāma-bheda — the difference of names; vaibhava-vilāsa — the vaibhava pastime expansions.

Translation

“From the original quadruple expansions, twenty-four forms are manifested. They differ according to the placement of the weapons in Their four hands. They are called vaibhava-vilāsa.

Text

punaḥ kṛṣṇa catur-vyūha lañā pūrva-rūpe
paravyoma-madhye vaise nārāyaṇa-rūpe

Synonyms

punaḥ — again; kṛṣṇa — Kṛṣṇa; catur-vyūha — the quadruple expansions; lañā — taking; pūrva-rūpe — as previously; paravyoma-madhye — in the paravyoma area; vaise — resides; nārāyaṇa-rūpe — in the form of four-handed Nārāyaṇa.

Translation

“Lord Kṛṣṇa again expands, and within the paravyoma, the spiritual sky, He is situated in fullness as the four-handed Nārāyaṇa, accompanied by expansions of the original quadruple form.

Purport

At the top of the paravyoma, the spiritual sky, there is Goloka Vṛndāvana, which is divided into three parts. Two of the parts, called Mathurā and Dvārakā, are the residences of Kṛṣṇa in His prābhava-vilāsa forms. Balarāma, Kṛṣṇa’s vaibhava-prakāśa, is eternally situated in Gokula. From the quadruple prābhava-vilāsa, twenty-four forms of the vaibhava-vilāsa are expanded. Each has four hands holding weapons in different positions. The topmost planet in the spiritual sky is Goloka Vṛndāvana, and below that planet is the spiritual sky itself. In that spiritual sky, Kṛṣṇa Himself is four-handed and is situated as Nārāyaṇa.

Text

tāṅhā haite punaḥ catur-vyūha-parakāśa
āvaraṇa-rūpe cāri-dike yāṅra vāsa

Synonyms

tāṅhā haite — from that original catur-vyūha; punaḥ — again; catur-vyūha-parakāśa — manifestation of quadruple expansions; āvaraṇa-rūpe — in the form of a covering; cāri-dike — in four directions; yāṅra — whose; vāsa — residence.

Translation

“Thus the original quadruple forms again manifest Themselves in a second set of quadruple expansions. The residences of these second quadruple expansions cover the four directions.

Text

cāri-janera punaḥ pṛthak tina tina mūrti
keśavādi yāhā haite vilāsera pūrti

Synonyms

cāri-janera — of the original of the four expansions; punaḥ — again; pṛthak — separate; tina tina — three each; mūrti — forms; keśava-ādi — beginning with Lord Keśava; yāhā haite — from which; vilāsera pūrti — the vilāsa expansions are fulfilled.

Translation

“Again these quadruple forms expand three times, beginning with Keśava. That is the fulfillment of the pastime forms.

Text

cakrādi-dhāraṇa-bhede nāma-bheda saba
vāsudevera mūrti — keśava, nārāyaṇa, mādhava

Synonyms

cakra-ādi — of the disc and other weapons; dhāraṇa — of holding; bhede — by differences; nāma — of names; bheda — differences; saba — all; vāsudevera mūrti — the expansions of Vāsudeva; keśava — Keśava; nārāyaṇa — Nārāyaṇa; mādhava — Mādhava.

Translation

“Out of the catur-vyūha, there are three expansions of each and every form, and They are named differently according to the position of the weapons. The Vāsudeva expansions are Keśava, Nārāyaṇa and Mādhava.

Text

saṅkarṣaṇera mūrti — govinda, viṣṇu, madhusūdana
e anya govinda — nahe vrajendra-nandana

Synonyms

saṅkarṣaṇera mūrti — the expansions of Saṅkarṣaṇa; govinda — Govinda; viṣṇu — Viṣṇu; madhusūdana — Madhusūdana; e — this; anya — another; govinda — Govinda; nahe vrajendra-nandana — not the son of Nanda Mahārāja.

Translation

“The expansions of Saṅkarṣaṇa are Govinda, Viṣṇu and Madhusūdana. This Govinda is different from the original Govinda, for He is not the son of Mahārāja Nanda.

Text

pradyumnera mūrti — trivikrama, vāmana, śrīdhara
aniruddhera mūrti — hṛṣīkeśa, padmanābha, dāmodara

Synonyms

pradyumnera mūrti — expansions of the form of Pradyumna; trivikrama — Trivikrama; vāmana — Vāmana; śrīdhara — Śrīdhara; aniruddhera mūrti — expansions of Aniruddha; hṛṣīkeśa — Hṛṣīkeśa; padmanābha — Padmanābha; dāmodara — Dāmodara.

Translation

“The expansions of Pradyumna are Trivikrama, Vāmana and Śrīdhara. The expansions of Aniruddha are Hṛṣīkeśa, Padmanābha and Dāmodara.

Text

dvādaśa-māsera devatā — ei-bāra jana
mārgaśīrṣe — keśava, pauṣe — nārāyaṇa

Synonyms

dvādaśa-māsera — of the twelve months; devatā — predominating Deities; ei — these; bāra jana — twelve Personalities of Godhead; mārga-śīrṣe — the month of Agrahāyana (November-December); keśava — Keśava; pauṣe — the month of Pauṣa (December-January); nārāyaṇa — Nārāyaṇa.

Translation

“These twelve are the predominating Deities of the twelve months. Keśava is the predominating Deity of Agrahāyana, and Nārāyaṇa is the predominating Deity of Pauṣa.

Text

māghera devatā — mādhava, govinda — phālgune
caitre — viṣṇu, vaiśākhe — śrī-madhusūdana

Synonyms

māghera devatā — the predominating Deity of the month of Māgha (January-February); mādhava — Mādhava; govinda — Govinda; phālgune — in the month of Phālguna (February-March); caitre — in the month of Caitra (March-April); viṣṇu — Lord Viṣṇu; vaiśākhe — in the month of Vaiśākha (April-May); śrī-madhusūdana — Madhusūdana.

Translation

“The predominating Deity of the month of Māgha is Mādhava, and the predominating Deity of the month of Phālguna is Govinda. Viṣṇu is the predominating Deity of Caitra, and Madhusūdana is the predominating Deity of Vaiśākha.

Text

jyaiṣṭhe — trivikrama, āṣāḍhe — vāmana deveśa
śrāvaṇe — śrīdhara, bhādre — deva hṛṣīkeśa

Synonyms

jyaiṣṭhe — in the month of Jyaiṣṭha (May-June); trivikrama — Trivikrama; āṣāḍhe — in the month of Āṣāḍha (June-July); vāmana deva-īśa — Lord Vāmana; śrāvaṇe — in the month of Śrāvaṇa (July-August); śrīdhara — Śrīdhara; bhādre — in the month of Bhādra (August-September); deva hṛṣīkeśa — Lord Hṛṣīkeśa.

Translation

“In the month of Jyaiṣṭha, the predominating Deity is Trivikrama. In Āṣāḍha the Deity is Vāmana, in Śrāvaṇa the Deity is Śrīdhara, and in Bhādra the Deity is Hṛṣīkeśa.

Text

āśvine — padmanābha, kārtike dāmodara
‘rādhā-dāmodara’ anya vrajendra-koṅara

Synonyms

āśvine — in the month of Āśvina (September-October); padmanābha — Padmanābha; kārtike — in the month of Kārttika (October-November); dāmodara — Dāmodara; rādhā-dāmodara — the Dāmodara of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; anya — another; vrajendra-koṅara — the son of Mahārāja Nanda.

Translation

“In the month of Āśvina, the predominating Deity is Padmanābha, and in Kārttika it is Dāmodara. This Dāmodara is different from Rādhā-Dāmodara, the son of Nanda Mahārāja in Vṛndāvana.

Text

dvādaśa-tilaka-mantra ei dvādaśa nāma
ācamane ei nāme sparśi tat-tat-sthāna

Synonyms

dvādaśa-tilaka — for twelve marks of tilaka; mantra — the mantra; ei — these; dvādaśa nāma — twelve names; ācamane — in washing with water; ei nāme — with these names; sparśi — we touch; tat-tat-sthāna — the respective places.

Translation

“When putting the twelve tilaka marks on the twelve places of the body, one has to chant the mantra consisting of these twelve Viṣṇu names. After daily worship, when one anoints the different parts of the body with water, these names should be chanted as one touches each part of the body.

Purport

While marking the body with tilaka, one should chant the following mantra, which consists oftwelve names of Lord Viṣṇu:

lalāṭe keśavaṁ dhyāyennārāyaṇam athodare
vakṣaḥ-sthale mādhavaṁ tu
govindaṁ kaṇṭha-kūpake
viṣṇuṁ ca dakṣiṇe kukṣaubāhau ca madhusūdanam
trivikramaṁ kandhare tu
vāmanaṁ vāma-pārśvake
śrīdharaṁ vāma-bāhau tuhṛṣīkeśaṁ tu kandhare
pṛṣṭhe ca padmanābhaṁ ca
kaṭyāṁ dāmodaraṁ nyaset

“When one marks the forehead with tilaka, he must remember Keśava. When one marks the lower abdomen, he must remember Nārāyaṇa. For the chest, one should remember Mādhava, and when marking the hollow of the neck one should remember Govinda. Lord Viṣṇu should be remembered while marking the right side of the belly, and Madhusūdana should be remembered when marking the right arm. Trivikrama should be remembered when marking the right shoulder, and Vāmana should be remembered when marking the left side of the belly. Śrīdhara should be remembered while marking the left arm, and Hṛṣīkeśa should be remembered when marking the left shoulder. Padmanābha and Dāmodara should be remembered when marking the back.”

Text

ei cāri-janera vilāsa-mūrti āra aṣṭa lana
tāṅ sabāra nāma kahi, śuna sanātana

Synonyms

ei cāri-janera — of the four personalities; vilāsa-mūrti — pastime forms; āra — more; aṣṭa jana — eight personalities; tāṅ sabāra — of all of Them; nāma — the holy names; kahi — I shall mention; śuna — hear; sanātana — O Sanātana.

Translation

“From Vāsudeva, Saṅkarṣaṇa, Pradyumna and Aniruddha, there are eight additional pastime expansions. O Sanātana, please hear Me as I mention Their names.

Text

puruṣottama, acyuta, nṛsiṁha, janārdana
hari, kṛṣṇa, adhokṣaja, upendra, — aṣṭa-jana

Synonyms

puruṣottama — Puruṣottama; acyuta — Acyuta; nṛsiṁha — Nṛsiṁha; janārdana — Janārdana; hari — Hari; kṛṣṇa — Kṛṣṇa; adhokṣaja — Adhokṣaja; upendra — Upendra; aṣṭa-jana — eight persons.

Translation

“The eight pastime expansions are Puruṣottama, Acyuta, Nṛsiṁha, Janārdana, Hari, Kṛṣṇa, Adhokṣaja and Upendra.

Text

vāsudevera vilāsa dui — adhokṣaja, puruṣottama
saṅkarṣaṇera vilāsa — upendra, acyuta dui-jana

Synonyms

vāsudevera vilāsa — the pastime expansions of Vāsudeva; dui — two; adhokṣaja — Adhokṣaja; puruṣottama — Puruṣottama; saṅkarṣaṇera vilāsa — the pastime expansions of Saṅkarṣaṇa; upendra — Upendra; acyuta — Acyuta; dui-jana — the two persons.

Translation

“Of these eight expansions, two are pastime forms of Vāsudeva. Their names are Adhokṣaja and Puruṣottama. The two pastime forms of Saṅkarṣaṇa are Upendra and Acyuta.

Text

pradyumnera vilāsa — nṛsiṁha, janārdana
aniruddhera vilāsa — hari, kṛṣṇa dui-jana

Synonyms

pradyumnera vilāsa — the pastime forms of Pradyumna; nṛsiṁha — Nṛsiṁha; janārdana — Janārdana; aniruddhera vilāsa — the pastime forms of Aniruddha; hari — Hari; kṛṣṇa — Kṛṣṇa; dui-jana — the two persons.

Translation

“The pastime forms of Pradyumna are Nṛsiṁha and Janārdana, and the pastime forms of Aniruddha are Hari and Kṛṣṇa.

Text

ei cabbiśa mūrti — prābhava-vilāsa pradhāna
astra-dhāraṇa-bhede dhare bhinna bhinna nāma

Synonyms

ei cabbiśa mūrti — all of these twenty-four forms; prābhava-vilāsa — pastime forms of the prābhava expansions; pradhāna — chief; astra-dhāraṇa — of holding the weapons; bhede — in terms of differences; dhare — accept; bhinna bhinna — separate from one another; nāma — names.

Translation

“All these twenty-four forms constitute the chief prābhava-vilāsa pastime forms of the Lord. They are named differently according to the position of the weapons in Their hands.

Text

iṅhāra madhye yāhāra haya ākāra-veśa-bheda
sei sei haya vilāsa-vaibhava-vibheda

Synonyms

iṅhāra madhye — out of Them all; yāhāra — of whom; haya — there is; ākāra — of bodily features; veśa — of dress; bheda — difference; sei sei haya — They are; vilāsa-vaibhava — of vaibhava-vilāsa; vibheda — the difference.

Translation

“Of all these, the forms that differ in dress and features are distinguished as vaibhava-vilāsa.

Text

padmanābha, trivikrama, nṛsiṁha, vāmana
hari, kṛṣṇa ādi haya ‘ākāre’ vilakṣaṇa

Synonyms

padmanābha — Padmanābha; trivikrama — Trivikrama; nṛsiṁha — Nṛsiṁha; vāmana — Vāmana; hari — Hari; kṛṣṇa — Kṛṣṇa; ādi — and so on; haya — are; ākāre vilakṣaṇa — different in bodily features.

Translation

“Of Them, Padmanābha, Trivikrama, Nṛsiṁha, Vāmana, Hari, Kṛṣṇa and so on all have different bodily features.

Text

kṛṣṇera prābhava-vilāsa — vāsudevādi cāri jana
sei cāri-janāra vilāsa — viṁśati gaṇana

Synonyms

kṛṣṇera — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; prābhava-vilāsaprābhava pastime forms; vāsudeva-ādi — Vāsudeva and others; cāri jana — quadruple expansions; sei — those; cāri-janāra — of the four personalities; vilāsa — pastime forms; viṁśati gaṇana — counted as twenty.

Translation

“Vāsudeva and the three others are direct prābhava pastime forms of Lord Kṛṣṇa. Of these quadruple forms, the pastime expansions are twenty in number.

Text

iṅhā-sabāra pṛthak vaikuṇṭha — paravyoma-dhāme
pūrvādi aṣṭa-dike tina tina krame

Synonyms

iṅhā — of Them; sabāra — of all; pṛthak — separate; vaikuṇṭha — a Vaikuṇṭha planet; paravyoma-dhāme — in the spiritual world; pūrva-ādi — beginning from the east; aṣṭa-dike — in the eight directions; tina tina — three in each; krame — in consecutive order.

Translation

“All these forms preside over different Vaikuṇṭha planets in the spiritual world, beginning from the east in consecutive order. In each of the eight directions, there are three different forms.

Text

yadyapi paravyoma sabākāra nitya-dhāma
tathāpi brahmāṇḍe kāro kāṅho sannidhāna

Synonyms

yadyapi — although; paravyoma — the spiritual sky; sabākāra — of all of Them; nitya-dhāma — the eternal abode; tathāpi — still; brahmāṇḍe — in the material universes; kāro — of some of Them; kāṅho — somewhere; sannidhāna — the residential places.

Translation

“Although They all have Their residences eternally in the spiritual sky, some of Them are situated within the material universes.

Text

paravyoma-madhye nārāyaṇera nitya-sthiti
paravyoma-upari kṛṣṇalokera vibhūti

Synonyms

paravyoma-madhye — in the spiritual sky; nārāyaṇera — of Nārāyaṇa; nitya-sthiti — eternal residence; paravyoma-upari — in the upper portion of the spiritual sky; kṛṣṇa-lokera vibhūti — the opulence of the Kṛṣṇaloka planet.

Translation

“There is an eternal residence of Nārāyaṇa in the spiritual sky. In the upper portion of the spiritual sky is a planet known as Kṛṣṇaloka, which is filled with all opulences.

Text

eka ‘kṛṣṇaloka’ haya trividha-prakāra
gokulākhya, mathurākhya, dvārakākhya āra

Synonyms

eka — one; kṛṣṇa-loka — the planet known as Kṛṣṇaloka; haya — there is; tri-vidha-prakāra — in three different divisions; gokula-ākhya — Gokula; mathurā-ākhya — Mathurā; dvārakā-ākhya — Dvārakā; āra — and.

Translation

“The planet of Kṛṣṇaloka is divided into three sections — Gokula, Mathurā and Dvārakā.

Text

mathurāte keśavera nitya sannidhāna
nīlācale puruṣottama
— ‘jagannātha’ nāma

Synonyms

mathurāte — in Mathurā; keśavera — of Lord Keśava; nitya — eternal; sannidhāna — residence; nīlācale — in Nīlācala (Jagannātha Purī); puruṣottama — Puruṣottama; jagannātha nāma — also known as Jagannātha.

Translation

“Lord Keśava eternally resides at Mathurā, and Lord Puruṣottama, known by the name Jagannātha, eternally resides at Nīlācala.

Text

prayāge mādhava, mandāre śrī-madhusūdana
ānandāraṇye vāsudeva, padmanābha janārdana

Synonyms

prayāge — at Prayāga; mādhava — Bindu Mādhava; mandāre — at Mandāra-parvata; śrī-madhusūdana — Śrī Madhusūdana; ānanda-araṇye — at the place known as Ānandāraṇya; vāsudeva — Lord Vāsudeva; padmanābha — Lord Padmanābha; janārdana — Lord Janārdana.

Translation

“At Prayāga, the Lord is situated as Bindu Mādhava, and at Mandāra-parvata, the Lord is known as Madhusūdana. Vāsudeva, Padmanābha and Janārdana reside at Ānandāraṇya.

Text

viṣṇu-kāñcīte viṣṇu, hari rahe, māyāpure
aiche āra nānā mūrti brahmāṇḍa-bhitare

Synonyms

viṣṇu-kāñcīte — at Viṣṇu-kāñcī; viṣṇu — Lord Viṣṇu; hari — Lord Hari; rahe — remains; māyāpure — at Māyāpur; aiche — similarly; āra — also; nānā — various; mūrti — forms; brahmāṇḍa-bhitare — throughout the universe.

Translation

“At Viṣṇu-kāñcī there is Lord Viṣṇu, at Māyāpur Lord Hari, and throughout the universe a variety of other forms.

Purport

All of these forms are mūrti forms, and They are worshiped in the temples. Their names are Keśava at Mathurā, Puruṣottama or Jagannātha at Nīlācala, Śrī Bindu Mādhava at Prayāga, Madhusūdana at Mandāra, and Vāsudeva, Padmanābha and Janārdana at Ānandāraṇya, which is situated in Kerala, South India. At Viṣṇu-kāñcī is Lord Varadarāja, and Hari is situated at Māyāpur, Lord Caitanya’s birth site. Thus in different places throughout the universe there are various Deities in temples bestowing Their causeless mercy upon the devotees. All these Deity forms are nondifferent from the mūrtis in the spiritual world of the Vaikuṇṭhas. Although the arcā-mūrti, the worshipable Deity form of the Lord, appears to be made of material elements, it is as good as the spiritual forms found in the spiritual Vaikuṇṭhalokas. The Deity in the temple, however, is visible to the material eyes of the devotee. It is not possible for one in material, conditioned life to see the spiritual form of the Lord. To bestow causeless mercy upon us, the Lord appears as the arcā-mūrti so that we can see Him. It is forbidden to consider the arcā-mūrti to be made of stone or wood. In the Padma Purāṇa it is said:

arcye viṣṇau śilā-dhīr guruṣu nara-matir vaiṣṇave jāti-buddhir
viṣṇor vā vaiṣṇsnavānāṁ kali-mala-mathane pāda-tīrthe ’mbu-buddhiḥ
śrī-viṣṇor nāmni mantre sakala-kaluṣa-he śabda-sāmānya-buddhir
viṣṇau sarveśvareśe tad-itara-sama-dhīr yasya vā nārakī saḥ

No one should consider the Deity in the temple to be made of stone or wood, nor should one consider the spiritual master an ordinary human being. No one should consider a Vaiṣṇava to belong to a particular caste or creed, and no one should consider caraṇāmṛta or Ganges water to be like ordinary water. Nor should anyone consider the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra to be a material vibration. All these expansions of Kṛṣṇa in the material world are simply demonstrations of the Lord’s mercy and willingness to give facility to His devotees who are engaged in His devotional service within the material world.

Text

ei-mata brahmāṇḍa-madhye sabāra ‘parakāśa’
sapta-dvīpe nava-khaṇḍe yāṅhāra vilāsa

Synonyms

ei-mata — in this way; brahmāṇḍa-madhye — within this universe; sabāra — of all of Them; parakāśa — manifestations; sapta-dvīpe — on seven islands; nava-khaṇḍe — in different sections, nine in number; yāṅhāra vilāsa — the pastimes of whom.

Translation

“Within the universe the Lord is situated in different spiritual manifestations. These are situated on seven islands in nine sections. Thus Their pastimes are going on.

Purport

The seven islands are mentioned in the Siddhāntaśiromaṇi:

bhūmer ardhaṁ kṣāra-sindhor udak-sthaṁ
jambu-dvīpaṁ prāhur ācārya-varyāḥ
ardhe ’nyasmin dvīpa-ṣaṭkasya yāmye
kṣāra-kṣīrādy-ambudhīnāṁ niveśaḥ
śākaṁ tataḥ śālmalam atra kauśaṁ
krauñcaṁ ca gomedaka-puṣkare ca
dvayor dvayor antaram ekam ekaṁ
samudrayor dvīpam udāharanti

The seven islands (dvīpas) are known as (1) Jambu, (2) Śāka, (3) Śālmalī, (4) Kuśa, (5) Krauñca, (6) Gomeda, or Plakṣa, and (7) Puṣkara. The planets are called dvīpas. Outer space is like an ocean of air. Just as there are islands in the watery ocean, these planets in the ocean of space are called dvīpas, or islands in outer space. There are nine khaṇḍas, known as (1) Bhārata, (2) Kinnara, (3) Hari, (4) Kuru, (5) Hiraṇmaya, (6) Ramyaka, (7) Ilāvṛta, (8) Bhadrāśva and (9) Ketumāla. These are different parts of Jambudvīpa. A valley between two mountains is called a khaṇḍa or varṣa.

Text

sarvatra prakāśa tāṅra — bhakte sukha dite
jagatera adharma nāśi’ dharma sthāpite

Synonyms

sarvatra — everywhere; prakāśa — manifestations; tāṅra — His; bhakte — to the devotees; sukha dite — to give happiness; jagatera — of the material world; adharma — irreligious principles; nāśi’ — destroying; dharma — religious principles; sthāpite — to establish.

Translation

“The Lord is situated in all the universes in different forms just to please His devotees. Thus the Lord destroys irreligious principles and establishes religious principles.

Purport

In the material world, the Lord is situated in different arcā-mūrtis (Deities) in the temples just to decrease the material activities of the conditioned soul and increase his spiritual activities. Particularly in India there are many temples throughout the country. Devotees may take advantage of them and go see the Lord at Jagannātha Purī, Vṛndāvana, Prayāga, Mathurā, Hardwar and Viṣṇu-kāñcī. When the devotees travel to these places and see the Lord, they become very happy in devotional service.

Text

iṅhāra madhye kāro haya ‘avatāre’ gaṇana
yaiche viṣṇu, trivikrama, nṛsiṁha, vāmana

Synonyms

iṅhāra madhye — of Them; kāro — of some; haya — there is; avatāre — as incarnations; gaṇana — counting; yaiche — as; viṣṇu — Lord Viṣṇu; trivikrama — Lord Trivikrama; nṛsiṁha — Lord Nṛsiṁha; vāmana — Lord Vāmana.

Translation

“Of these forms, some are considered incarnations. Examples are Lord Viṣṇu, Lord Trivikrama, Lord Nṛsiṁha and Lord Vāmana.

Text

astra-dhṛti-bheda — nāma-bhedera kāraṇa
cakrādi-dhāraṇa-bheda śuna, sanātana

Synonyms

astra-dhṛti — of holding the weapons; bheda — difference; nāma-bhedera — of differences of names; kāraṇa — the cause; cakra-ādi — of weapons, beginning with the disc; dhāraṇa — of holding; bheda — differences; śuna — please hear; sanātana — O Sanātana.

Translation

“My dear Sanātana, just hear from Me as I tell you how the different viṣṇu-mūrtis hold Their weapons, beginning with the disc, and how They are named differently according to the placement of the weapons in Their hands.

Text

dakṣiṇādho hasta haite vāmādhaḥ paryanta
cakrādi astra-dhāraṇa-gaṇanāra anta

Synonyms

dakṣiṇa-adhaḥ — the lower right; hasta — hand; haite — from; vāma-adhaḥ — the lower left hand; paryanta — up to; cakra-ādi — beginning with the disc; astra-dhāraṇa — of holding the weapons; gaṇanāra — of counting; anta — the end.

Translation

“The procedure for counting begins with the lower right hand and goes to the upper right hand, the upper left hand, and the lower left hand. Lord Viṣṇu is named according to the order of the weapons He holds in His hands.

Text

siddhārtha-saṁhitā kare cabbiśa mūrti gaṇana
tāra mate kahi āge cakrādi-dhāraṇa

Synonyms

siddhārtha-saṁhitā — the revealed scripture named the Siddhārtha-saṁhitā; kare — does; cabbiśa — twenty-four; mūrti — forms; gaṇana — counting; tāra mate — according to the opinion of the Siddhārtha-saṁhitā; kahi — I shall describe; āge — first; cakra-ādi-dhāraṇa — holding of the weapons, beginning with the disc.

Translation

“According to the Siddhārtha-saṁhitā there are twenty-four forms of Lord Viṣṇu. First I shall describe, according to the opinion of that book, the location of the weapons, beginning with the disc.

Purport

The twenty-four forms are (1) Vāsudeva, (2) Saṅkarṣaṇa, (3) Pradyumna, (4) Aniruddha, (5) Keśava, (6) Nārāyaṇa, (7) Mādhava, (8) Govinda, (9) Viṣṇu, (10) Madhusūdana, (11) Trivikrama, (12) Vāmana, (13) Śrīdhara, (14) Hṛṣīkeśa, (15) Padmanābha, (16) Dāmodara, (17) Puruṣottama, (18) Acyuta, (19) Nṛsiṁha, (20) Janārdana, (21) Hari, (22) Kṛṣṇa, (23) Adhokṣaja and (24) Upendra.

Text

vāsudeva — gadā-śaṅkha-cakra-padma-dhara
saṅkarṣaṇa — gadā-śaṅkha-padma-cakra-kara

Synonyms

vāsudeva — Vāsudeva; gadā — club; śaṅkha — conchshell; cakra — disc; padma — lotus flower; dhara — holding; saṅkarṣaṇa — Saṅkarṣaṇa; gadā — club; śaṅkha — conchshell; padma — lotus flower; cakra-kara — the disc in the hand.

Translation

“In His lower right hand, Lord Vāsudeva holds a club, in the upper right hand a conchshell, in the upper left hand a disc and in the lower left hand a lotus flower. In His lower right hand, Saṅkarṣaṇa holds a club, in His upper right hand a conchshell, in His upper left hand a lotus flower and in His lower left hand a disc.

Text

pradyumna — cakra-śaṅkha-gadā-padma-dhara
aniruddha — cakra-gadā-śaṅkha-padma-kara

Synonyms

pradyumna — Lord Pradyumna; cakra — disc; śaṅkha — conch; gadā — club; padma — lotus; dhara — holding; aniruddha — Lord Aniruddha; cakra — disc; gadā — club; śaṅkha — conch; padma-kara — lotus flower in hand.

Translation

“Pradyumna holds the disc, conch, club and lotus. Aniruddha holds the disc, club, conch and lotus.

Text

paravyome vāsudevādi — nija nija astra-dhara
tāṅra mata kahi, ye-saba astra-kara

Synonyms

para-vyome — in the spiritual sky; vāsudeva-ādi — beginning with Lord Vāsudeva; nija nija — Their own respective; astra-dhara — holding of different weapons; tāṅra mata kahi — I am speaking the opinion of the Siddhārtha-saṁhitā; ye-saba — all; astra-kara — weapons in the different hands.

Translation

“Thus in the spiritual sky the expansions, headed by Vāsudeva, hold weapons in Their own respective order. I am repeating the opinion of the Siddhārtha-saṁhitā in describing Them.

Text

śrī-keśava — padma-śaṅkha-cakra-gadā-dhara
nārāyaṇa — śaṅkha-padma-gadā-cakra-dhara

Synonyms

śrī-keśava — Lord Keśava; padma — lotus; śaṅkha — conch; cakra — disc; gadā — club; dhara — holding; nārāyaṇa — Lord Nārāyaṇa; śaṅkha — conch; padma — lotus; gadā — club; cakra — disc; dhara — holding.

Translation

“Lord Keśava holds the lotus, conch, disc and club. Lord Nārāyaṇa holds the conch, lotus, club and disc.

Text

śrī-mādhava — gadā-cakra-śaṅkha-padma-kara
śrī-govinda — cakra-gadā-padma-śaṅkha-dhara

Synonyms

śrī-mādhava — Lord Mādhava; gadā — club; cakra — disc; śaṅkha — conch; padma — lotus; kara — in the hands; śrī-govinda — Lord Govinda; cakra — disc; gadā — club; padma — lotus; śaṅkha — conch; dhara — holding.

Translation

“Lord Mādhava holds the club, disc, conch and lotus. Lord Govinda holds the disc, club, lotus and conch.

Text

viṣṇu-mūrti — gadā-padma-śaṅkha-cakra-kara
madhusūdana — cakra-śaṅkha-padma-gadā-dhara

Synonyms

viṣṇu-mūrti — Lord Viṣṇu; gadā — club; padma — lotus; śaṅkha — conch; cakra — disc; kara — in the hands; madhusūdana — Lord Madhusūdana; cakra — disc; śaṅkha — conch; padma — lotus; gadā — club; dhara — holding.

Translation

“Lord Viṣṇu holds the club, lotus, conch and disc. Lord Madhusūdana holds the disc, conch, lotus and club.

Text

trivikrama — padma-gadā-cakra-śaṅkha-kara
śrī-vāmana — śaṅkha-cakra-gadā-padma-dhara

Synonyms

trivikrama — Lord Trivikrama; padma — lotus; gadā — club; cakra — disc; śaṅkha — conch; kara — in the hands; śrī-vāmana — Lord Vāmana; śaṅkha — conch; cakra — disc; gadā — club; padma — lotus; dhara — holding.

Translation

“Lord Trivikrama holds the lotus, club, disc and conch. Lord Vāmana holds the conch, disc, club and lotus.

Text

śrīdhara — padma-cakra-gadā-śaṅkha-kara
hṛṣīkeśa — gadā-cakra-padma-śaṅkha-dhara

Synonyms

śrīdhara — Lord Śrīdhara; padma — lotus; cakra — disc; gadā — club; śaṅkha — conch; kara — in the hands; hṛṣīkeśa — Lord Hṛṣīkeśa; gadā — club; cakra — disc; padma — lotus; śaṅkha — conch; dhara — holding.

Translation

“Lord Śrīdhara holds the lotus, disc, club and conch. Lord Hṛṣīkeśa holds the club, disc, lotus and conch.

Text

padmanābha — śaṅkha-padma-cakra-gadā-kara
dāmodara — padma-cakra-gadā-śaṅkha-dhara

Synonyms

padmanābha — Lord Padmanābha; śaṅkha — conch; padma — lotus; cakra — disc; gadā — club; kara — in the hands; dāmodara — Lord Dāmodara; padma — lotus; cakra — disc; gadā — club; śaṅkha — conch; dhara — holding.

Translation

“Lord Padmanābha holds the conch, lotus, disc and club. Lord Dāmodara holds the lotus, disc, club and conch.

Text

puruṣottama — cakra-padma-śaṅkha-gadā-dhara
śrī-acyuta — gadā-padma-cakra-śaṅkha-dhara

Synonyms

puruṣottama — Lord Puruṣottama; cakra — disc; padma — lotus; śaṅkha — conch; gadā — club; dhara — holding; śrī-acyuta — Lord Acyuta; gadā — club; padma — lotus; cakra — disc; śaṅkha — conch; dhara — holding.

Translation

“Lord Puruṣottama holds the disc, lotus, conch and club. Lord Acyuta holds the club, lotus, disc and conch.

Text

śrī-nṛsiṁha — cakra-padma-gadā-śaṅkha-dhara
janārdana — padma-cakra-śaṅkha-gadā-kara

Synonyms

śrī-nṛsiṁha — Lord Nṛsiṁha; cakra — disc; padma — lotus; gadā — club; śaṅkha — conch; dhara — holding; janārdana — Lord Janārdana; padma — lotus; cakra — disc; śaṅkha — conch; gadā — club; kara — in the hands.

Translation

“Lord Nṛsiṁha holds the disc, lotus, club and conch. Lord Janārdana holds the lotus, disc, conch and club.

Text

śrī-hari — śaṅkha-cakra-padma-gadā-kara
śrī-kṛṣṇa — śaṅkha-gadā-padma-cakra-kara

Synonyms

śrī-hari — Lord Hari; śaṅkha — conch; cakra — disc; padma — lotus; gadā — club; kara — in the hand; śrī-kṛṣṇa — Lord Kṛṣṇa; śaṅkha — conch; gadā — club; padma — lotus; cakra — disc; kara — in the hands.

Translation

“Śrī Hari holds the conch, disc, lotus and club. Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa holds the conch, club, lotus and disc.

Text

adhokṣaja — padma-gadā-śaṅkha-cakra-kara
upendra — śaṅkha-gadā-cakra-padma-kara

Synonyms

adhokṣaja — Lord Adhokṣaja; padma — lotus; gadā — club; śaṅkha — conch; cakra — disc; kara — in the hands; upendra — Lord Upendra; śaṅkha — conch; gadā — club; cakra — disc; padma — lotus; kara — in the hands.

Translation

“Lord Adhokṣaja holds the lotus, club, conch and disc. Lord Upendra holds the conch, club, disc and lotus.

Text

hayaśīrṣa-pañcarātre kahe ṣola-jana
tāra mate kahi ebe cakrādi-dhāraṇa

Synonyms

hayaśīrṣa-pañcarātre — the revealed scripture named the Hayaśīrṣa-pañcarātra; kahe — says; ṣola-jana — sixteen personalities; tāra mate — according to this opinion; kahi — I shall describe; ebe — now; cakra-ādi-dhāraṇa — the holding of weapons, beginning with the disc.

Translation

“According to the Hayaśīrṣa-pañcarātra, there are sixteen personalities. I shall now describe that opinion of how They hold the weapons.

Purport

The sixteen personalities are as follows: (1) Vāsudeva, (2) Saṅkarṣaṇa, (3) Pradyumna, (4) Aniruddha, (5) Keśava, (6) Nārāyaṇa, (7) Mādhava, (8) Govinda, (9) Viṣṇu, (10) Madhusūdana, (11) Trivikrama, (12) Vāmana, (13) Śrīdhara, (14) Hṛṣīkeśa, (15) Padmanābha and (16) Dāmodara.

Text

keśava-bhede padma-śaṅkha-gadā-cakra-dhara
mādhava-bhede cakra-gadā-śaṅkha-padma-kara

Synonyms

keśava-bhede — according to the different opinion about Lord Keśava; padma — lotus; śaṅkha — conch; gadā — club; cakra — and disc; dhara — holding; mādhava-bhede — according to the different opinion about the bodily features of Lord Mādhava; cakra — disc; gadā — club; śaṅkha — conch; padma — lotus; kara — in the hands.

Translation

“Keśava is described differently as holding the lotus, conch, club and disc, and Mādhava is described as holding the disc, club, conch and lotus in His hands.

Text

nārāyaṇa-bhede nānā astra-bheda-dhara
ityādika bheda ei saba astra-kara

Synonyms

nārāyaṇa-bhede — according to the different opinion about the bodily features of Lord Nārāyaṇa; nānā — various; astra — of weapons; bheda-dhara — differences in holding; iti-ādika — in this way; bheda — differentiated; ei saba — all these; astra-kara — weapons in the hands.

Translation

“According to the Hayaśīrṣa Pañcarātra, Nārāyaṇa and others are also presented differently as holding the weapons in different hands.

Text

‘svayaṁ bhagavān’, āra ‘līlā-puruṣottama’
ei dui nāma dhare vrajendra-nandana

Synonyms

svayam bhagavān — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; āra — and; līlā-puruṣottama — the Lord Puruṣottama of pastimes; ei dui — these two; nāma — names; dhare — takes; vrajendra-nandana — Kṛṣṇa, the son of Nanda Mahārāja.

Translation

“Kṛṣṇa, the original Supreme Personality of Godhead, indicated as the son of Mahārāja Nanda, has two names. One is svayaṁ bhagavān, and the other is līlā-puruṣottama.

Text

purīra āvaraṇa-rūpe purīra nava-deśe
nava-vyūha-rūpe nava-mūrti parakāśe

Synonyms

purīra — of Dvārakā Purī; āvaraṇa-rūpe — as a covering for the four sides; purīra nava-deśe — in nine different parts of the city; nava-vyūha-rūpe — in nine Deities; nava-mūrti — nine forms; parakāśe — manifests.

Translation

“Lord Kṛṣṇa personally surrounds Dvārakā-purī as its protector. In different parts of the city, in nine places, He expands in nine different forms.

Text

catvāro vāsudevādyā
nārāyaṇa-nṛsiṁhakau
hayagrīvo mahākroḍo
brahmā ceti navoditāḥ

Synonyms

catvāraḥ — four principal protectors; vāsudeva-ādyāḥ — Vāsudeva, Saṅkarṣaṇa, Pradyumna and Aniruddha; nārāyaṇa — including Lord Nārāyaṇa; nṛsiṁhakau — as well as Lord Nṛsiṁha; hayagrīvaḥ — Lord Hayagrīva; mahākroḍaḥ — Lord Varāha; brahmā — Lord Brahmā; ca — also; iti — thus; nava-uditāḥ — nine personalities.

Translation

“ ‘The nine personalities mentioned are Vāsudeva, Saṅkarṣaṇa, Pradyumna, Aniruddha, Nārāyaṇa, Nṛsiṁha, Hayagrīva, Varāha and Brahmā.’

Purport

This verse is found in the Laghu-bhāgavatāmṛta (1.451). The Brahmā mentioned herein is not a living entity. Sometimes, when there is a scarcity of living entities to take charge of Brahmā’s post, Mahā-Viṣṇu expands Himself as Lord Brahmā. This Brahmā is not considered to be a living entity; He is an expansion of Viṣṇu.

Text

prakāśa-vilāsera ei kailuṅ vivaraṇa
svāṁśera bheda ebe śuna, sanātana

Synonyms

prakāśa-vilāsera — of pastime forms and manifestations; ei — this; kailuṅ — I have made; vivaraṇa — description; svāṁśera — of personal expansions; bheda — the differences; ebe — now; śuna — please hear; sanātana — O Sanātana Gosvāmī.

Translation

“I have already described the pastime and prakāśa forms. Now please hear about the different personal expansions.

Text

saṅkarṣaṇa, matsyādika, — dui bheda tāṅra
saṅkarṣaṇa — puruṣāvatāra, līlāvatāra āra

Synonyms

saṅkarṣaṇa — Saṅkarṣaṇa; matsya-ādika — and incarnations such as the fish; dui — two; bheda — differentiations; tāṅra — His; saṅkarṣaṇa — Saṅkarṣaṇa; puruṣa-avatāra — incarnations of Viṣṇu; līlā-avatāra — pastime incarnations; āra — and.

Translation

“The first personal expansion is Saṅkarṣaṇa, and the others are incarnations like the fish incarnation. Saṅkarṣaṇa is an expansion of the Puruṣa, or Viṣṇu. The incarnations such as Matsya, the fish incarnation, appear in different yugas for specific pastimes.

Purport

The puruṣa-avatāras are the Lords of the universal creation. These are Kāraṇodakaśāyī Viṣṇu, Garbhodakaśāyī Viṣṇu and Kṣīrodakaśāyī Viṣṇu. There are also līlā-avatāras, and these include (1) Catuḥsana, or the four Kumāras, (2) Nārada, (3) Varāha, (4) Matsya, (5) Yajña, (6) Nara-Nārāyaṇa, (7) Kārdami Kapila, (8) Dattātreya, (9) Hayaśīrṣā, (10) Haṁsa, (11) Dhruvapriya, or Pṛśnigarbha, (12) Ṛṣabha, (13) Pṛthu, (14) Nṛsiṁha, (15) Kūrma, (16) Dhanvantari, (17) Mohinī, (18) Vāmana, (19) Bhārgava Paraśurāma, (20) Rāghavendra, (21) Vyāsa, (22) Pralambāri Balarāma, (23) Kṛṣṇa, (24) Buddha and (25) Kalki.

These twenty-five Personalities of Godhead are known as līlā-avatāras. Because they appear in each day of Brahmā, or in each kalpa (millennium), they are sometimes known as kalpa-avatāras. Of these incarnations, Haṁsa and Mohinī are neither permanent nor very well known, but They are listed among the prābhava-avatāras. Kapila, Dattātreya, Ṛṣabha, Dhanvantari and Vyāsa are eternally situated and very widely known. They are also counted among the prābhava incarnations. Kūrma, Matsya, Nārāyaṇa, Varāha, Hayagrīva, Pṛśnigarbha and Baladeva, the killer of Pralambāsura, are counted among the vaibhava-avatāras.

Text

avatāra haya kṛṣṇera ṣaḍ-vidha prakāra
puruṣāvatāra eka, līlāvatāra āra

Synonyms

avatāra — incarnations; haya — there are; kṛṣṇera — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; ṣaṭ-vidha prakāra — six kinds; puruṣa-avatāra — incarnations of Viṣṇu; eka — one; līlā-avatāra — incarnations for the execution of pastimes; āra — also.

Translation

“There are six types of incarnations [avatāras] of Kṛṣṇa. One comprises the incarnations of Viṣṇu [puruṣa-avatāras], and another comprises the incarnations meant for the performance of pastimes [līlā-avatāras].

Text

guṇāvatāra, āra manvantarāvatāra
yugāvatāra, āra śaktyāveśāvatāra

Synonyms

guṇa-avatāra — the incarnations who control the material qualities; āra — also; manu-antara-avatāra — the incarnations who appear during the reign of each Manu; yuga-avatāra — the incarnations according to different yugas; āra — and; śakti-āveśa-avatāra — empowered incarnations.

Translation

“There are incarnations that control the material qualities [guṇa-avatāras], incarnations who appear during the reign of each Manu [manvantara-avatāras], incarnations in different millenniums [yuga-avatāras] and incarnations of empowered living entities [śaktyāveśa-avatāras].

Purport

The guṇa-avatāras are three — Lord Brahmā, Lord Śiva and Lord Viṣṇu (Bhāg. 10.88.3). The avatāras who appear during the reign of each Manu, known as manvantara-avatāras, are listed as follows in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (Eighth Canto, chapters 1, 5 and 13): (1) Yajña, (2) Vibhu, (3) Satyasena, (4) Hari, (5) Vaikuṇṭha, (6) Ajita, (7) Vāmana, (8) Sārvabhauma, (9) Ṛṣabha, (10) Viṣvaksena, (11) Dharmasetu, (12) Sudhāmā, (13) Yogeśvara and (14) Bṛhadbhānu. All together these are fourteen in number, and of these, Yajña and Vāmana are also counted among the līlā-avatāras. All these manvantara incarnations are sometimes called vaibhava-avatāras.

The four yuga-avatāras are (1) śukla (white) in Satya-yuga (Bhāg. 11.5.21), (2) rakta (red) in Tretā-yuga (Bhāg. 11.5.24), (3) śyāma (dark blue) in Dvāpara-yuga (Bhāg. 11.5.27) and (4) generally kṛṣṇa (black) but in special cases pīta (yellow) as Caitanya Mahāprabhu in Kali-yuga (Bhāg. 11.5.32 and 10.8.13).

The śaktyāveśa-avatāras are categorized into (1) forms of divine absorption (bhagavad-āveśa), such as Kapiladeva or Ṛṣabhadeva, and (2) divinely empowered forms (śaktyāveśa), of whom seven are foremost: (1) Śeṣa Nāga in the Vaikuṇṭha world, empowered for the personal service of the Supreme Lord (sva-sevana-śakti), (2) Anantadeva, empowered to bear all the planets within the universe (bhū-dhāraṇa-śakti), (3) Lord Brahmā, empowered with the energy to create the cosmic manifestation (sṛṣṭi-śakti), (4) Catuḥsana, or the Kumāras, specifically empowered to distribute transcendental knowledge (jñāna-śakti), (5) Nārada Muni, empowered to distribute devotional service (bhakti-śakti), (6) Mahārāja Pṛthu, specifically empowered to rule and maintain the living entities (pālana-śakti) and (7) Paraśurāma, specifically empowered to cut down rogues and demons (duṣṭa-damana-śakti).

Text

bālya, paugaṇḍa haya vigrahera dharma
eta-rūpe līlā karena vrajendra-nandana

Synonyms

bālya — childhood; paugaṇḍa — boyhood; haya — there are; vigrahera — of the Deity; dharma — characteristics; eta-rūpe — in so many forms; līlā — pastimes; karena — executes; vrajendra-nandana — Kṛṣṇa, the son of Nanda Mahārāja.

Translation

“Childhood and boyhood are the typical ages of the Deity. Kṛṣṇa, the son of Mahārāja Nanda, performed His pastimes as a child and as a boy.

Text

ananta avatāra kṛṣṇera, nāhika gaṇana
śākhā-candra-nyāya kari dig-daraśana

Synonyms

ananta — unlimited; avatāra — incarnations; kṛṣṇera — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; nāhika gaṇana — there is no possibility of counting; śākhā-candra-nyāya — by the example of the moon and the branches of a tree; kari — I make; dik-daraśana — a slight indication.

Translation

“There are innumerable incarnations of Kṛṣṇa, and there is no possibility of counting them. We can simply indicate them by giving the example of the moon and the branches of a tree.

Purport

Although the moon appears to be located in the branches of a tree, it is actually situated very far away. Similarly, none of the avatāras, or incarnations, of Lord Kṛṣṇa are within this material world, but they are visible by the causeless mercy of the Lord. We should not consider them to belong to this material world. As stated by Lord Kṛṣṇa in the Bhagavad-gītā (Bg. 9.11):

avajānanti māṁ mūḍhāmānuṣīṁ tanum āśritam
paraṁ bhāvam ajānanto
mama bhūta-maheśvaram

“Fools deride Me when I descend in the human form. They do not know My transcendental nature as the Supreme Lord of all that be.”

Avatāras descend of their own free will, and although they may act like ordinary human beings, they do not belong to this material world. Lord Kṛṣṇa and His avatāras can be understood only by the grace of the Lord.

nāyam ātmā pravacanena labhyo
na medhayā na bahunā śrutena
yam evaiṣa vṛṇute tena labhyas
tasyaiṣa ātmā vivṛṇute tanūṁ svām

(Kaṭha Upaniṣad 1.2.23)

“The Supreme Lord is not obtained by means of expert explanations, vast intelligence or even much hearing. He is obtained only by one whom He Himself chooses. To such a person, He manifests His own form.”

athāpi te deva padāmbuja-dvaya-
prasāda-leśānugṛhīta eva hi
jānāti tattvaṁ bhagavan-mahimno
na cānya eko ’pi ciraṁ vicinvan

“My Lord, if one is favored by even a slight trace of the mercy of Your lotus feet, he can understand the greatness of Your personality. But those who speculate to understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead are unable to know You, even though they continue studying the Vedas for many years.”

Text

avatārā hy asaṅkhyeyā
hareḥ sattva-nidher dvijāḥ
yathā ’vidāsinaḥ kulyāḥ
sarasaḥ syuḥ sahasraśaḥ

Synonyms

avatārāḥ — all the incarnations; hi — certainly; asaṅkhyeyāḥ — beyond counting; hareḥ — from the Supreme Personality of Godhead; sattva-nidheḥ — who is the reservoir of spiritual energy; dvijāḥ — O brāhmaṇas; yathā — as; avidāsinaḥ — containing a great reservoir of water; kulyāḥ — small rivulets; sarasaḥ — from a lake; syuḥ — must be; sahasraśaḥ — by hundreds and thousands of times.

Translation

“ ‘O learned brāhmaṇas, just as hundreds and thousands of small rivulets issue from great reservoirs of water, innumerable incarnations flow from Śrī Hari, the Supreme Personality of Godhead and the reservoir of all power.’

Purport

This verse is quoted from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (1.3.26).

Text

prathamei kare kṛṣṇa ‘puruṣāvatāra’
seita puruṣa haya trividha prakāra

Synonyms

prathamei — in the beginning; kare — does; kṛṣṇa — Lord Kṛṣṇa; puruṣa-avatāra — the incarnation of the three Viṣṇus (Mahā-Viṣṇu, Garbhodakaśāyī Viṣṇu and Kṣīrodakaśāyī Viṣṇu); seita — that; puruṣa — Viṣṇu; haya — becomes; tri-vidha prakāra — three different manifestations.

Translation

“In the beginning, Kṛṣṇa incarnates Himself as the puruṣa-avatāras, or Viṣṇu incarnations. These are of three types.

Purport

Up to this verse, the many types of expansions have been described. Now the manifestations of the Lord’s different potencies will be described.

Text

viṣṇos tu trīṇi rūpāṇi
puruṣākhyāny atho viduḥ
ekaṁ tu mahataḥ sraṣṭṛ
dvitīyaṁ tv aṇḍa-saṁsthitam
tṛtīyaṁ sarva-bhūta-sthaṁ
tāni jñātvā vimucyate

Synonyms

viṣṇoḥ — of Lord Viṣṇu; tu — certainly; trīṇi — three; rūpāṇi — forms; puruṣa-ākhyāni — celebrated as the puruṣas; atho — how; viduḥ — they know; ekam — one of them; tu — but; mahataḥ sraṣṭṛ — the creator of the total material energy; dvitīyam — the second; tu — but; aṇḍa-saṁsthitam — situated within the universe; tṛtīyam — the third; sarva-bhūta-stham — within the hearts of all living entities; tāni — these three; jñātvā — knowing; vimucyate — one becomes liberated.

Translation

“ ‘Viṣṇu has three forms called puruṣas. The first, Mahā-Viṣṇu, is the creator of the total material energy [mahat], the second is Garbhodaśāyī, who is situated within each universe, and the third is Kṣīrodaśāyī, who lives in the heart of every living being. He who knows these three becomes liberated from the clutches of māyā.’

Purport

This verse appears in the Laghu-bhāgavatāmṛta (Pūrva-khaṇḍa 2.9), where it has been quoted from the Sātvata-tantra.

Text

ananta-śakti-madhye kṛṣṇera tina śakti pradhāna
‘icchā-śakti’, ‘jñāna-śakti’, ‘kriyā-śakti’ nāma

Synonyms

ananta-śakti — of unlimited potencies; madhye — in the midst; kṛṣṇera — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; tina — three; śakti — potencies; pradhāna — are chief; icchā-śakti — willpower; jñāna-śakti — the power of knowledge; kriyā-śakti — the creative energy; nāma — named.

Translation

“Kṛṣṇa has unlimited potencies, out of which three are chief — willpower, the power of knowledge and the creative energy.

Text

icchā-śakti-pradhāna kṛṣṇa — icchāya sarva-kartā
jñāna-śakti-pradhāna vāsudeva adhiṣṭhātā

Synonyms

icchā-śakti — of willpower; pradhāna — predominator; kṛṣṇa — Lord Kṛṣṇa; icchāya — simply by willing; sarva-kartā — the creator of everything; jñāna-śakti-pradhāna — the predominator of the power of knowledge; vāsudeva — Lord Vāsudeva; adhiṣṭhātā — reservoir.

Translation

“The predominator of the willing potency is Lord Kṛṣṇa, for by His supreme will everything comes into existence. In willing, there is a need for knowledge, and that knowledge is expressed through Vāsudeva.

Text

icchā-jñāna-kriyā vinā nā haya sṛjana
tinera tina-śakti meli’ prapañca-racana

Synonyms

icchā-jñāna-kriyā — thinking, feeling, willing, knowledge and activity; vinā — without; — not; haya — there is; sṛjana — creation; tinera — of the three; tina-śakti — three potencies; meli’ — being amalgamated; prapañca-racana — there is the cosmic manifestation.

Translation

“There is no possibility of creation without thinking, feeling, willing, knowledge and activity. The combination of the supreme will, knowledge and action brings about the cosmic manifestation.

Text

kriyā-śakti-pradhāna saṅkarṣaṇa balarāma
prākṛtāprākṛta-sṛṣṭi karena nirmāṇa

Synonyms

kriyā-śakti-pradhāna — the predominator of the creative energy; saṅkarṣaṇa — Lord Saṅkarṣaṇa; balarāma — Lord Balarāma; prākṛta — material; aprākṛta — spiritual; sṛṣṭi — worlds; karena — does; nirmāṇa — creation.

Translation

“Lord Saṅkarṣaṇa is Lord Balarāma. Being the predominator of the creative energy, He creates both the material and the spiritual world.

Text

ahaṅkārera adhiṣṭhātā kṛṣṇera icchāya
goloka, vaikuṇṭha sṛje cic-chakti-dvārāya

Synonyms

ahaṅkārera — of egotism; adhiṣṭhātā — the source, or predominating Deity; kṛṣṇera — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; icchāya — by the will; goloka — the supreme spiritual planet, known as Goloka; vaikuṇṭha — other, lower planets, known as Vaikuṇṭhas; sṛje — creates; cit-śakti-dvārāya — by the spiritual energy.

Translation

“That original Saṅkarṣaṇa [Lord Balarāma] is the cause of both the material and the spiritual creation. He is the predominating Deity of egotism, and by the will of Kṛṣṇa and the power of the spiritual energy, He creates the spiritual world, which consists of the planet Goloka Vṛndāvana and the Vaikuṇṭha planets.

Text

yadyapi asṛjya nitya cic-chakti-vilāsa
tathāpi saṅkarṣaṇa-icchāya tāhāra prakāśa

Synonyms

yadyapi — although; asṛjya — there is no question of creation; nitya — eternal; cit-śakti-vilāsa — pastimes of the eternal spiritual energy; tathāpi — still; saṅkarṣaṇa-icchāya — by the will of Saṅkarṣaṇa; tāhāra — of the spiritual world; prakāśa — manifestation.

Translation

“Although there is no question of creation as far as the spiritual world is concerned, the spiritual world is nonetheless manifested by the supreme will of Saṅkarṣaṇa. The spiritual world is the abode of the pastimes of the eternal spiritual energy.

Text

sahasra-patraṁ kamalaṁ
gokulākhyaṁ mahat padam
tat-karṇikāraṁ tad-dhāma
tad anantāṁśa-sambhavam

Synonyms

sahasra-patram — with thousands of petals; kamalam — resembling a lotus flower; gokula-ākhyam — named Gokula; mahat padam — the supreme abode; tat-karṇikāram — the whorl of that lotus flower; tat-dhāma — the abode of the Lord; tat — that; ananta-aṁśa — from the expansion of the energy of Ananta; sambhavam — creation.

Translation

“ ‘Gokula, the supreme abode and planet, appears like a lotus flower that has a thousand petals. The whorl of that lotus is the abode of the Supreme Lord, Kṛṣṇa. This lotus-shaped supreme abode is created by the will of Lord Ananta.’

Purport

This verse is quoted from the Brahma-saṁhitā (5.2).

Text

māyā-dvāre sṛje teṅho brahmāṇḍera gaṇa
jaḍa-rūpā prakṛti nahe brahmāṇḍa-kāraṇa

Synonyms

māyā-dvāre — by the agency of the external energy; sṛje — creates; teṅho — Lord Saṅkarṣaṇa; brahmāṇḍera gaṇa — all the groups of universes; jaḍa-rūpā — appearing dull; prakṛti — the material energy; nahe — is not; brahmāṇḍa-kāraṇa — the cause of the cosmic manifestation.

Translation

“By the agency of the material energy, this same Lord Saṅkarṣaṇa creates all the universes. The dull material energy — known in modern language as nature — is not the cause of the material universe.

Text

jaḍa haite sṛṣṭi nahe īśvara-śakti vine
tāhātei saṅkarṣaṇa kare śaktira ādhāne

Synonyms

jaḍa haite — from the dull material energy; sṛṣṭi nahe — the cosmic manifestation is not possible; īśvara-śakti vine — without the help of the energy of the Supreme Lord, the Personality of Godhead; tāhātei — in the material energy; saṅkarṣaṇa — Lord Saṅkarṣaṇa; kare — does; śaktira — of the spiritual energy; ādhāne — empowering.

Translation

“Without the Supreme Personality of Godhead’s energy, dull matter cannot create the cosmic manifestation. Its power does not arise from the material energy itself but is endowed by Saṅkarṣaṇa.

Text

īśvarera śaktye sṛṣṭi karaye prakṛti
lauha yena agni-śaktye pāya dāha-śakti

Synonyms

īśvarera śaktye — by the energy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; sṛṣṭi — creation; karaye — does; prakṛti — material energy; lauha — iron; yena — as; agni-śaktye — by the power of fire; pāya — gets; dāha-śakti — the power to burn.

Translation

“Dull matter alone cannot create anything. The material energy produces the creation by the power of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Iron itself has no power to burn, but when iron is placed in fire, it is empowered to burn.

Text

etau hi viśvasya ca bīja-yonī
rāmo mukundaḥ puruṣaḥ pradhānam
anvīya bhūteṣu vilakṣaṇasya
jñānasya ceśāta imau purāṇau

Synonyms

etau — these two, namely Rāma and Kṛṣṇa; hi — certainly; viśvasya — of the universe; ca — and; bīja-yonī — both the cause and ingredient; rāmaḥ — Balarāma; mukundaḥ — Kṛṣṇa; puruṣaḥ — the original Mahā-Viṣṇu; pradhānam — material energy; anvīya — after entering; bhūteṣu — into the material elements; vilakṣaṇasya — of varieties of manifestation; jñānasya — of knowledge; ca — also; īśāte — are the controlling power; imau — both of Them; purāṇau — are the original cause.

Translation

“ ‘Balarāma and Kṛṣṇa are the original efficient and material causes of the material world. As Mahā-Viṣṇu and the material energy, They enter into the material elements and create the diversities by multi-energies. Thus They are the cause of all causes.’

Purport

This verse is quoted from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.46.31).

Text

sṛṣṭi-hetu yei mūrti prapañce avatare
sei īśvara-mūrti ‘avatāra’ nāma dhare

Synonyms

sṛṣṭi-hetu — for the purpose of creation; yei mūrti — which form of the Lord; prapañce — in the material world; avatare — descends; sei — that; īśvara-mūrti — form of the Lord; avatāra — incarnation; nāma dhare — takes the name.

Translation

“The form of the Lord that descends into the material world to create is called an avatāra, or incarnation.

Text

māyātīta paravyome sabāra avasthāna
viśve avatari’ dhare ‘avatāra’ nāma

Synonyms

māyā-atīta — beyond the material nature; para-vyome — in the spiritual sky; sabāra — all of them; avasthāna — residence; viśve — within the material universe; avatari’ — coming down; dhare — take; avatāra nāma — the name avatāra.

Translation

“All the expansions of Lord Kṛṣṇa are actually residents of the spiritual world. But when they descend into the material world, they are called incarnations [avatāras].

Text

sei māyā avalokite śrī-saṅkarṣaṇa
puruṣa-rūpe avatīrṇa ha-ilā prathama

Synonyms

sei māyā — that material energy; avalokite — just to glance over; śrī-saṅkarṣaṇa — Saṅkarṣaṇa; puruṣa-rūpe — in the original form of Mahā-Viṣṇu; avatīrṇa — incarnated; ha-ilā — became; prathama — at first.

Translation

“To glance over that material energy and empower her, Lord Saṅkarṣaṇa first incarnates as Lord Mahā-Viṣṇu.

Text

jagṛhe pauruṣaṁ rūpaṁ
bhagavān mahad-ādibhiḥ
sambhūtaṁ ṣoḍaśa-kalam
ādau loka-sisṛkṣayā

Synonyms

jagṛhe — accepted; pauruṣam rūpam — the form of the puruṣa incarnation; bhagavān — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; mahat-ādibhiḥ — with the material energy, etc.; sambhūtam — created; ṣoḍaśa — sixteen; kalam — elements; ādau — in the beginning; loka — of the material worlds; sisṛkṣayā — with a desire for the creation.

Translation

“ ‘In the beginning of the creation, the Lord expanded Himself in the form of the puruṣa incarnation, accompanied by all the ingredients of material creation. First He created the sixteen principal energies suitable for creation. This was for the purpose of manifesting the material universes.’

Purport

This is a quotation from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (1.3.1). For an explanation, refer to Ādi-līlā, chapter five, verse 84.

Text

ādyo ’vatāraḥ puruṣaḥ parasya
kālaḥ svabhāvaḥ sad-asan manaś ca
dravyaṁ vikāro guṇa indriyāṇi
virāṭ svarāṭ sthāsnu cariṣṇu bhūmnaḥ

Synonyms

ādyaḥ avatāraḥ — the original incarnation; puruṣaḥ — Kāraṇābdhiśāyī Viṣṇu; parasya — of the Supreme Lord; kālaḥ — time; svabhāvaḥ — space; sat-asat — cause and effect; manaḥ ca — as well as the mind; dravyam — the five elements; vikāraḥ — transformation or the false ego; guṇaḥ — modes of nature; indriyāṇi — senses; virāṭ — the universal form; svarāṭ — Garbhodakaśāyī Viṣṇu; sthāsnu — immovable; cariṣṇu — movable; bhūmnaḥ — of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

Translation

“ ‘Kāraṇābdhiśāyī Viṣṇu [Mahā-Viṣṇu] is the first incarnation of the Supreme Lord, and He is the master of eternal time, space, cause and effects, the mind, the elements, the material ego, the modes of nature, the senses, the universal form of the Lord, Garbhodakaśāyī Viṣṇu and the sum total of all living beings, both moving and nonmoving.’

Purport

This is a quotation from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (2.6.42). For an explanation, refer to Ādi-līlā, chapter five, verse 83.

Text

sei puruṣa virajāte karena śayana
‘kāraṇābdhiśāyī’ nāma jagat-kāraṇa

Synonyms

sei puruṣa — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; virajāte — on the border known as Virajā; karena śayana — lies down; kāraṇa-abdhi-śāyī — Kāraṇābdhiśāyī; nāma — named; jagat-kāraṇa — is the original cause of material creation.

Translation

“That original Personality of Godhead, named Saṅkarṣaṇa, first lies down in the river Virajā, which serves as a border between the material and the spiritual world. As Kāraṇābdhiśāyī Viṣṇu, He is the original cause of the material creation.

Text

kāraṇābdhi-pāre māyāra nitya avasthiti
virajāra pāre paravyome nāhi gati

Synonyms

kāraṇa-abdhi-pāre — on one bank of the Causal Ocean; māyāra — of the material energy; nitya — eternal; avasthiti — position; virajāra pāre — on the other bank of the Virajā, or the Causal Ocean; para-vyome — in the spiritual world or sky; nāhi — there is not; gati — admission.

Translation

“The Virajā, or Causal Ocean, is the border between the spiritual and the material world. The material energy is situated on one shore of that ocean, and it cannot enter onto the other shore, which is the spiritual sky.

Text

pravartate yatra rajas tamas tayoḥ
sattvaṁ ca miśraṁ na ca kāla-vikramaḥ
na yatra māyā kim utāpare harer
anuvratā yatra surāsurārcitāḥ

Synonyms

pravartate — exists; yatra — where; rajaḥ — the mode of passion; tamaḥ — the mode of ignorance; tayoḥ — of both of them; sattvam ca — and the mode of goodness; miśram — mixture; na — not; ca — also; kāla-vikramaḥ — the influence of time or annihilation; na — not; yatra — where; māyā — external energy; kim — what; uta — to speak; apare — others; hareḥ — of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; anuvratāḥ — strict followers; yatra — where; sura — by demigods; asura — and by demons; arcitāḥ — being worshiped.

Translation

“ ‘In the spiritual world, there is neither the mode of passion, the mode of ignorance nor a mixture of both, nor is there adulterated goodness, the influence of time or māyā herself. Only the pure devotees of the Lord, who are worshiped both by demigods and by demons, reside in the spiritual world as the Lord’s associates.’

Purport

This verse from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (2.9.10) was spoken by Śrīla Śukadeva Gosvāmī. He was answering the questions of Parīkṣit Mahārāja, who asked how the living entity falls down into the material world. Śukadeva Gosvāmī explained the cream of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam in four verses, which had been explained to Lord Brahmā at the end of the severe austerities he performed for one thousand celestial years. At that time, Brahmā was shown the spiritual world and its transcendental nature.

Text

māyāra ye dui vṛtti — ‘māyā’ āra ‘pradhāna’
‘māyā’ nimitta-hetu, viśvera upādāna ‘pradhāna’

Synonyms

māyāra — of the material nature; ye — which; dui — two; vṛtti — functions; māyā — called māyā; āra — and; pradhāna — ingredients; māyā — the word māyā; nimitta-hetu — the efficient cause; viśvera — of the material universe; upādāna — ingredients; pradhāna — is called pradhāna.

Translation

“Māyā has two functions. One is called māyā, and the other is called pradhāna. Māyā refers to the efficient cause, and pradhāna refers to the ingredients that create the cosmic manifestation.

Purport

For a further explanation, see Ādi-līlā, chapter five, verse 58.

Text

sei puruṣa māyā-pāne kare avadhāna
prakṛti kṣobhita kari’ kare vīryera ādhāna

Synonyms

sei puruṣa — that Supreme Personality of Godhead; māyā-pāne — toward māyā; kare avadhāna — glances; prakṛti — the material nature; kṣobhita kari’ — making agitated; kare — impregnates; vīryera — of the semen; ādhāna — injection.

Translation

“When the Supreme Personality of Godhead glances over the material energy, she becomes agitated. At that time, the Lord injects the original semen of the living entities.

Purport

In the Bhagavad-gītā (7.10), Kṛṣṇa says, bījaṁ māṁ sarva-bhūtānām: “I am the original seed of all existences.” This is also confirmed in another verse in the Bhagavad-gītā (14.4):

sarva-yoniṣu kaunteyamūrtayaḥ sambhavanti yāḥ
tāsāṁ brahma mahad yonir
ahaṁ bīja-pradaḥ pitā

“It should be understood that all species of life, O son of Kuntī, are made possible by birth in this material nature, and that I am the seed-giving father.”

For a further explanation, one may refer to the Brahma-saṁhitā (chapter five, verses 10-13). The Brahma-saṁhitā also states (5.51):

agnir mahī gaganam ambu marud diśaś ca
kālas tathātma-manasīti jagat-trayāṇi
yasmād bhavanti vibhavanti viśanti yaṁ ca
govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi

All material elements, as well as the spiritual sparks (individual souls), are emanating from the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This is confirmed by the Vedānta-sūtra (1.1): janmādy asya yataḥ. “The Absolute Truth is He from whom everything emanates.” He is the Supreme Truth: satyaṁ paraṁ dhīmahi (Bhāg. 1.1.1). The absolute ultimate truth is Kṛṣṇa. Oṁ namo bhagavate vāsudevāya/ janmādy asya yato ’nvayād itarataś cārtheṣv abhijñaḥ sva-rāṭ: “The Absolute Truth is a person who is directly and indirectly cognizant of the entire cosmic manifestation.” (Bhāg. 1.1.1)

The Absolute Truth, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, educated Lord Brahmā from the heart (Bhāg. 1.1.1): tene brahma hṛdā ya ādi-kavaye. Therefore the Absolute Truth cannot be dull matter; the Absolute Truth must be the Supreme Person Himself. Sei puruṣa māyā-pāne kare avadhāna. Simply by His glance, material nature is impregnated with all living entities. According to their karma and fruitive activity, they emerge in different bodies. That is the explanation given by the Bhagavad-gītā (2.13):

dehino ’smin yathā dehekaumāraṁ yauvanaṁ jarā
tathā dehāntara-prāptir
dhīras tatra na muhyati

“As the embodied soul continuously passes, in this body, from boyhood to youth to old age, the soul similarly passes into another body at death. A sober person is not bewildered by such a change.”

Text

svāṅga-viśeṣābhāsa-rūpe prakṛti-sparśana
jīva-rūpa ‘bīja’ tāte kailā samarpaṇa

Synonyms

sva-aṅga-viśeṣa-ābhāsa-rūpe — in the form of a specific shadow from His personal body; prakṛti-sparśana — the Lord glances over the material nature; jīva-rūpa — having the form of the sparklike living entities, who are parts and parcels; bīja — semen; tāte — in that material nature; kailā samarpaṇa — impregnated.

Translation

“To impregnate with the seeds of the living entities, the Lord Himself does not directly touch the material energy, but by His specific functional expansion He touches the material energy, and thus the living entities, who are His parts and parcels, are impregnated into material nature.

Purport

According to Lord Kṛṣṇa in the Bhagavad-gītā (15.7):

mamaivāṁśo jīva-lokejīva-bhūtaḥ sanātanaḥ
manaḥ-ṣaṣṭhānīndriyāni
prakṛti-sthāni karṣati

“The living entities in this conditioned world are My eternal fragmental parts. Due to conditioned life, they are struggling very hard with the six senses, which include the mind.”

In the present verse of the Caitanya-caritāmṛta, the word prakṛti-sparśana refers to the Lord’s glancing over material nature and placing the living entities in contact with dull matter. The glancing is performed by Mahā-Viṣṇu: sa aikṣata lokān nu sṛjā iti. (Aitareya Upaniṣad 1.1.1) In the conditioned stage we impregnate according to the bodily conception — that is, by sexual intercourse — but the Supreme Lord does not need sexual intercourse to impregnate. The impregnation is performed simply by His glance. This is also explained in the Brahma-saṁhitā (5.32):

aṅgāni yasya sakalendriya-vṛttimanti
paśyanti pānti kalayanti ciraṁ jaganti
ānanda-cinmaya-sad-ujjvala-vigrahasya
govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi

Govinda can impregnate simply by glancing. In other words, His eyes can work as His genitals. He does not need genitals to beget a child. Indeed, Kṛṣṇa can beget any one of the living entities with any part of His body.

The word svāṅga-viśeṣābhāsa-rūpe, indicating the form by which the Lord begets living entities in the material world, is explained herein. He is Lord Śiva. In the Brahma-saṁhitā it is stated that Lord Śiva, who is another form of Mahā-Viṣṇu, is like yogurt. Yogurt is nothing but milk, yet it is not milk. Similarly, Lord Śiva is considered the father of this universe, and material nature is considered the mother. The father and mother are known as Lord Śiva and goddess Durgā. Together, Lord Śiva’s genitals and the vagina of goddess Durgā are worshiped as the śiva-liṅga. This is the origin of the material creation. Thus Lord Śiva’s position is between that of the living entity and that of the Supreme Lord. In other words, Lord Śiva is neither the Supreme Personality of Godhead nor a living entity. He is the form through which the Supreme Lord works to beget living entities within this material world. As yogurt is prepared when milk is mixed with a culture, the form of Lord Śiva expands when the Supreme Personality of Godhead is in touch with material nature. The impregnation of material nature by the father, Lord Śiva, is wonderful because at one time innumerable living entities are conceived. Bhāgo jīvaḥ sa vijñeyaḥ sa cānantyāya kalpate (Śvetāśvatara Upaniṣad 5.9). These living entities are very, very small:

keśāgra-śata-bhāgasyaśatāṁśa-sadṛśātmakaḥ
jīvaḥ sūkṣma-svarūpo ’yaṁ
saṅkhyātīto hi cit-kaṇaḥ

“If we divide the tip of a hair into a hundred parts and then take one of these parts and divide it again into a hundred parts, that very fine division is the size of but one of the numberless living entities. They are all cit-kaṇa, particles of spirit, not matter.”

The innumerable brahmāṇḍas, or universes, come from the pores of the Lord’s body, and innumerable living entities also come from the pores of the transcendental body of the Lord. This is the process of material creation. Without the living entities, this material nature has no value. Both emanate from the pores of the transcendental body of Lord Mahā-Viṣṇu. They are different energies. The material nature is explained as follows by Lord Kṛṣṇa in the Bhagavad-gītā (7.4):

bhūmir āpo ’nalo vāyuḥkhaṁ mano buddhir eva ca
ahaṅkāra itīyaṁ me
bhinnā prakṛtir aṣṭadhā

“Earth, water, fire, air, ether, mind, intelligence and false ego — all together these eight constitute My separated material energies.” Thus the material elements also come from the body of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but they are a different type of energy from the living entities. Although the living entities also come from the Lord’s body, they are categorized as a superior energy:

apareyam itas tv anyāṁprakṛtiṁ viddhi me parām
jīva-bhūtāṁ mahā-bāho
yayedaṁ dhāryate jagat

“Besides this inferior nature, O mighty-armed Arjuna, there is another, superior energy of Mine, which comprises the living entities who are exploiting the resources of this material, inferior nature.” (Bg. 7.5) The inferior energy, matter, cannot act without the superior energy. All these things are very clearly explained in the Vedas. The materialistic theory that life develops from matter is incorrect. Life and matter come from the supreme living entity; therefore, being the source of both, that supreme living entity, Kṛṣṇa, is described in the Vedānta-sūtra as janmādy asya yataḥ (1.1), or the original source of everything, sarva-kāraṇa-kāraṇam. This is further explained in the following verse.

Text

daivāt kṣubhita-dharmiṇyāṁ
svasyāṁ yonau paraḥ pumān
ādhatta vīryaṁ sāsūta
mahat-tattvaṁ hiraṇmayam

Synonyms

daivāt — at a time beyond memory; kṣubhita-dharmiṇyām — the material nature, which is subjected to agitation; svasyām — which belongs to the Supreme as one of His energies; yonau — in the womb from which the living entity takes his birth; paraḥ pumān — the Supreme Brahman, the Personality of Godhead; ādhatta — impregnated; vīryam — semen; — that material nature; asūta — produced; mahat-tattvam — the total material energy; hiraṇmayam — the original source for the emanation of varieties of material things.

Translation

“ ‘At a time beyond memory, after agitating the material nature into three qualities, the Supreme Personality of Godhead placed the semen of innumerable living entities within the womb of that material nature. Thus material nature gave birth to the total material energy, known as the hiraṇmaya-mahat-tattva, the original symbolic representation of the cosmic manifestation.’

Purport

This is a quotation from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (3.26.19). Lord Kapila is explaining to His mother the relationship between the Supreme Personality of Godhead and material nature. He is informing her how the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the original cause of the living entities who are conditioned by material nature. Over and above the twenty-eight elements of the material creation is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the cause of all causes. Life comes not from matter but from life itself. As explained in the Vedas: nityo nityānāṁ cetanaś cetanānām (Kaṭha Upaniṣad 2.2.13). The Supreme Lord is the original source of life.

Text

kāla-vṛttyā tu māyāyāṁ
guṇa-mayyām adhokṣajaḥ
puruṣeṇātma-bhūtena
vīryam ādhatta vīryavān

Synonyms

kāla-vṛttyā — in due course of time, as the immediate cause of creation; tu — but; māyāyām — within the material nature; guṇa-mayyām — full of the three material modes of nature (sattva-guṇa, rajo-guṇa and tamo-guṇa); adhokṣajaḥ — the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is beyond material conceptions; puruṣeṇa — by the enjoyer of material nature; ātma-bhūtena — who is an expansion of His personal self; vīryam — semen; ādhatta — placed; vīryavān — the omnipotent.

Translation

“ ‘In due course of time, the Supreme Personality of Godhead [Mahā-Vaikuṇṭhanātha], by the agency of an expansion of His personal self [Mahā-Viṣṇu], placed the seed of the living entities entities within the womb of material nature.’

Purport

This is a quotation from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (3.5.26). This verse tells how the living entities come in contact with material nature. Just as a woman cannot beget children without uniting with a man, material nature cannot beget living entities without being in union with the Supreme Personality of Godhead. There is a history of how the Absolute Lord becomes the father of all living entities. In every system of religion, it is accepted that God is the supreme father of all living entities. According to Christianity, the supreme father, God, provides the living entities with all of life’s necessities. Therefore they pray, “Give us this day our daily bread.” Any religion that does not accept the Supreme Lord as the absolute father is called kaitava-dharma, or a cheating religion. Such religious systems are rejected in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (1.1.2): dharmaḥ projjhita-kaitavo ’tra. Only an atheist does not accept the omnipotent supreme father. If one accepts the omnipotent supreme father, he abides by His orders and becomes a religious person.

Text

tabe mahat-tattva haite trividha ahaṅkāra
yāhā haite devatendriya-bhūtera pracāra

Synonyms

tabe — thereafter; mahat-tattva haite — from the total material energy; tri-vidha — three kinds of; ahaṅkāra — egotism; yāhā haite — from which; devatā — of predominating deities; indriya — of the senses; bhūtera — and of material elements; pracāra — expansion.

Translation

“First the total material energy is manifested, and from this arise the three types of egotism, which are the original sources from which all demigods [controlling deities], senses and material elements expand.

Purport

The three types of egotism (ahaṅkāra) are technically known as vaikārika, taijasa and tāmasa. The mahat-tattva is situated within the heart, or citta, and the predominating Deity of the mahat-tattva is Lord Vāsudeva (Bhāg. 3.26.21). The mahat-tattva is transformed into three divisions: (1) vaikārika, egotism in goodness (sāttvika-ahaṅkāra), from which is manifested the eleventh sense organ, the mind, whose predominating Deity is Aniruddha (Bhāg. 3.26.27-28); (2) taijasa, or egotism in passion (rājasa-ahaṅkāra), from which are manifested the active and knowledge-acquiring senses, along with the intelligence, whose predominating Deity is Lord Pradyumna (Bhāg. 3.26.29-31); and (3) tāmasa, or egotism in ignorance, from which sound vibration (śabda-tanmātra) expands. From sound vibration, the sky (ākāśa) is manifested, and then the senses, beginning with the sense of hearing, are also manifested (Bhāg. 3.26.32). Of these three types of egotism, Lord Saṅkarṣaṇa is the predominating Deity. In the philosophical discourse known as the Sāṅkhya-kārikā, it is stated, sāttvika ekādaśakaḥ pravartate vaikṛtād ahaṅkārātbhūtādes tan-mātraṁ tāmasa-taijasādy-ubhayam.

Text

sarva tattva mili’ sṛjila brahmāṇḍera gaṇa
ananta brahmāṇḍa, tāra nāhika gaṇana

Synonyms

sarva tattva — all different elements; mili’ — combining; sṛjila — created; brahmāṇḍera gaṇa — all the universes; ananta brahmāṇḍa — those universes are unlimited in number; tāra nāhika gaṇana — there is no possibility of counting them.

Translation

“Combining all the different elements, the Supreme Lord created all the universes. Those universes are unlimited in number; there is no possibility of counting them.

Text

iṅho mahat-sraṣṭā puruṣa — ‘mahā-viṣṇu’ nāma
ananta brahmāṇḍa tāṅra loma-kūpe dhāma

Synonyms

iṅho — He; mahat-sraṣṭā — the creator of the mahat-tattva, or total material energy; puruṣa — the person; mahā-viṣṇu nāma — called Lord Mahā-Viṣṇu; ananta — unlimited; brahmāṇḍa — universes; tāṅra — of His body; loma-kūpe — within the hair holes; dhāma — are situated.

Translation

“The first form of Lord Viṣṇu is called Mahā-Viṣṇu. He is the original creator of the total material energy. The innumerable universes emanate from the pores of His body.

Text

gavākṣe uḍiyā yaiche reṇu āse yāya
puruṣa-niśvāsa-saha brahmāṇḍa bāhirāya
punarapi niśvāsa-saha yāya abhyantara
ananta aiśvarya tāṅra, saba — māyā-pāra

Synonyms

gavākṣe — from a hole at the top of a wall; uḍiyā — floating; yaiche — as; reṇu — atomic particles; āse yāya — come and go; puruṣaniśvāsa-saha — with the exhaling of Mahā-Viṣṇu; brahmāṇḍa — the universes; bāhirāya — come outside; punarapi — again; niśvāsa-saha — by His inhalation; yāya — go; abhyantara — within; ananta — unlimited; aiśvarya — opulences; tāṅra — of Him; saba — everything; māyā-pāra — beyond the material conception.

Translation

“These universes are understood to be floating in the air that Mahā-Viṣṇu exhales. They are like atomic particles that float in sunshine and pass through the holes of a screen. All these universes are thus created by the exhalation of Mahā-Viṣṇu, and when Mahā-Viṣṇu inhales, they re-enter His body. The unlimited opulences of Mahā-Viṣṇu are completely beyond material conception.

Text

yasyaika-niśvasita-kālam athāvalambya
jīvanti loma-vila-jā jagad-aṇḍa-nāthāḥ
viṣṇur mahān sa iha yasya kalā-viśeṣo
govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi

Synonyms

yasya — whose; eka — one; niśvasita — of breath; kālam — time; atha — thus; avalambya — taking shelter of; jīvanti — live; loma-vila-jāḥ — grown from the hair holes; jagat-aṇḍa-nāthāḥ — the masters of the universes (the Brahmās); viṣṇuḥ mahān — the Supreme Lord Mahā-Viṣṇu; saḥ — that; iha — here; yasya — whose; kalā-viśeṣaḥ — particular plenary portion or expansion; govindam — Lord Govinda; ādi-puruṣam — the original person; tam — Him; aham — I; bhajāmi — worship.

Translation

“ ‘The Brahmās and other lords of the mundane worlds appear from the pores of Mahā-Viṣṇu and remain alive for the duration of His one exhalation. I adore the primeval Lord, Govinda, of whom Mahā-Viṣṇu is a portion of a plenary portion.’

Purport

This is a quotation from the Brahma-saṁhitā (5.48). For an explanation, refer to Ādi-līlā, chapter five, verse 71.

Text

samasta brahmāṇḍa-gaṇera iṅho antaryāmī
kāraṇābdhiśāyī — saba jagatera svāmī

Synonyms

samasta brahmāṇḍa-gaṇera — of the aggregate of the brahmāṇḍas, or universes; iṅho — that Lord Mahā-Viṣṇu; antaryāmī — the Supersoul; kāraṇa-abdhi-śāyī — Lord Mahā-Viṣṇu, lying on the Causal Ocean; saba jagatera — of all the universes; svāmī — the Supreme Lord.

Translation

“Mahā-Viṣṇu is the Supersoul of all the universes. Lying on the Causal Ocean, He is the master of all material worlds.

Text

eita kahiluṅ prathama puruṣera tattva
dvitīya puruṣera ebe śunaha mahattva

Synonyms

eita — thus; kahiluṅ — I have explained; prathama puruṣera — of the first incarnation of the Personality of Godhead; tattva — the truth; dvitīya puruṣera — of the second incarnation of the Personality of Godhead; ebe — now; śunaha — please hear; mahattva — glories.

Translation

“I have thus explained the truth of the first Personality of Godhead, Mahā-Viṣṇu. I shall now explain the glories of the second Personality of Godhead.

Text

sei puruṣa ananta-koṭi brahmāṇḍa sṛjiyā
ekaika-mūrtye praveśilā bahu mūrti hañā

Synonyms

sei puruṣa — that Personality of Godhead, Mahā-Viṣṇu; ananta-koṭi brahmāṇḍa — millions and trillions of brahmāṇḍas, or universes; sṛjiyā — after creating; eka-eka — in each one of them; mūrtye — in a form; praveśilā — entered; bahu mūrti hañā — becoming many forms.

Translation

“After creating the total number of universes, which are unlimited, Mahā-Viṣṇu expanded Himself into unlimited forms and entered into each of them.

Text

praveśa kariyā dekhe, saba — andhakāra
rahite nāhika sthāna, karilā vicāra

Synonyms

praveśa kariyā — after entering; dekhe — He sees; saba — everywhere; andhakāra — complete darkness; rahite — to remain there; nāhika sthāna — there was no place; karilā vicāra — then He considered.

Translation

“When Mahā-Viṣṇu entered each of the limitless universes, He saw that there was darkness all around and that there was no place to stay. He therefore began to consider the situation.

Text

nijāṅga-sveda-jale brahmāṇḍārdha bharila
sei jale śeṣa-śayyāya śayana karila

Synonyms

nija-aṅga — from His own personal body; sveda-jale — by emitting the water of perspiration; brahmāṇḍa-ardha — half of the universe; bharila — filled; sei jale — on that water; śeṣa-śayyāya — on the bed of Lord Śeṣa; śayana karila — lay down.

Translation

“With the perspiration produced from His own body, the Lord filled half the universe with water. He then lay down on that water, on the bed of Lord Śeṣa.

Text

tāṅra nābhi-padma haite uṭhila eka padma
sei padme ha-ila brahmāra janma-sadma

Synonyms

tāṅra nābhi-padma haite — from His lotus navel; uṭhila — grew; eka — one; padma — lotus flower; sei padme — on that lotus flower; ha-ila — there was; brahmāra — of Lord Brahmā; janma-sadma — the place of generation.

Translation

“A lotus flower then sprouted from the lotus navel of that Garbhodakaśāyī Viṣṇu. That lotus flower became Lord Brahmā’s birthplace.

Text

sei padma-nāle ha-ila caudda bhuvana
teṅho ‘brahmā’ hañā sṛṣṭi karila sṛjana

Synonyms

sei padma-nāle — within the stem of that lotus; ha-ila — was manifested; caudda — fourteen; bhuvana — planetary systems; teṅho — He; brahmā — Lord Brahmā; hañā — having become; sṛṣṭi — the material creation; karila sṛjana — created.

Translation

“In the stem of that lotus flower, the fourteen worlds were generated. Then He became Lord Brahmā and manifested the entire universe.

Text

‘viṣṇu’-rūpa hañā kare jagat pālane
guṇātīta viṣṇu — sparśa nāhi māyā-sane

Synonyms

viṣṇu-rūpa — Lord Kṛṣṇa in His form as Viṣṇu; hañā — becoming; kare — does; jagat pālane — maintenance of the material world; guṇa-atīta — beyond the material qualities, transcendental; viṣṇu — Lord Viṣṇu; sparśa — touching; nāhi — there is not; māyā-sane — with māyā, the material energy.

Translation

“In this way, the Supreme Personality of Godhead in His form of Viṣṇu maintains the entire material world. Since He is always beyond the material qualities, the material nature cannot touch Him.

Purport

The influence of the material energy cannot touch Lord Viṣṇu as she touches Lord Brahmā and Lord Śiva. Therefore it is said that Lord Viṣṇu is transcendental to the material qualities. The incarnations of the material qualities — Lord Śiva and Lord Brahmā — are under the jurisdiction of the external energy. Lord Viṣṇu, however, is different. In the mantras of the Ṛg Veda it is said, oṁ tad viṣṇoḥ paramaṁ padam (Ṛg Veda-saṁhitā 1.22.20). The words paramaṁ padam indicate that He is transcendental to the material qualities. Because Lord Viṣṇu is not within the jurisdiction of the material qualities, He is always superior to the living entities who are controlled by the material energy. This is one of the differences between the Supreme Lord and the living entities. Lord Brahmā is a very powerful living entity, and Lord Śiva is even more powerful. Therefore Lord Śiva is not accepted as a living entity, but at the same time he is not considered to be on the level of Lord Viṣṇu.

Text

‘rudra’-rūpa dhari kare jagat saṁhāra
sṛṣṭi, sthiti, pralaya haya icchāya yāṅhāra

Synonyms

rudra-rūpa dhari — accepting the form of Lord Śiva; kare — performs; jagat saṁhāra — dissolution of the universal creation; sṛṣṭi — creation; sthiti — maintenance; pralaya — and dissolution; haya — take place; icchāya — by the will; yāṅhāra — of whom.

Translation

“The Supreme Lord in His form of Rudra [Lord Śiva] brings about the dissolution of this material creation. In other words, only by His will are there creation, maintenance and dissolution of the whole cosmic manifestation.

Text

brahmā, viṣṇu, śiva — tāṅra guṇa-avatāra
sṛṣṭi-sthiti-pralayera tinera adhikāra

Synonyms

brahmā — Lord Brahmā; viṣṇu — Lord Viṣṇu; śiva — Lord Śiva; tāṅra — of Garbhodakaśāyī Viṣṇu; guṇa-avatāra — incarnations of the material qualities; sṛṣṭi-sthiti-pralayera — of the three functions, namely creation, maintenance and dissolution; tinera adhikāra — there is control by the three deities (Lord Brahmā, Lord Viṣṇu and Lord Śiva).

Translation

“Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Śiva are His three incarnations of the material qualities. Creation, maintenance and destruction respectively are under the charge of these three personalities.

Text

hiraṇyagarbha-antaryāmī — garbhodakaśāyī
‘sahasra-śīrṣādi’ kari’ vede yāṅre gāi

Synonyms

hiraṇyagarbha — named Hiraṇyagarbha; antaryāmī — the Supersoul; garbha-udaka-śāyī — Lord Garbhodakaśāyī Viṣṇu; sahasra-śīrṣā-ādi kari’ — by the Vedic hymns beginning with sahasra-śīrṣā (Ṛg Veda-saṁhitā 10.90.1); vede yāṅre gāi — unto whom the Vedas pray.

Translation

“Garbhodakaśāyī Viṣṇu, known within the universe as Hiraṇyagarbha and the antaryāmī, or Supersoul, is glorified in the Vedic hymns, beginning with the hymn that starts with the word ‘sahasra-śīrṣā.’

Text

ei ta’ dvitīya-puruṣa — brahmāṇḍera īśvara
māyāra ‘āśraya’ haya, tabu māyā-pāra

Synonyms

ei ta’ — in this way; dvitīya-puruṣa — the second Personality of Godhead; brahmāṇḍera īśvara — the master of the universe; māyāra — of the external, material energy; āśraya haya — becomes the shelter; tabu — still; māyā-pāra — is beyond the touch of the material energy.

Translation

“This second Personality of Godhead, known as Garbhodakaśāyī Viṣṇu, is the master of each and every universe and the shelter of the external energy. Nonetheless, He remains beyond the touch of the external energy.

Text

tṛṭīya-puruṣa viṣṇu — ‘guṇa-avatāra’
dui avatāra-bhitara gaṇanā tāṅhāra

Synonyms

tṛtīya-puruṣa — the third Personality; viṣṇu — Lord Viṣṇu; guṇa-avatāra — the incarnation of the material quality of goodness; dui avatāra-bhitara — within the two incarnations; gaṇanā tāṅhāra — He is designated.

Translation

“The third expansion of Viṣṇu is Kṣīrodakaśāyī Viṣṇu, who is the incarnation of the quality of goodness. He is to be counted within both types of incarnations [puruṣa-avatāras and guṇa-avatāras].

Text

virāṭ vyaṣṭi-jīvera teṅho antaryāmī
kṣīrodakaśāyī teṅho — pālana-kartā, svāmī

Synonyms

virāṭ — the universal form; vyaṣṭi-jīvera — of all other living entities; teṅho — He; antaryāmī — the Supersoul; kṣīra-udaka-śāyī — Lord Viṣṇu who lies down on the ocean of milk; teṅho — He; pālana-kartā — the maintainer; svāmī — the master.

Translation

“Kṣīrodakaśāyī Viṣṇu is the universal form of the Lord and is the Supersoul within every living entity. He is known as Kṣīrodakaśāyī because He is the Lord who lies on the ocean of milk. He is the maintainer and master of the universe.

Text

puruṣāvatārera ei kailuṅ nirūpaṇa
līlāvatāra ebe śuna, sanātana

Synonyms

puruṣa-avatārera — of all the puruṣa-avatāras; ei — this; kailuṅ nirūpaṇa — I have described; līlā-avatāra — incarnations for pastimes; ebe — now; śuna — please hear; sanātana — O Sanātana.

Translation

“O Sanātana, I have definitively described the three puruṣa-avatāras of Viṣṇu. Now please hear from Me about the pastime incarnations.

Text

līlāvatāra kṛṣṇera nā yāya gaṇana
pradhāna kariyā kahi dig-daraśana

Synonyms

līlā-avatāra — incarnations for pastimes; kṛṣṇera — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; yāya gaṇana — are not countable; pradhāna kariyā — chiefly; kahi — let Me describe; dik-daraśana — by a sample indication.

Translation

“No one can count the innumerable pastime incarnations of Lord Kṛṣṇa, but I shall describe the principal ones.

Text

matsya, kūrma, raghunātha, nṛsiṁha, vāmana
varāhādi — lekhā yāṅra nā yāya gaṇana

Synonyms

matsya — the fish incarnation; kūrma — the tortoise incarnation; raghunātha — Lord Rāmacandra; nṛsiṁha — the man-lion incarnation; vāmana — the dwarf incarnation; varāha-ādi — the hog incarnation and others; lekhā — describing; yāṅra — of which incarnations; yāya gaṇana — cannot be counted.

Translation

“Some of the pastime incarnations are the fish incarnation, the tortoise incarnation, Lord Rāmacandra, Lord Nṛsiṁha, Lord Vāmana and Lord Varāha. There is no end to them.

Text

matsyāśva-kacchapa-nṛsiṁha-varāha-haṁsa-
rājanya-vipra-vibudheṣu kṛtāvatāraḥ
tvaṁ pāsi nas tri-bhuvanaṁ ca tathādhuneśa
bhāraṁ bhuvo hara yadūttama vandanaṁ te

Synonyms

matsya — in the form of a fish; aśva — in the form of a horse; kacchapa — in the form of a tortoise; nṛsiṁha — in the form of Lord Nṛsiṁhadeva; varāha — in the form of a boar; haṁsa — in the form of a swan; rājanya — in the form of Lord Rāmacandra; vipra — in the form of Lord Paraśurāma; vibudheṣu — and in the form of Vāmanadeva; kṛta-avatāraḥ — who have accepted incarnation; tvam — You; pāsi — please protect; naḥ — us demigods; tri-bhuvanam ca — and the three worlds; tathā — as well; adhunā — now; īśa — O Lord; bhāram — the burden; bhuvaḥ — of the universe; hara — kindly take away; yadu-uttama — O best of the Yadu dynasty; vandanam te — to You we offer our prayers.

Translation

“ ‘O Lord of the universe, best of the Yadu dynasty, we are offering our prayers unto You mainly to diminish the heavy burden of the universe. Indeed, You diminished this burden formerly by incarnating in the form of a fish, a horse [Hayagrīva], a tortoise, a lion [Lord Nṛsiṁha], a boar [Lord Varāha] and a swan. You also incarnated as Lord Rāmacandra, Paraśurāma and Vāmana, the dwarf. You have always protected us demigods and the universe in this way. Now please continue.’

Purport

This is a quotation from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.2.40).

Text

līlāvatārera kailuṅ dig-daraśana
guṇāvatārera ebe śuna vivaraṇa

Synonyms

līlā-avatārera — of the incarnations of pastimes; kailuṅ — I have done; dik-daraśana — indicating the direction only; guṇa-avatārera — of incarnations of the material qualities; ebe — now; śuna vivaraṇa — hear the description.

Translation

“I have given a few examples of pastime incarnations. Now I will describe the guṇa-avatāras, the incarnations of the material qualities. Please listen.

Text

brahmā, viṣṇu, śiva, — tina guṇa avatāra
tri-guṇa aṅgīkari’ kare sṛṣṭy-ādi-vyavahāra

Synonyms

brahmā, viṣṇu, śiva — Lord Brahmā, Lord Viṣṇu and Lord Śiva; tina — three; guṇa avatāra — the incarnations of the material qualities; tri-guṇa — the three qualities of material nature; aṅgīkari’ — accepting; kare — does; sṛṣṭi-ādi-vyavahāra — transactions in reference to the creation, maintenance and dissolution.

Translation

“There are three functions within this material world. Everything here is created, everything is maintained for some time, and everything is finally dissolved. The Lord therefore incarnates Himself as the controllers of the three qualities — sattva-guṇa, rajo-guṇa and tamo-guṇa [goodness, passion and ignorance]. Thus the transactions of the material world take place.

Text

bhakti-miśra-kṛta-puṇye kona jīvottama
rajo-guṇe vibhāvita kari’ tāṅra mana

Synonyms

bhakti-miśra-kṛta-puṇye — because of pious activities mixed with devotional service; kona — someone; jīva-uttama — the best of the living entities; rajaḥ-guṇe — by the mode of passion; vibhāvita — influenced; kari’ — making; tāṅra — his; mana — mind.

Translation

“Because of his past pious activities mixed with devotional service, the first-class living entity is influenced by the mode of passion within his mind.

Text

garbhodakaśāyi-dvārā śakti sañcāri’
vyaṣṭi sṛṣṭi kare kṛṣṇa brahmā-rūpa dhari’

Synonyms

garbha-udaka-śāyi-dvārā — by Lord Garbhodakaśāyī Viṣṇu; śakti sañcāri’ — giving him special powers; vyaṣṭi — total; sṛṣṭi — creation; kare — does; kṛṣṇa — Lord Kṛṣṇa; brahmā-rūpa dhari’ — accepting the form of Lord Brahmā.

Translation

“Such a devotee is empowered by Garbhodakaśāyī Viṣṇu. In this way, an incarnation of Kṛṣṇa in the form of Brahmā engineers the total creation of the universe.

Purport

The Garbhodakaśāyī Viṣṇu puruṣa-avatāra expansion of Lord Viṣṇu accepts the material modes — sattva-guṇa, rajo-guṇa and tamo-guṇa — and thus incarnates as Lord Viṣṇu, Brahmā and Śiva. These are incarnations of the material qualities. Among the many superior living entities qualified with pious activities and devotional service, one, called Lord Brahmā, is infused with the quality of passion by the supreme will of Garbhodakaśāyī Viṣṇu. Thus Lord Brahmā becomes the incarnation of the creative energy of the Lord.

Text

bhāsvān yathāśma-sakaleṣu nijeṣu tejaḥ
svīyaṁ kiyat prakaṭayaty api tadvad atra
brahmā ya eṣa jagad-aṇḍa-vidhāna-kartā
govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi

Synonyms

bhāsvān — the illuminating sun; yathā — as; aśma-sakaleṣu — in various types of precious stones; nijeṣu — his own; tejaḥ — brilliance; svīyam — his own; kiyat — to some extent; prakaṭayati — manifests; api — also; tadvat — similarly; atra — here; brahmā — Lord Brahmā; yaḥ — who is; eṣaḥ — the Lord; jagat-aṇḍa-vidhāna-kartā — becomes the chief of the universe; govindam ādi-puruṣam — Lord Govinda, the original Supreme Personality of Godhead; tam — Him; aham — I; bhajāmi — worship.

Translation

“ ‘The sun manifests his brilliance in a gem, although it is stone. Similarly, the original Personality of Godhead, Govinda, manifests His special power in a pious living entity. Thus the living entity becomes Brahmā and manages the affairs of the universe. Let me worship Govinda, the original Personality of Godhead.’

Purport

This is a quotation from the Brahma-saṁhitā (5.49).

Text

kona kalpe yadi yogya jīva nāhi pāya
āpane īśvara tabe aṁśe ‘brahmā’ haya

Synonyms

kona kalpe — in some lifetime of Brahmā; yadi — if; yogya — suitable; jīva — living entity; nāhi — not; pāya — is available; āpane — personally; īśvara — the Supreme Lord; tabe — then; aṁśe — by His plenary expansion; brahmā haya — becomes Lord Brahmā.

Translation

“If in a kalpa a suitable living entity is not available to take charge of Brahmā’s post, the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself personally expands and becomes Lord Brahmā.

Purport

One day of Brahmā consists of the four yugas multiplied a thousand times — or, according to solar calculations, 4,320,000,000 years — and such also is the duration of his night. One year of Brahmā’s life consists of 360 such days and nights, and Brahmā lives for one hundred such years. Such is the life of a Brahmā.

Text

yasyāṅghri-paṅkaja-rajo ’khila-loka-pālair
mauly-uttamair dhṛtam upāsita-tīrtha-tīrtham
brahmā bhavo ’ham api yasya kalāḥ kalāyāḥ
śrīś codvahema ciram asya nṛpāsanaṁ kva

Synonyms

yasya — whose; aṅghri-paṅkaja — lotuslike feet; rajaḥ — the dust; akhila-loka — of the universal planetary systems; pālaiḥ — by the masters; mauli-uttamaiḥ — with valuable turbans on their heads; dhṛtam — accepted; upāsita — worshiped; tīrtha-tīrtham — the sanctifier of the holy places; brahmā — Lord Brahmā; bhavaḥ — Lord Śiva; aham api — even I; yasya — of whom; kalāḥ — portions; kalāyāḥ — of a plenary portion; śrīḥ — the goddess of fortune; ca — and; udvahema — we carry; ciram — eternally; asya — of Him; nṛpa-āsanam — the throne of a king; kva — where.

Translation

“ ‘What is the value of a throne to Lord Kṛṣṇa? The masters of the various planetary systems accept the dust of His lotus feet on their crowned heads. That dust makes the holy places sacred, and even Lord Brahmā, Lord Śiva, Lakṣmī and I Myself, who are all portions of His plenary portion, eternally carry that dust on our heads.’

Purport

This is a quotation from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.68.37). When the Kauravas flattered Baladeva so that He would become their ally and spoke ill of Śrī Kṛṣṇa, Lord Baladeva became angry and spoke this verse.

Text

nijāṁśa-kalāya kṛṣṇa tamo-guṇa aṅgīkari’
saṁhārārthe māyā-saṅge rudra-rūpa dhari

Synonyms

nija-aṁśa — of His personal plenary expansion; kalāya — by an expansion known as kalā; kṛṣṇa — Lord Kṛṣṇa; tamaḥ-guṇa — the material mode of darkness; aṅgīkari’ — accepting; saṁhāra-arthe — for the purpose of dissolution; māyā-saṅge — in association with the external energy; rudra-rūpa — the form of Rudra; dhari — assumes.

Translation

“Lord Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, expands a portion of His plenary portion and, accepting the association of the material mode of ignorance, assumes the form of Rudra to dissolve the cosmic manifestation.

Purport

This is a description of the Rudra form, which is another expansion of Kṛṣṇa. Only viṣṇu-mūrtis are expansions of Kṛṣṇa’s personal and plenary portions. Mahā-Viṣṇu, who lies on the Causal Ocean, is an expansion of Saṅkarṣaṇa. When Garbhodakaśāyī Viṣṇu accepts the material modes of nature for the purpose of dissolving the cosmic manifestation, His form is called Rudra. As already explained, Lord Viṣṇu is the controller of māyā. How, then, can He associate with māyā? The conclusion is that the incarnation of Lord Śiva or Lord Brahmā indicates the absence of the supreme power of Viṣṇu. When the supreme power is not there, it is possible to associate with māyā, the external energy. Lord Brahmā and Lord Śiva are to be considered creations of māyā.

Text

māyā-saṅga-vikārī rudra — bhinnābhinna rūpa
jīva-tattva nahe, nahe kṛṣṇera ‘svarūpa’

Synonyms

māyā-saṅga — by association with māyā; vikārī — transformed; rudra — the form of Rudra; bhinna-abhinna rūpa — having different types of forms; jīva-tattva nahe — still he is not called jīva-tattva; nahe — nor; kṛṣṇera — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; svarūpa — personal form.

Translation

“Rudra, Lord Śiva, has various forms, which are transformations brought about by association with māyā. Although Rudra is not on a level with the jīva-tattvas, he still cannot be considered a personal expansion of Lord Kṛṣṇa.

Purport

Rudra is simultaneously one with and different from the viṣṇu-tattva. Due to his association with māyā, he is different from the viṣṇu-tattva, but at the same time he is an expansion of Kṛṣṇa’s personal form. This situation is called bhedābheda-tattva or acintya-bhedābheda-tattva, simultaneously one and different.

Text

dugdha yena amla-yoge dadhi-rūpa dhare
dugdhāntara vastu nahe, dugdha haite nāre

Synonyms

dugdha — milk; yena — as; amla-yoge — in association with a sour substance; dadhi-rūpa — the form of yogurt; dhare — takes; dugdha-antara — something other than milk; vastu — substance; nahe — is not; dugdha — milk; haite — to be; nāre — is not able.

Translation

“Milk is transformed into yogurt when it associates with a yogurt culture. Thus yogurt is nothing but milk, but still it is not milk.

Purport

Of the three deities supervising the creation, maintenance and dissolution of the universe, Lord Viṣṇu is never separate from the original Viṣṇu. However, Lord Śiva and Brahmā, due to their association with māyā, are different from Viṣṇu. Viṣṇu cannot be transformed into any form of material energy. Whenever there is association with māyā, the personality involved must be different from Lord Viṣṇu. Therefore Lord Śiva and Lord Brahmā are called guṇa-avatāras, for they associate with the material qualities. The conclusion is that Rudra is not exactly Lord Viṣṇu but rather a transformation of Viṣṇu. Therefore, he does not come within the category of the viṣṇu-tattvas. Thus he is inconceivably one with Viṣṇu and different from Him. The example given in this verse is very clear. Milk is compared to Viṣṇu. As soon as milk touches a sour substance, it becomes yogurt, or Lord Śiva. Although yogurt is constitutionally milk, it cannot be used in place of milk.

Text

kṣīraṁ yathā dadhi vikāra-viśeṣa-yogāt
sañjāyate na tu tataḥ pṛthag asti hetoḥ
yaḥ śambhutām api tathā samupaiti kāryād
govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi

Synonyms

kṣīram — milk; yathā — as; dadhi — yogurt; vikāra-viśeṣa — with a special transforming agent; yogāt — by mixing; sañjāyate — is transformed into; na — not; tu — but; tataḥ — from the milk; pṛthak — separated; asti — is; hetoḥ — which is the cause; yaḥ — who; śambhutām — the nature of Lord Śiva; api — even though; tathā — as; samupaiti — accepts; kāryāt — for the matter of some particular business; govindam — unto Govinda, the Supreme Personality of Godhead; ādi-puruṣam — the original person; tam — unto Him; aham — I; bhajāmi — offer my respectful obeisances.

Translation

“ ‘Milk changes into yogurt when mixed with a yogurt culture, but actually it is constitutionally nothing but milk. Similarly, Govinda, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, assumes the form of Lord Śiva [Śambhu] for the special purpose of material transactions. I offer my obeisances at His lotus feet.’

Purport

This is a quotation from the Brahma-saṁhitā (5.45).

Text

‘śiva’ — māyā-śakti-saṅgī, tamo-guṇāveśa
māyātīta, guṇātīta ‘viṣṇu’ — parameśa

Synonyms

śiva — Lord Śiva; māyā-śakti-saṅgī — an associate of the external energy; tamaḥ-guṇa-āveśa — absorbed by the quality of ignorance; māyā-atīta — transcendental to the external energy; guṇa-atīta — transcendental to the qualities of matter; viṣṇu — Viṣṇu; parama-īśa — the Supreme Lord.

Translation

“Lord Śiva is an associate of the external energy; therefore he is absorbed in the material quality of darkness. Lord Viṣṇu is transcendental to māyā and the qualities of māyā. Therefore He is the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

Purport

Viṣṇu is beyond the range of the material manifestation, and He is not within the control of the material energy. He is the supreme independent Personality of Godhead. This is admitted even by Śaṅkarācārya: nārāyaṇaḥ paro ’vyaktāt (Gītā-bhāṣya). In his constitutional form, Śiva is a mahā-bhāgavata, a supreme devotee of the Lord, but because he accepts māyā’s association — especially the quality of ignorance — he is not free from māyā’s influence. Such an intimate association is completely absent in the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Viṣṇu. Lord Śiva accepts māyā, but in the presence of Lord Viṣṇu, māyā does not exist. Consequently Lord Śiva has to be considered a product of māyā. When Lord Śiva is free from māyā’s influence, he is in the position of a mahā-bhāgavata, a supreme devotee of Lord Viṣṇu. Vaiṣṇavānāṁ yathā śambhuḥ.

Text

śivaḥ śakti-yuktaḥ śaśvat
tri-liṅgo guṇa-saṁvṛtaḥ
vaikārikas taijasaś ca
tāmasaś cety ahaṁ tridhā

Synonyms

śivaḥ — Lord Śiva; śakti-yuktaḥ — associated with material nature; śaśvat — eternally; tri-liṅgaḥ — in three features; guṇa-saṁvṛtaḥ — covered by the modes of nature; vaikārikaḥ — one is called vaikārika; taijasaḥ ca — another is called taijasa; tāmasaḥ ca — as well as tāmasa; iti — thus; aham — egotism; tri-dhā — three kinds.

Translation

“ ‘The truth about Lord Śiva is that he is always covered with three material coverings — vaikārika, taijasa and tāmasa. Because of these three modes of material nature, he always associates with the external energy and egotism itself.’

Purport

This is a quotation from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.88.3).

Text

harir hi nirguṇaḥ sākṣāt
puruṣaḥ prakṛteḥ paraḥ
sa sarva-dṛg upadraṣṭā
taṁ bhajan nirguṇo bhavet

Synonyms

hariḥ — the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Viṣṇu; hi — certainly; nirguṇaḥ — transcendental to all material qualities; sākṣāt — directly; puruṣaḥ — the supreme enjoyer; prakṛteḥ — material nature; paraḥ — beyond; saḥ — He; sarva-dṛk — the seer of everything; upadraṣṭā — the overseer of everything; tam — Him; bhajan — by worshiping; nirguṇaḥ — transcendental to material qualities; bhavet — one becomes.

Translation

“ ‘Śrī Hari, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is situated beyond the range of material nature; therefore He is the supreme transcendental person. He can see everything inside and outside; therefore He is the supreme overseer of all living entities. If someone takes shelter at His lotus feet and worships Him, he also attains a transcendental position.’

Purport

This is also a quotation from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.88.5).

Text

pālanārtha svāṁśa viṣṇu-rūpe avatāra
sattva-guṇa draṣṭā, tāte guṇa-māyā-pāra

Synonyms

pālana-artha — for maintenance; svāṁśa — personal plenary expansion; viṣṇu-rūpe — in the form of Lord Viṣṇu; avatāra — incarnation; sattva-guṇa — of the mode of goodness; draṣṭā — director; tāte — therefore; guṇa-māyā-pāra — transcendental to the material modes of nature.

Translation

“For the maintenance of the universe, Lord Kṛṣṇa descends as His personal plenary expansion in the form of Viṣṇu. He is the director of the mode of goodness; therefore He is transcendental to the material energy.

Text

svarūpa — aiśvarya-pūrṇa, kṛṣṇa-sama prāya
kṛṣṇa aṁśī, teṅho aṁśa, vede hena gāya

Synonyms

svarūpa — personal expansion; aiśvarya-pūrṇa — full of all opulences; kṛṣṇa-sama — equal to Kṛṣṇa; prāya — almost; kṛṣṇa aṁśī — Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme Personality of Godhead; teṅho — Lord Viṣṇu; aṁśa — personal expansion; vede — the Vedas; hena — thus; gāya — sing.

Translation

“Lord Viṣṇu is in the category of svāṁśa because He has opulences almost equal to Kṛṣṇa’s. Kṛṣṇa is the original person, and Lord Viṣṇu is His personal expansion. This is the verdict of all Vedic literatures.

Purport

Although an incarnation of the material energy, Lord Brahmā is nonetheless the director of the material mode of passion. Similarly, Lord Śiva, although simultaneously one with and different from Lord Kṛṣṇa, is still the incarnation of the mode of darkness. However, Lord Viṣṇu is Kṛṣṇa’s personal expansion; therefore He is the director of the mode of goodness and is always transcendentally situated, beyond the jurisdiction of the modes of material nature. Lord Viṣṇu is the original personal expansion of Kṛṣṇa, and Kṛṣṇa is the original source of all incarnations. As far as power is concerned, Lord Viṣṇu is as powerful as Lord Kṛṣṇa because He possesses all the opulences.

Text

dīpārcir eva hi daśāntaram abhyupetya
dīpāyate vivṛta-hetu-samāna-dharmā
yas tādṛg eva hi ca viṣṇutayā vibhāti
govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi

Synonyms

dīpa-arciḥ — the flame of a lamp; eva — as; hi — certainly; daśā-antaram — another lamp; abhyupetya — expanding; dīpāyate — illuminates; vivṛta-hetu — with its expanded cause; samāna-dharmā — equally powerful; yaḥ — who; tādṛk — similarly; eva — certainly; hi — certainly; ca — also; viṣṇutayā — by His expansion as Lord Viṣṇu; vibhāti — illuminates; govindam — to Lord Kṛṣṇa; ādi-puruṣam — the supreme original person; tam — to Him; aham — I; bhajāmi — offer my worshipful respect.

Translation

“ ‘When the flame of one candle is expanded to another candle and placed in a different position, it burns separately, and its illumination is as powerful as the original candle’s. Similarly, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Govinda, expands Himself in different forms as Viṣṇu, who is equally luminous, powerful and opulent. Let me worship that Supreme Personality of Godhead, Govinda.’

Purport

This is a quotation from the Brahma-saṁhitā (5.46).

Text

brahmā, śiva — ājñā-kārī bhakta-avatāra
pālanārthe viṣṇu — kṛṣṇera svarūpa-ākāra

Synonyms

brahmā — Lord Brahmā; śiva — Lord Śiva; ājñā-kārī — order-carriers; bhakta-avatāra — incarnations of devotees; pālana-arthe — for maintenance; viṣṇu — Lord Viṣṇu; kṛṣṇera — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; svarūpa-ākāra — in the form of a personal feature.

Translation

“The conclusion is that Lord Brahmā and Lord Śiva are simply devotee incarnations who carry out orders. However, Lord Viṣṇu, the maintainer, is the personal feature of Lord Kṛṣṇa.

Text

sṛjāmi tan-niyukto ’haṁ
haro harati tad-vaśaḥ
viśvaṁ puruṣa-rūpeṇa
paripāti tri-śakti-dhṛk

Synonyms

sṛjāmi — create; tat-niyuktaḥ — engaged by Him; aham — I; haraḥ — Lord Śiva; harati — annihilates; tat-vaśaḥ — under His control; viśvam — the whole universe; puruṣa-rūpeṇa — in the form of Lord Viṣṇu; paripāti — maintains; tri-śakti-dhṛk — the controller of the three modes of material nature.

Translation

“[Lord Brahmā said:] ‘I am engaged by the Supreme Personality of Godhead to create. Following His orders, Lord Śiva dissolves everything. The Supreme Personality of Godhead in His form of Kṣīrodakaśāyī Viṣṇu maintains all the affairs of material nature. Thus the supreme controller of the three modes of material nature is Lord Viṣṇu.’

Purport

This is a quotation from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (2.6.32). Lord Brahmā gave this information to Devarṣi Nārada when he was receiving instructions from Lord Brahmā to understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Paramātmā. After describing the universal form of the Lord, Lord Brahmā explained that his position and Lord Śiva’s position are controlled by Lord Viṣṇu.

Text

manvantarāvatāra ebe śuna, sanātana
asaṅkhya gaṇana tāṅra, śunaha kāraṇa

Synonyms

manu-antara-avatāra — the incarnations who appear during the reign of each Manu; ebe — now; śuna — hear; sanātana — O Sanātana Gosvāmī; asaṅkhya — unlimited; gaṇana — counting; tāṅra — of them; śunaha — just hear; kāraṇa — the cause.

Translation

“O Sanātana, now just hear about the incarnations who appear during the reign of each Manu [manvantara-avatāras]. They are unlimited, and no one can count them. Just hear of their source.

Text

brahmāra eka-dine haya caudda manvantara
caudda avatāra tāhāṅ karena īśvara

Synonyms

brahmāra eka-dine — in one day of Brahmā; haya — there are; caudda — fourteen; manu-antara — changes of Manu; caudda — fourteen; avatāra — incarnations; tāhāṅ — in that time; karena — manifests; īśvara — the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

Translation

“In one day of Brahmā, there are fourteen changes of the Manus, and during the reign of each of those fourteen Manus, an incarnation is manifested by the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

Purport

From this verse it can be calculated that in one month (30 days) of Brahmā’s life there are 420 manvantara-avatāras and that in one year (360 days) of his life there are 5,040 manvantara incarnations. Thus for the one hundred years of Brahmā’s life, there is a total of 504,000 manvantara-avatāras. In addition, the Manus themselves are considered partial incarnations of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

Text

caudda eka dine, māse cāri-śata biśa
brahmāra vatsare pañca-sahasra calliśa

Synonyms

caudda — 14; eka dine — in one day; māse — in one month; cāri-śata biśa — 420; brahmāra vatsare — in one year of Brahmā; pañca-sahasra calliśa — 5,040 avatāras.

Translation

“There are 14 manvantara-avatāras in one day of Brahmā, 420 in one month, and 5,040 in one year.

Text

śateka vatsara haya ‘jīvana’ brahmāra
pañca-lakṣa cāri-sahasra manvantarāvatāra

Synonyms

śateka vatsara haya — there are one hundred years; jīvana — the duration of life; brahmāra — of Brahmā; pañca-lakṣa — 500,000; cāri-sahasra — 4,000; manu-antara-avatāra — incarnations who appear during the reign of each Manu.

Translation

“During the hundred years of Brahmā’s life, there are 504,000 manvantara-avatāras.

Text

ananta brahmāṇḍe aiche karaha gaṇana
mahā-viṣṇu eka-śvāse brahmāra jīvana

Synonyms

ananta brahmāṇḍe — in innumerable universes; aiche — in that way; karaha gaṇana — just try to count; mahā-viṣṇu — Lord Mahā-Viṣṇu; eka-śvāse — by one exhalation; brahmāra jīvana — the duration of life of one Brahmā.

Translation

“The number of manvantara-avatāras for only one universe has been given. One can only imagine how many manvantara-avatāras exist in the innumerable universes. And all these universes and Brahmās exist only during one exhalation of Mahā-Viṣṇu.

Text

mahā-viṣṇura niśvāsera nāhika paryanta
eka manvantarāvatārera dekha lekhāra anta

Synonyms

mahā-viṣṇura — of Lord Mahā-Viṣṇu; niśvāsera — of the exhalations; nāhika paryanta — there is no limit; eka manvantara-avatārera — of only one feature of the Lord, namely the manvantara-avatāras; dekha — just see; lekhāra anta — it is beyond the power of writing.

Translation

“There is no limit to the exhalations of Mahā-Viṣṇu. Just see how impossible it is to speak or write of only the manvantara-avatāras!

Text

svāyaṁbhuve ‘yajña’, svārociṣe ‘vibhu’ nāma
auttame ‘satyasena’, tāmase ‘hari’ abhidhāna

Synonyms

svāyaṁbhuve — in the Svāyambhuva-manvantara; yajña — the avatāra named Yajña; svārociṣe — in the Svārociṣa-manvantara; vibhu — the avatāra Vibhu; nāma — named; auttame — in the Auttama-manvantara; satyasena — the avatāra named Satyasena; tāmase — in the Tāmasa-manvantara; hari — Hari; abhidhāna — named.

Translation

“In the Svāyambhuva-manvantara, the avatāra is named Yajña. In the Svārociṣa-manvantara, he is named Vibhu. In the Auttama-manvantara, He is named Satyasena, and in the Tāmasa-manvantara, He is named Hari.

Text

raivate ‘vaikuṇṭha’, cākṣuṣe ‘ajita’, vaivasvate ‘vāmana’
sāvarṇye ‘sārvabhauma’, dakṣa-sāvarṇye ‘ṛṣabha’ gaṇana

Synonyms

raivate — in the Raivata-manvantara; vaikuṇṭha — the avatāra named Vaikuṇṭha; cākṣuṣe — in the Cākṣuṣa-manvantara; ajita — the avatāra named Ajita; vaivasvate — in the Vaivasvata-manvantara; vāmana — the avatāra named Vāmana; sāvarṇye — in the Sāvarṇya-manvantara; sārvabhauma — the avatāra named Sārvabhauma; dakṣa-sāvarṇye — in the Dakṣa-sāvarṇya-manvantara; ṛṣabha — the avatāra named Ṛṣabha; gaṇana — named.

Translation

“In the Raivata-manvantara, the avatāra is named Vaikuṇṭha, and in the Cākṣuṣa-manvantara, He is named Ajita. In the Vaivasvata-manvantara, He is named Vāmana, and in the Sāvarṇya-manvantara, He is named Sārvabhauma. In the Dakṣa-sāvarṇya-manvantara, he is named Ṛṣabha.

Text

brahma-sāvarṇye ‘viṣvaksena’, ‘dharmasetu’ dharma-sāvarṇye
rudra-sāvarṇye ‘sudhāmā’, ‘yogeśvara’ deva-sāvarṇye

Synonyms

brahma-sāvarṇye — in the Brahma-sāvarṇya-manvantara; viṣvaksena — the avatāra named Viṣvaksena; dharmasetu — the avatāra named Dharmasetu; dharma-sāvarṇye — in the Dharma-sāvarṇya-manvantara; rudra-sāvarṇye — in the Rudra-sāvarṇya-manvantara; sudhāmā — the avatāra named Sudhāmā; yogeśvara — the avatāra named Yogeśvara; deva-sāvarṇye — in the Deva-sāvarṇya-manvantara.

Translation

“In the Brahma-sāvarṇya-manvantara, the avatāra is named Viṣvaksena, and in the Dharma-sāvarṇya, he is named Dharmasetu. In the Rudra-sāvarṇya he is named Sudhāmā, and in the Deva-sāvarṇya, he is named Yogeśvara.

Text

indra-sāvarṇye ‘bṛhadbhānu’ abhidhāna
ei caudda manvantare caudda ‘avatāra’ nāma

Synonyms

indra-sāvarṇye — in the Indra-sāvarṇya-manvantara; bṛhadbhānu — the avatāra named Bṛhadbhānu; abhidhāna — named; ei caudda manvantare — in the fourteen manvantaras; caudda — fourteen; avatāra — of the incarnations; nāma — different names.

Translation

“In the Indra-sāvarṇya-manvantara, the avatāra is named Bṛhadbhānu. These are the names of the fourteen avatāras in the fourteen manvantaras.

Purport

Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura, in his Anubhāṣya, gives a list of Manus and their fathers’ names: (1) Svāyambhuva Manu, the son of Lord Brahmā; (2) Svārociṣa, the son of Svarocis, or Agni, the predominating deity of fire; (3) Uttama, the son of King Priyavrata; (4) Tāmasa, the brother of Uttama; (5) Raivata, the twin brother of Tāmasa; (6) Cākṣuṣa, the son of the demigod Cakṣus; (7) Vaivasvata, the son of Vivasvān, the sun-god (whose name is mentioned in the Bhagavad-gītā [4.1]); (8) Sāvarṇi, a son born to the sun-god and his wife Chāyā; (9) Dakṣa-sāvarṇi, the son of the demigod Varuṇa; (10) Brahma-sāvarṇi, the son of Upaśloka; (11-14) Rudra-sāvarṇi, Dharma-sāvarṇi, Deva-sāvarṇi and Indra-sāvarṇi, the sons of Rudra, Ruci, Satyasahā and Bhūti respectively.

Text

yugāvatāra ebe śuna, sanātana
satya-tretā-dvāpara-kali-yugera gaṇana

Synonyms

yuga-avatāra — incarnation of millenniums; ebe — now; śuna — hear; sanātana — O Sanātana Gosvāmī; satya-tretā-dvāpara-kali-yugera — of Satya-yuga, Tretā-yuga, Dvāpara-yuga and Kali-yuga; gaṇana — the chronological order.

Translation

“O Sanātana, now hear from Me about the yuga-avatāras, the incarnations for the millenniums. First of all, there are four yugas — Satya-yuga, Tretā-yuga, Dvāpara-yuga and Kali-yuga.

Text

śukla-rakta-kṛṣṇa-pīta — krame cāri varṇa
cāri varṇa dhari’ kṛṣṇa karena yuga-dharma

Synonyms

śukla — white; rakta — red; kṛṣṇa — black; pīta — yellow; krame — one after another; cāri varṇa — four colors; cāri varṇa dhari’ — accepting these four colors; kṛṣṇa — Lord Kṛṣṇa; karena yuga-dharma — manifests His pastimes in different millenniums.

Translation

“In the four yugas — Satya, Tretā, Dvāpara and Kali — the Lord incarnates in four colors: white, red, black and yellow respectively. These are the colors of the incarnations in different millenniums.

Text

āsan varṇās trayo hy asya
gṛhṇato ’nu-yugaṁ tanūḥ
śuklo raktas tathā pīta
idānīṁ kṛṣṇatāṁ gataḥ

Synonyms

āsan — there were; varṇāḥ — colors; trayaḥ — three; hi — certainly; asya — of your son; gṛhṇataḥ — accepting; anu-yugam — according to the millennium; tanūḥ — body; śuklaḥ — white; raktaḥ — red; tathā — as well as; pītaḥ — yellow; idānīm — just now; kṛṣṇatām gataḥ — He has assumed a blackish hue.

Translation

“ ‘This child formerly had three colors according to the prescribed color for different millenniums. Formerly He was white, red and yellow, and now He has assumed a blackish color.’

Purport

This verse from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.8.13) was spoken by Garga Muni when performing the name-giving ceremony for Kṛṣṇa at the house of Nanda Mahārāja. The following two verses are also from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (11.5.21, 24).

Text

kṛte śuklaś catur-bāhur
jaṭilo valkalāmbaraḥ
kṛṣṇājinopavītākṣān
bibhrad daṇḍa-kamaṇḍalū

Synonyms

kṛte — in Satya-yuga; śuklaḥ — having a white color and bearing the name Śukla; catuḥ-bāhuḥ — having four arms; jaṭilaḥ — with a bunch of hair; valkala-ambaraḥ — wearing a garment made of tree bark; kṛṣṇa-ajina — black-colored antelope skin; upavīta — sacred thread; akṣān — a garland of beads for chanting; bibhrat — carried; daṇḍa-kamaṇḍalū — a rod and waterpot.

Translation

“ ‘In Satya-yuga the Lord appeared in a body colored white, with four arms and matted hair. He wore tree bark and bore a black antelope skin. He wore a sacred thread and a garland of rudrākṣa beads. He carried a rod and a waterpot, and He was a brahmacārī.’

Text

tretāyāṁ rakta-varṇo ’sau
catur-bāhus tri-mekhalaḥ
hiraṇya-keśas trayy-ātmā
sruk-sruvādy-upalakṣaṇaḥ

Synonyms

tretāyām — in Tretā-yuga; rakta-varṇaḥ — of a reddish color; asau — He; catuḥ-bāhuḥ — with four arms; tri-mekhalaḥ — having three circles on the abdomen; hiraṇya-keśaḥ — hair colored like gold; trayī-ātmā — whose form manifests the Vedas; sruk-sruva-ādi-upalakṣaṇaḥ — decorated with the sacrificial spoon, ladle and so on.

Translation

“ ‘In Tretā-yuga, the Lord appeared in a body that had a reddish hue and four arms. There were three distinctive lines on His abdomen, and His hair was golden. His form manifested the Vedic knowledge, and He bore the symbols of a sacrificial spoon, ladle and so on.’

Text

satya-yuge dharma-dhyāna karāya ‘śukla’-mūrti dhari’
kardamake vara dilā yeṅho kṛpā kari’

Synonyms

satya-yuge — in the millennium of Satya-yuga; dharma-dhyāna — religious principles and meditation; karāya — induces; śukla — whitish; mūrti — form; dhari’ — accepting; kardamake — to Kardama Muni; vara dilā — gave benedictions; yeṅho — who; kṛpā kari’ — out of causeless mercy.

Translation

“As the white incarnation, the Lord taught religion and meditation. He offered benedictions to Kardama Muni, and in this way He showed His causeless mercy.

Purport

Kardama Muni was one of the prajāpatis. He married Devahūti, the daughter of Manu, and their son was Kapiladeva. The Supreme Lord was very pleased with Kardama Muni’s austerities, and He appeared before Kardama Muni in a whitish body. This happened in the Satya-yuga millennium, when people were accustomed to practicing meditation.

Text

kṛṣṇa-‘dhyāna’ kare loka jñāna-adhikārī
tretāra dharma ‘yajña’ karāya ‘rakta’-varṇa dhari’

Synonyms

kṛṣṇa-dhyāna — meditation upon Kṛṣṇa; kare — perform; loka — the people; jñāna-adhikārī — who are advanced in spiritual knowledge; tretāra — of Tretā-yuga; dharma — the occupational duty; yajña — performance of sacrifices; karāya — induces; rakta-varṇa dhari’ — assuming a reddish color.

Translation

“In Satya-yuga the people were generally advanced in spiritual knowledge and could meditate upon Kṛṣṇa very easily. The people’s occupational duty in Tretā-yuga was to perform great sacrifices. This was induced by the Personality of Godhead in His reddish incarnation.

Text

‘kṛṣṇa-padārcana’ haya dvāparera dharma
‘kṛṣṇa’-varṇe karāya loke kṛṣṇārcana-karma

Synonyms

kṛṣṇa-pada-arcana — worshiping the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa; haya — is; dvāparera — of Dvāpara millennium; dharma — the occupational duty; kṛṣṇa-varṇe — in a blackish color; karāya — induces; loke — to the people; kṛṣṇa-arcana-karma — the activities of worshiping Lord Kṛṣṇa.

Translation

“In Dvāpara-yuga the people’s occupational duty was to worship the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa. Therefore Lord Kṛṣṇa, appearing in a blackish body, personally induced people to worship Him.

Text

dvāpare bhagavān śyāmaḥ
pīta-vāsā nijāyudhaḥ
śrī-vatsādibhir aṅkaiś ca
lakṣaṇair upalakṣitaḥ

Synonyms

dvāpare — in Dvāpara-yuga; bhagavān — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; śyāmaḥ — blackish; pīta-vāsāḥ — having yellow clothes; nija — own; āyudhaḥ — having weapons; śrī-vatsa-ādibhiḥ — such as Śrīvatsa; aṅkaiḥ — by bodily markings; ca — and; lakṣaṇaiḥ — by external characteristics such as the Kaustubha jewel; upalakṣitaḥ — characterized.

Translation

“ ‘In Dvāpara-yuga the Personality of Godhead appears in a blackish hue. He is dressed in yellow, He holds His own weapons, and He is decorated with the Kaustubha jewel and the mark of Śrīvatsa. That is how His symptoms are described.’

Purport

This is a quotation from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (11.5.27). The śyāma color is not exactly blackish. Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura compares it to the color of the atasī flower. It is not that Lord Kṛṣṇa Himself appears in a blackish color in all the Dvāpara-yugas. In other Dvāpara-yugas, previous to Lord Kṛṣṇa’s appearance, the Supreme Lord appeared in a greenish body by His own personal expansion. This is mentioned in the Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Hari-vaṁśa and Mahābhārata.

Text

namas te vāsudevāya
namaḥ saṅkarṣaṇāya ca
pradyumnāyāniruddhāya
tubhyaṁ bhagavate namaḥ

Synonyms

namaḥ — let me offer my respectful obeisances; te — unto You; vāsudevāya — Lord Vāsudeva; namaḥ — respectful obeisances; saṅkarṣaṇāya ca — also to Lord Saṅkarṣaṇa; pradyumnāya — to Lord Pradyumna; aniruddhāya — unto Aniruddha; tubhyam — unto You; bhagavate — unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead; namaḥ — my respectful obeisances.

Translation

“ ‘I offer my respectful obeisances unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead, expanded as Vāsudeva, Saṅkarṣaṇa, Pradyumna and Aniruddha.’

Purport

This is a prayer from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (11.5.29) spoken by Karabhājana Muni when he was questioned by Mahārāja Nimi, the King of Videha, about the incarnations in specific yugas and their method of worship. Karabhājana Muni was one of the nine Yogendras, and he met the King to inform him about future incarnations.

Text

ei mantre dvāpare kare kṛṣṇārcana
‘kṛṣṇa-nāma-saṅkīrtana’ — kali-yugera dharma

Synonyms

ei mantre — by this mantra; dvāpare — in the Age of Dvāpara; kare — perform; kṛṣṇa-arcana — the worship of Lord Kṛṣṇa; kṛṣṇa-nāma-saṅkīrtana — chanting of the holy name of Lord Kṛṣṇa; kali-yugera dharma — the occupational duty in the Age of Kali.

Translation

“By this mantra, the people worship Lord Kṛṣṇa in Dvāpara-yuga. In Kali-yuga the occupational duty of the people is to chant congregationally the holy name of Kṛṣṇa.

Purport

kaler doṣa-nidhe rājannasti hy eko mahān guṇaḥ
kīrtanād eva kṛṣṇasya
mukta-bandhaḥ paraṁ vrajet

“My dear King, although Kali-yuga is full of faults, there is still one good quality about this age. It is that simply by chanting the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra, one can become free from material bondage and be promoted to the transcendental kingdom.” Thus in Kali-yuga one worships Lord Kṛṣṇa by chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Hare Hare/ Hare Rāma, Hare Rāma, Rāma Rāma, Hare Hare. To propagate this movement, Lord Kṛṣṇa personally appeared as Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu. That is described in the following verse.

Text

‘pīta’-varṇa dhari’ tabe kailā pravartana
prema-bhakti dilā loke lañā bhakta-gaṇa

Synonyms

pīta-varṇa dhari’ — assuming the color yellow; tabe — thereafter; kailā pravartana — introduced the saṅkīrtana movement; prema-bhakti dilā — He distributed love of Kṛṣṇa; loke — to the people in general; lañā bhakta-gaṇa — accompanied by His devotees.

Translation

“In the Age of Kali, Lord Kṛṣṇa assumes a golden color and, accompanied by His personal devotees, introduces hari-nāma-saṅkīrtana, the chanting of the Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra. By this process He delivers love for Kṛṣṇa to the general populace.

Text

dharma pravartana kare vrajendra-nandana
preme gāya nāce loka kare saṅkīrtana

Synonyms

dharma pravartana kare — introduces a particular type of religious activity; vrajendra-nandana — Kṛṣṇa Himself; preme — in love; gāya — chants; nāce — dances; loka — all people; kare — perform; saṅkīrtana — congregational chanting.

Translation

“Lord Kṛṣṇa, the son of Nanda Mahārāja, personally introduces the occupational duty of the Age of Kali. He personally chants and dances in ecstatic love, and thus the entire world chants congregationally.

Text

kṛṣṇa-varṇaṁ tviṣākṛṣṇaṁ
sāṅgopāṅgāstra-pārṣadam
yajñaiḥ saṅkīrtana-prāyair
yajanti hi su-medhasaḥ

Synonyms

kṛṣṇa-varṇam — repeating the syllables kṛṣ-ṇa; tviṣā — with a luster; akṛṣṇam — not black (golden); sa-aṅga — with associates; upa-aṅga — servitors; astra — weapons; pārṣadam — confidential companions; yajñaiḥ — by sacrifice; saṅkīrtana-prāyaiḥ — consisting chiefly of congregational chanting; yajanti — they worship; hi — certainly; su-medhasaḥ — intelligent persons.

Translation

“ ‘In the Age of Kali, intelligent persons perform congregational chanting to worship the incarnation of Godhead who constantly sings the name of Kṛṣṇa. Although His complexion is not blackish, He is Kṛṣṇa Himself. He is accompanied by His associates, servants, weapons and confidential companions.’

Purport

This is a quotation from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (11.5.32). See also Ādi-līlā, chapter three, text 52.

Text

āra tina-yuge dhyānādite yei phala haya
kali-yuge kṛṣṇa-nāme sei phala pāya

Synonyms

āra tina-yuge — in the three other yugas; dhyāna-ādite — by processes beginning with meditation; yei — whatever; phala — result; haya — there is; kali-yuge — in this Age of Kali; kṛṣṇa-nāme — by chanting the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra; sei phala pāya — one gets the same achievement.

Translation

“In the other three yugas — Satya, Tretā and Dvāpara — people perform different types of spiritual activities. Whatever results they achieve in that way, they can achieve in Kali-yuga simply by chanting the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra.

Text

kaler doṣa-nidhe rājann
asti hy eko mahān guṇaḥ
kīrtanād eva kṛṣṇasya
mukta-bandhaḥ paraṁ vrajet

Synonyms

kaleḥ — of the Age of Kali; doṣa-nidhe — in the ocean of faults; rājan — O King; asti — there is; hi — certainly; ekaḥ — one; mahān — very great; guṇaḥ — good quality; kīrtanāt — by chanting; eva — certainly; kṛṣṇasya — of the holy name of Kṛṣṇa; mukta-bandhaḥ — liberated from material bondage; param — to the transcendental, spiritual kingdom; vrajet — one can go.

Translation

“ ‘My dear King, although Kali-yuga is full of faults, there is still one good quality about this age. It is that simply by chanting the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra, one can become free from material bondage and be promoted to the transcendental kingdom.’

Purport

As mentioned above, this verse is Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam 12.3.51.

Text

kṛte yad dhyāyato viṣṇuṁ
tretāyāṁ yajato makhaiḥ
dvāpare paricaryāyāṁ
kalau tad dhari-kīrtanāt

Synonyms

kṛte — in Satya-yuga; yat — which; dhyāyataḥ — from meditation; viṣṇum — on Lord Viṣṇu; tretāyām — in Tretā-yuga; yajataḥ — from worshiping; makhaiḥ — by performing sacrifices; dvāpare — in the Age of Dvāpara; paricaryāyām — by worshiping the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa; kalau — in the Age of Kali; tat — that same result (can be achieved); hari-kīrtanāt — simply by chanting the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra.

Translation

“ ‘Whatever result was obtained in Satya-yuga by meditating on Viṣṇu, in Tretā-yuga by performing sacrifices and in Dvāpara-yuga by serving the Lord’s lotus feet can also be obtained in Kali-yuga simply by chanting the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra.’

Purport

This verse is quoted from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (12.3.52). At the present moment in Kali-yuga there are many false meditators who concoct some imaginary form and try to meditate upon it. It has become fashionable to meditate, but people know nothing about the object of meditation. That is explained here. Yad dhyāyato viṣṇum. One has to meditate upon Lord Viṣṇu or Lord Kṛṣṇa. Without referring to the śāstras, so-called meditators aim at impersonal objects. Lord Kṛṣṇa has condemned them in the Bhagavad-gītā (12.5):

kleśo ’dhikataras teṣāmavyaktāsakta-cetasām
avyaktā hi gatir duḥkhaṁ
dehavadbhir avāpyate

“For those whose minds are attached to the unmanifested, impersonal feature of the Supreme, advancement is very troublesome. To make progress in that discipline is always difficult for those who are embodied.” Not knowing how to meditate, foolish people simply suffer, and there is no benefit derived from their spiritual activities.

The same idea expressed in this verse from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam can be found in the following verse from the Viṣṇu Purāṇa (6.2.17), Padma Purāṇa (Uttara-khaṇḍa 72.25) and Bṛhan-nāradīya Purāṇa (38.97).

Text

dhyāyan kṛte yajan yajñais
tretāyāṁ dvāpare ’rcayan
yad āpnoti tad āpnoti
kalau saṅkīrtya keśavam

Synonyms

dhyāyan — meditating; kṛte — in Satya-yuga; yajan — worshiping; yajñaiḥ — by the performance of great sacrifices; tretāyām — in Tretā-yuga; dvāpare — in Dvāpara-yuga; arcayan — worshiping the lotus feet; yat — whatever; āpnoti — is achieved; tat — that; āpnoti — is obtained; kalau — in the Age of Kali; saṅkīrtya — simply by chanting; keśavam — the pastimes and qualities of Lord Keśava.

Translation

“ ‘Whatever is achieved by meditation in Satya-yuga, by the performance of yajña in Tretā-yuga or by the worship of Kṛṣṇa’s lotus feet in Dvāpara-yuga is also obtained in the Age of Kali simply by chanting the glories of Lord Keśava.’

Text

kaliṁ sabhājayanty āryā
guṇa-jñāḥ sāra-bhāginaḥ
yatra saṅkīrtanenaiva
sarva-svārtho ’bhilabhyate

Synonyms

kalim — Kali-yuga; sabhājayanti — worship; āryāḥ — advanced people; guṇa-jñāḥ — appreciating this good quality of Kali-yuga; sāra-bhāginaḥ — persons who accept the essence of life; yatra — in which age; saṅkīrtanena — simply by performing the saṅkīrtana-yajña, the chanting of the Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra; eva — certainly; sarva-sva-arthaḥ — all interests of life; abhilabhyate — are achieved.

Translation

“ ‘Those who are advanced and highly qualified and are interested in the essence of life know the good qualities of Kali-yuga. Such people worship the Age of Kali because in this age one can advance in spiritual knowledge and attain life’s goal simply by chanting the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra.’

Purport

This is a quotation from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (11.5.36) spoken by the great sage Karabhājana Ṛṣi, one of the nine Yogendras. The sage was informing Mahārāja Nimi about the people’s duty to worship the Supreme Personality of Godhead according to different processes in different yugas.

Text

pūrvavat likhi yabe guṇāvatāra-gaṇa
asaṅkhya saṅkhyā tāṅra, nā haya gaṇana

Synonyms

pūrva-vat — as previously; likhi — I write; yabe — when; guṇa-avatāra-gaṇa — incarnations of the material modes of nature; asaṅkhya — innumerable; saṅkhyā — counting; tāṅra — of them; haya gaṇana — not actually countable.

Translation

“As stated before when I described the incarnations of the material modes [guṇa-avatāras], one should consider that these incarnations also are unlimited and that no one can count them.

Text

cāri-yugāvatāre ei ta’ gaṇana
śuni’ bhaṅgi kari’ tāṅre puche sanātana

Synonyms

cāri-yuga-avatāre — of the incarnations in the four different yugas; ei tagaṇana — such enumeration; śuni’ — hearing; bhaṅgi kari’ — giving a hint; tāṅre — unto Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; puche — inquired; sanātana — Sanātana Gosvāmī.

Translation

“Thus I have given a description of the incarnations of the four different yugas.” After hearing all this, Sanātana Gosvāmī gave an indirect hint to the Lord.

Text

rāja-mantrī sanātana — buddhye bṛhaspati
prabhura kṛpāte puche asaṅkoca-mati

Synonyms

rāja-mantrī sanātana — Sanātana Gosvāmī was formerly an intelligent minister for Nawab Hussain Shah; buddhye — in intelligence; bṛhaspati — exactly like Bṛhaspati, the priest in the heavenly kingdom; prabhura kṛpāte — because of the unlimited mercy of the Lord; puche — inquires; asaṅkoca-mati — without hesitation.

Translation

Sanātana Gosvāmī had been a minister under Nawab Hussain Shah, and he was undoubtedly as intelligent as Bṛhaspati, the chief priest of the heavenly kingdom. Due to the Lord’s unlimited mercy, Sanātana Gosvāmī questioned Him without hesitation.

Text

‘ati kṣudra jīva muñi nīca, nīcācāra
kemane jāniba kalite kon avatāra?’

Synonyms

ati — very; kṣudra — unimportant, insignificant; jīva — living entity; muñi — I; nīca — low; nīca-ācāra — having very abominable behavior; kemane — how; jāniba — shall I know; kalite — in this age; kon avatāra — who is the incarnation.

Translation

Sanātana Gosvāmī said, “I am a very insignificant living entity. I am low and poorly behaved. How can I understand who is the incarnation for this Age of Kali?”

Purport

This verse is very important in reference to the incarnations of God. At present there are especially many rascals prevalent in India who proclaim themselves incarnations of God or goddesses. Thus they are fooling and bluffing foolish people. On behalf of the general populace, Sanātana Gosvāmī presented himself as a foolish, lowborn, poorly behaved person, although he was a most exalted personality. Inferior people cannot accept the real God, yet they are very eager to accept an imitation God who can simply bluff foolish people. All this is going on in this Age of Kali. To guide these foolish people, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu answers the question as follows.

Text

prabhu kahe, — “anyāvatāra śāstra-dvāre jāni
kalite avatāra taiche śāstra-vākye māni

Synonyms

prabhu kahe — Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu said; anya-avatāra — the incarnations in other yugas; śāstra-dvāre jāni — one has to accept by reference to the śāstras; kalite — in this Age of Kali; avatāra — incarnation; taiche — similarly; śāstra-vākye māni — one has to accept according to the description of revealed scriptures.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu replied, “As in other ages an incarnation is accepted according to the directions of the śāstras, in this Age of Kali an incarnation of God should be accepted in that way.

Purport

According to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, this is the way an incarnation should be accepted. Śrīla Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura says, sādhu-śāstra-guru-vākya, cittete kariyā aikya. One should accept a thing as genuine by studying the words of saintly people, the spiritual master and the śāstra. The actual center is the śāstra, the revealed scripture. If a spiritual master does not speak according to the revealed scripture, he is not to be accepted. Similarly, if a saintly person does not speak according to the śāstra, he is not a saintly person. The śāstra is the center for all. Unfortunately, at the present moment, people do not refer to the śāstras; therefore they accept rascals as incarnations, and consequently they have made incarnations into a very cheap thing. Intelligent people who follow Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s instructions and the instructions of the ācārya, the bona fide spiritual master, will not accept a pretender as an incarnation of God. In Kali-yuga, the only incarnation is Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Imitation incarnations take advantage of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. The Lord appeared within the past five hundred years, played as the son of a brāhmaṇa from Nadia and introduced the saṅkīrtana movement. Imitating Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and ignoring the śāstra, rascals present themselves as incarnations and introduce their rascaldom as a religious process. As we have repeatedly said, religion can be given only by the Supreme Personality of Godhead. From the discussions in the Caitanya-caritāmṛta, we can understand that in different ages the Supreme Lord introduces different systems and different religious duties. In this Age of Kali, the only incarnation of Kṛṣṇa is Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, and He introduced the religious duty of Kali-yuga, the chanting of the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra: Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Hare Hare/ Hare Rāma, Hare Rāma, Rāma Rāma, Hare Hare.

Text

sarvajña munira vākya — śāstra-‘paramāṇa’
āmā-sabā jīvera haya śāstra-dvārā ‘jñāna’

Synonyms

sarva-jña munira vākya — the words of the omniscient muni (Vyāsadeva); śāstra-paramāṇa — evidence of revealed scriptures; āmā-sabā — all of us; jīvera — of the conditioned souls; haya — there is; śāstra-dvārā — through the medium of revealed scriptures; jñāna — knowledge.

Translation

“The Vedic literatures composed by the omniscient Mahāmuni Vyāsadeva are evidence of all spiritual existence. Only through these revealed scriptures can all conditioned souls attain knowledge.

Purport

Foolish people try to concoct knowledge by manufacturing something in their brains. That is not the real way of knowledge. Knowledge is śabda-pramāṇa, evidence from the Vedic literature. Śrīla Vyāsadeva is called Mahāmuni. He is also known as Vedavyāsa because he has compiled so many śāstras. He has divided the Vedas into four divisions — Sāma, Ṛg, Yajur and Atharva. He has expanded the Vedas into eighteen Purāṇas and has summarized Vedic knowledge in the Vedānta-sūtra. He also compiled the Mahābhārata, which is accepted as the fifth Veda. The Bhagavad-gītā is contained within the Mahābhārata. Therefore the Bhagavad-gītā is also Vedic literature (smṛti). Some of the Vedic literatures are called śrutis, and some are called smṛtis. Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī recommends in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (1.2.101):

śruti-smṛti-purāṇādi-pañcarātra-vidhiṁ vinā
aikāntikī harer bhaktir
utpātāyaiva kalpate

Unless one refers to śāstra (śruti, smṛti and purāṇādi), one’s spiritual activity simply disturbs society. There is no king or government to check people, and therefore society has fallen into a chaotic condition as far as spiritual understanding is concerned. Taking advantage of this chaotic condition, many rascals have appeared and proclaimed themselves incarnations of God. As a result, the entire population is indulging in sinful activities such as illicit sex, intoxication, gambling and meat-eating. Out of many sinful people, many so-called incarnations of God are emerging. This is a very regrettable situation, especially in India.

Text

avatāra nāhi kahe — ‘āmi avatāra’
muni saba jāni’ kare lakṣaṇa-vicāra

Synonyms

avatāra — the actual incarnation of Godhead; nāhi — never; kahe — says; āmi avatāra — I am an incarnation; muni — the great sage Mahāmuni Vyāsadeva; saba jāni’ — knowing all (past, present and future); kare lakṣaṇa-vicāra — describes the symptoms of the avatāras.

Translation

“An actual incarnation of God never says ‘I am God’ or ‘I am an incarnation of God.’ The great sage Vyāsadeva, knowing all, has already recorded the characteristics of the avatāras in the śāstras.

Purport

In this verse it is clearly stated that a real incarnation of God never claims to be a real incarnation. According to the symptoms described in the śāstra, one can understand who is an avatāra and who is not.

Text

yasyāvatārā jñāyante
śarīreṣv aśarīriṇaḥ
tais tair atulyātiśayair
vīryair dehiṣv asaṅgataiḥ

Synonyms

yasya — whose; avatārāḥ — incarnations; jñāyante — can be known; śarīriṣu — among the living entities; aśarīriṇaḥ — of the Lord, who has no material body; taiḥ taiḥ — all those; atulya — incomparable; atiśayaiḥ — extraordinary; vīryaiḥ — by prowess; dehiṣu — among the living entities; asaṅgataiḥ — impossible.

Translation

“ ‘The Lord does not have a material body, yet He descends among human beings in His transcendental body as an incarnation. Therefore it is very difficult for us to understand who is an incarnation. Only by His extraordinary prowess and uncommon activities, which are impossible for embodied living entities, can one partially understand the incarnation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.’

Purport

This is a quotation from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.10.34).

Text

‘svarūpa’-lakṣaṇa, āra ‘taṭastha-lakṣaṇa’
ei dui lakṣaṇe ‘vastu’ jāne muni-gaṇa

Synonyms

svarūpa-lakṣaṇa — the personal characteristics; āra — and; taṭastha-lakṣaṇa — the marginal characteristics; ei dui lakṣaṇe — by these two symptoms; vastu — an object; jāne — know; muni-gaṇa — the great sages.

Translation

“By two symptoms — personal characteristics and marginal characteristics — the great sages can understand an object.

Text

ākṛti, prakṛti, svarūpa, — svarūpa-lakṣaṇa
kārya-dvārā jñāna, — ei taṭastha-lakṣaṇa

Synonyms

ākṛti — bodily features; prakṛti — nature; svarūpa — form; svarūpa-lakṣaṇa — personal symptoms; kārya-dvārā — by activities; jñāna — knowledge; ei — this; taṭastha-lakṣaṇa — the marginal symptoms.

Translation

“Bodily features, nature and form are the personal characteristics. Knowledge of His activities provides the marginal characteristics.

Text

bhāgavatārambhe vyāsa maṅgalācaraṇe
‘parameśvara’ nirūpila ei dui lakṣaṇe

Synonyms

bhāgavata-ārambhe — in the beginning of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam; vyāsa — the great author Vyāsadeva; maṅgala-ācaraṇe — in the auspicious invocation; parama-īśvara — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; nirūpila — has described; ei dui lakṣaṇe — by these two characteristics, namely svarūpa (personal) and taṭastha (marginal) symptoms.

Translation

“In the auspicious invocation at the beginning of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, Śrīla Vyāsadeva has described the Supreme Personality of Godhead by these symptoms.

Text

janmādy asya yato ’nvayād itarataś cārtheṣv abhijñaḥ svarāṭ
tene brahma hṛdā ya ādi-kavaye muhyanti yat sūrayaḥ
tejo-vāri-mṛdāṁ yathā vinimayo yatra tri-sargo ’mṛṣā
dhāmnā svena sadā nirasta-kuhakaṁ satyaṁ paraṁ dhīmahi

Synonyms

janma-ādi — creation, maintenance and dissolution; asya — of this (the universe); yataḥ — from whom; anvayāt — directly from the spiritual connection; itarataḥ — indirectly from the lack of material contact; ca — also; artheṣu — in all affairs; abhijñaḥ — perfectly cognizant; sva-rāṭ — independent; tene — imparted; brahma — the Absolute Truth; hṛdā — through the heart; yaḥ — who; ādi-kavaye — unto Lord Brahmā; muhyanti — are bewildered; yat — in whom; sūrayaḥ — great personalities like Lord Brahmā and other demigods or great brāhmaṇas; tejaḥ-vāri-mṛdām — of fire, water and earth; yathā — as; vinimayaḥ — the exchange; yatra — in whom; tri-sargaḥ — the material creation of three modes; amṛṣā — factual; dhāmnā — with the abode; svena — His own personal; sadā — always; nirasta-kuhakam — devoid of all illusion; satyam — the truth; param — absolute; dhīmahi — let us meditate upon.

Translation

“ ‘O my Lord, Śrī Kṛṣṇa, son of Vasudeva, O all-pervading Personality of Godhead, I offer my respectful obeisances unto You. I meditate upon Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa because He is the Absolute Truth and the primeval cause of all causes of the creation, sustenance and destruction of the manifested universes. He is directly and indirectly conscious of all manifestations, and He is independent because there is no other cause beyond Him. It is He only who first imparted the Vedic knowledge unto the heart of Brahmājī, the original living being. By Him even the great sages and demigods are placed into illusion, as one is bewildered by the illusory representations of water seen in fire, or land seen on water. Only because of Him do the material universes, temporarily manifested by the reactions of the three modes of nature, appear factual, although they are unreal. I therefore meditate upon Him, Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa, who is eternally existent in the transcendental abode, which is forever free from the illusory representations of the material world. I meditate upon Him, for He is the Absolute Truth.’

Purport

This verse, quoted from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (1.1.1), links the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam with the Vedānta-sūtra with the words janmādy asya yataḥ. It is stated that the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Vāsudeva, is the Absolute Truth beyond the material creation. This has been accepted by all ācāryas. Even Śaṅkarācārya, the most elevated impersonalist, says in the beginning of his commentary on the Bhagavad-gītā: nārāyaṇaḥ paro ’vyaktāt. When this material creation is not yet manifested from the mahat-tattva, it is called avyakta, and when it is demonstrated from that total energy, it is called vyakta. Nārāyaṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is beyond this vyakta-avyakta, manifested and unmanifested material nature. This is the chief qualification of the Supreme Personality of Godhead when He assumes a particular incarnation. Kṛṣṇa tells Arjuna that although they both took birth many, many times before, Kṛṣṇa remembers everything about His previous appearances but Arjuna does not remember. Since Kṛṣṇa is beyond the cosmic creation, He is in the exalted position of being able to remember everything in the past. Everything within the cosmic creation has a material body, but Kṛṣṇa, being beyond the material cosmic creation, always has a spiritual body. He imparted Vedic knowledge into the heart of Brahmā. Although Brahmā is the most important and exalted personality within this universe, he could not remember what he did in his past life. Kṛṣṇa had to remind him through the heart. When Lord Brahmā was thus inspired, he was able to create the entire universe. Remembering everything about the past and inspiring Lord Brahmā to create are vivid examples of the characteristics called svarūpa-lakṣaṇa and taṭastha-lakṣaṇa.

Text

ei śloke ‘paraṁ’-śabde ‘kṛṣṇa’-nirūpaṇa
‘satyaṁ’ śabde kahe tāṅra svarūpa-lakṣaṇa

Synonyms

ei śloke — in this verse; param-śabde — by the word param, or supreme; kṛṣṇa — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; nirūpaṇa — there is an indication; satyam śabde — by the word satyam, or Absolute Truth; kahe — indicates; tāṅra — His; svarūpa-lakṣaṇa — personal characteristics.

Translation

“In this invocation from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, the word ‘param’ indicates Lord Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and the word ‘satyam’ indicates His personal characteristics.

Text

viśva-sṛṣṭy-ādi kaila, veda brahmāke paḍāila
arthābhijñatā, svarūpa-śaktye māyā dūra kaila

Synonyms

viśva-sṛṣṭi-ādi — creation, maintenance and dissolution of the cosmic manifestation; kaila — performed; veda — the Vedic knowledge; brahmāke — unto Lord Brahmā; paḍāila — instructed; artha-abhijñatā — having full knowledge of past, present and future; svarūpa-śaktye — by His personal energy; māyā — the illusory energy; dūra kaila — separated.

Translation

“In that same verse it is stated that the Lord is the creator, maintainer and annihilator of the cosmic manifestation and that He enabled Lord Brahmā to create the universe by infusing him with the knowledge of the Vedas. It is also stated that the Lord has full knowledge, directly and indirectly, that He knows past, present and future, and that His personal energy is separate from māyā, the illusory energy.

Text

ei saba kārya — tāṅra taṭastha-lakṣaṇa
anya avatāra aiche jāne muni-gaṇa

Synonyms

ei saba kārya — all these activities; tāṅra — His; taṭastha-lakṣaṇa — marginal characteristics; anya avatāra — another incarnation; aiche — in that same way; jāne — know; muni-gaṇa — the great saintly persons like Vyāsadeva.

Translation

“All these activities are His marginal characteristics. Great saintly persons understand the incarnations of the Supreme Personality of Godhead by the indications of the two characteristics known as svarūpa and taṭastha. All the incarnations of Kṛṣṇa should be understood in this way.

Text

avatāra-kāle haya jagate gocara
ei dui lakṣaṇe keha jānaye īśvara”

Synonyms

avatāra-kāle — at the time of incarnation; haya — there is; jagate — in the world; gocara — information; ei dui lakṣaṇe — by these two characteristics, namely svarūpa and taṭastha; keha — some persons; jānaye — know; īśvara — the incarnation of the Supreme Lord.

Translation

“At the time of Their appearance, the incarnations of the Lord are known in the world because people can consult the śāstras to understand an incarnation’s chief characteristics, known as svarūpa and taṭastha. In this way the incarnations become known to great saintly persons.”

Text

sanātana kahe, — “yāte īśvara-lakṣaṇa
pīta-varṇa, kārya — prema-dāna-saṅkīrtana

Synonyms

sanātana kahe — Sanātana said; yāte — in whom; īśvara-lakṣaṇa — the characteristics of the Lord are found; pīta-varṇa — yellowish color; kārya — activities; prema-dāna — distributing love of Godhead; saṅkīrtana — and chanting the holy name of the Lord congregationally.

Translation

Sanātana Gosvāmī said, “The color of the personality in whom the characteristics of the Lord are found is yellowish. His activities include the distribution of love of Godhead and the chanting of the holy names of the Lord.

Text

kali-kāle sei ‘kṛṣṇāvatāra’ niścaya
sudṛḍha kariyā kaha, yāuka saṁśaya”

Synonyms

kali-kāle — in the Age of Kali; sei — that personality; kṛṣṇa-avatāra — the incarnation of Kṛṣṇa; niścaya — certainly; su-dṛḍha kariyā — firmly; kaha — kindly inform me; yāuka saṁśaya — so that all doubts may go away.

Translation

“The incarnation of Kṛṣṇa for this age is indicated by these symptoms. Please confirm this definitely so that all my doubts will go away.”

Purport

Sanātana Gosvāmī wanted to confirm the fact that Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu is the incarnation of Kṛṣṇa for this age. According to the śāstra, in Kali-yuga the Lord would assume a golden or yellow color and would distribute love of Kṛṣṇa and the saṅkīrtana movement. In accordance with the śāstra and saintly persons, these characteristics were vividly displayed by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, and it was therefore clear that Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was an incarnation of Kṛṣṇa. He was confirmed by the śāstras, and His characteristics were accepted by saintly people. Since Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu could not escape Sanātana Gosvāmī’s argument, He remained silent on this point and thereby indirectly accepted Sanātana’s statement. By this we can clearly understand that Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was the direct incarnation of Lord Kṛṣṇa.

Text

prabhu kahe, — caturāli chāda, sanātana
śaktyāveśāvatārera śuna vivaraṇa

Synonyms

prabhu kahe — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu replied; caturāli — very intelligent argument; chāḍa — give up; sanātana — O Sanātana; śakti-āveśa-avatārera — of the especially empowered incarnations; śuna — hear; vivaraṇa — the description.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu replied, “O Sanātana, you must give up your intelligent tricks. Now just try to understand the description of the śaktyāveśa-avatāras.

Text

śaktyāveśāvatāra kṛṣṇera asaṅkhya gaṇana
dig-daraśana kari mukhya mukhya jana

Synonyms

śakti-āveśa-avatāra — incarnations especially empowered by the Lord; kṛṣṇera — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; asaṅkhya gaṇana — unlimited and innumerable; dik-daraśana kari — let Me describe some of them; mukhya mukhya jana — who are counted as the chief.

Translation

“There are unlimited śaktyāveśa-avatāras of Lord Kṛṣṇa. Let Me describe the chief among them.

Text

śaktyāveśa dui-rūpa — ‘mukhya’, ‘gauṇa’ dekhi
sākṣāt-śaktye ‘avatāra’, ābhāse ‘vibhūti’ likhi

Synonyms

śakti-āveśa — empowered incarnations; dui-rūpa — two categories; mukhya — primary; gauṇa — secondary; dekhi — I see; sākṣāt-śaktye — when there is direct power; avatāra — they are called incarnations; ābhāse — when there is indication; vibhūti likhi — they are called vibhūti, or possessing special favor.

Translation

“Empowered incarnations are of two types — primary and secondary. The primary ones are directly empowered by the Supreme Personality of Godhead and are called incarnations. The secondary ones are indirectly empowered by the Supreme Personality of Godhead and are called vibhūti.

Text

‘sanakādi’, ‘nārada’, ‘pṛthu’ ‘paraśurāma’
jīva-rūpa ‘brahmāra’ āveśāvatāra-nāma

Synonyms

sanaka-ādi — the four Kumāras; nārada — Nārada; pṛthu — Mahārāja Pṛthu; paraśurāma — Paraśurāma; jīva-rūpa — as the living entity; brahmāra — of Lord Brahmā; āveśa-avatāra-nāma — all of them are called empowered incarnations.

Translation

“Some śaktyāveśa-avatāras are the four Kumāras, Nārada, Mahārāja Pṛthu and Paraśurāma. When a living being is empowered to act as Lord Brahmā, he is also considered a śaktyāveśa-avatāra.

Text

vaikuṇṭhe ‘śeṣa’ — dharā dharaye ‘ananta’
ei mukhyāveśāvatāra — vistāre nāhi anta

Synonyms

vaikuṇṭhe — in the spiritual world; śeṣa — Lord Śeṣa; dharā dharaye — carries innumerable planets; ananta — Ananta; ei — these; mukhya-āveśa-avatāra — primary directly empowered incarnations; vistāre — in expanding them; nāhi — there is not; anta — limit.

Translation

“Lord Śeṣa in the spiritual world of Vaikuṇṭha and, in the material world, Lord Ananta, who carries innumerable planets on His hoods, are two primary empowered incarnations. There is no need to count the others, for they are unlimited.

Text

sanakādye ‘jñāna’-śakti, nārade śakti ‘bhakti’
brahmāya ‘sṛṣṭi’-śakti, anante ‘bhū-dhāraṇa’-śakti

Synonyms

sanaka-ādye — in the four Kumāras; jñāna-śakti — the power of knowledge; nārade — in Nārada Muni; śakti — the power; bhakti — of devotional service; brahmāya — in Lord Brahmā; sṛṣṭi-śakti — the power of creation; anante — in Lord Ananta; bhū-dhāraṇa-śakti — the power to carry the planets.

Translation

“The power of knowledge was invested in the four Kumāras, and the power of devotional service was invested in Nārada. The power of creation was invested in Lord Brahmā, and the power to carry innumerable planets was invested in Lord Ananta.

Text

śeṣe ‘sva-sevana’-śakti, pṛthute ‘pālana’
paraśurāme ‘duṣṭa-nāśaka-vīrya-sañcāraṇa’

Synonyms

śeṣe — in Lord Śeṣa; sva-sevana śakti — the power to serve the Lord personally; pṛthute — in King Pṛthu; pālana — the power to rule; paraśurāme — in Paraśurāma; duṣṭa-nāśaka-vīrya — the extraordinary power to kill rogues and miscreants; sañcāraṇa — investing.

Translation

“The Supreme Personality of Godhead invested the power of personal service in Lord Śeṣa, and He invested the power to rule the earth in King Pṛthu. Lord Paraśurāma received the power to kill rogues and miscreants.

Purport

Kṛṣṇa says in the Bhagavad-gītā (4.8), paritrāṇāya sādhūnāṁ vināśāya ca duṣkṛtām. Sometimes the Lord invests His power to rule in a king like Pṛthu and enables such a king to kill rogues and miscreants. He also invests His power in incarnations like Paraśurāma.

Text

jñāna-śakty-ādi-kalayā
yatrāviṣṭo janārdanaḥ
ta āveśā nigadyante
jīvā eva mahattamāḥ

Synonyms

jñāna-śakti-ādi-kalayā — by portions of the potencies of knowledge, devotional service, creation, personal service, ruling over the material world, carrying the different planets, and killing the rogues and miscreants; yatra — wherever; āviṣṭaḥ — is entered; janārdanaḥ — the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Viṣṇu; te — they; āveśāḥ — empowered; nigadyante — are called; jīvāḥ — living entities; eva — although; mahat-tamāḥ — most exalted devotees.

Translation

“ ‘Whenever the Lord is present in someone by portions of His various potencies, the living entity representing the Lord is called a śaktyāveśa-avatāra — that is, an incarnation invested with special power.’

Purport

This verse is found in the Laghu-bhāgavatāmṛta (1.18).

Text

‘vibhūti’ kahiye yaiche gītā-ekādaśe
jagat vyāpila kṛṣṇa-śakty-ābhāsāveśe

Synonyms

vibhūti — specific power; kahiye — we say; yaiche — just like; gītā — of the Bhagavad-gītā; ekādaśe — in the eleventh chapter; jagat — throughout the whole universe; vyāpila — He expanded; kṛṣṇa-śakti-ābhāsa-āveśe — by the reflection of His power.

Translation

“As explained in the eleventh chapter of the Bhagavad-gītā, Kṛṣṇa has spread Himself all over the universe in many personalities through specific powers, known as vibhūti.

Purport

The expansion of specific māyā powers is explained in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (2.7.39).

Text

yad yad vibhūtimat sattvaṁ
śrīmad ūrjitam eva vā
tat tad evāvagaccha tvaṁ
mama tejo-’ṁśa-sambhavam

Synonyms

yat yat — whatever and wherever; vibhūti-mat — extraordinarily opulent; sattvam — living entity; śrī-mat — full of wealth; ūrjitam — full of power; eva — certainly; — or; tat tat — there; eva — certainly; avagaccha — should know; tvam — you; mama — of Me; tejaḥ — of power; aṁśa — of a part; sambhavam — exhibition.

Translation

“ ‘Know that all opulent, beautiful and glorious creations spring from but a spark of My splendor.’

Purport

This is a statement made by Kṛṣṇa in the Bhagavad-gītā (10.41).

Text

atha vā bahunaitena
kiṁ jñātena tavārjuna
viṣṭabhyāham idaṁ kṛtsnam
ekāṁśena sthito jagat

Synonyms

atha — or; bahunā — much; etena — with this; kim — what use; jñātena — being known; tava — by you; arjuna — O Arjuna; viṣṭabhya — pervading; aham — I; idam — this; kṛtsnam — entire; eka-aṁśena — with one portion; sthitaḥ — situated; jagat — universe.

Translation

“ ‘But what need is there, Arjuna, for all this detailed knowledge? With a single fragment of Myself I pervade and support this entire universe.’

Purport

This is also a statement made by Kṛṣṇa in the Bhagavad-gītā (10.42).

Text

eita kahiluṅ śakty-āveśa-avatāra
bālya-paugaṇḍa-dharmera śunaha vicāra

Synonyms

eita — thus; kahiluṅ — I have explained; śakti-āveśa-avatāra — the incarnations specifically empowered; bālya — in childhood; paugaṇḍa — in boyhood; dharmera — of the characteristics; śunaha — now hear; vicāra — the consideration.

Translation

“Thus I have explained specifically empowered incarnations. Now please hear about the characteristics of Lord Kṛṣṇa’s childhood, boyhood and youth.

Text

kiśora-śekhara-dharmī vrajendra-nandana
prakaṭa-līlā karibāre yabe kare mana

Synonyms

kiśora-śekhara — topmost of youth; dharmī — whose natural position; vrajendra-nandana — the son of Mahārāja Nanda; prakaṭa-līlā — manifested pastimes; karibāre — to perform; yabe — when; kare — makes; mana — mind.

Translation

“As the son of Mahārāja Nanda, Lord Kṛṣṇa is by nature the paragon of kiśora [youth]. He chooses to exhibit His pastimes at that age.

Text

ādau prakaṭa karāya mātā-pitā — bhakta-gaṇe
pāche prakaṭa haya janmādika-līlā-krame

Synonyms

ādau — first; prakaṭa — manifest; karāya — He makes; mātā-pitā — His mother and father; bhakta-gaṇe — similar devotees; pāche — after that; prakaṭa haya — are manifested; janma-ādika-līlā-krame — such pastimes as birth, in order.

Translation

“Before His personal appearance, the Lord causes some of His devotees to appear as His mother, father and intimate associates. He then appears later as if He were taking birth and growing from a baby to a child and gradually into a youth.

Text

vayaso vividhatve ’pi
sarva-bhakti-rasāśrayaḥ
dharmī kiśora evātra
nitya-līlā-vilāsavān

Synonyms

vayasaḥ — of age; vividhatve — in varieties; api — although; sarva — of all kinds; bhakti-rasa-āśrayaḥ — the shelter of devotional service; dharmī — whose constitutional nature; kiśoraḥ — in the age before youth; eva — certainly; atra — in this; nitya-līlā — of eternal pastimes; vilāsa-vān — the supreme enjoyer.

Translation

“ ‘The Supreme Personality of Godhead is eternally enjoying Himself, and He is the shelter of all kinds of devotional service. Although His ages are various, His age known as kiśora [pre-youth] is best of all.’

Purport

This verse is found in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (2.1.63).

Text

pūtanā-vadhādi yata līlā kṣaṇe kṣaṇe
saba līlā nitya prakaṭa kare anukrame

Synonyms

pūtanā-vadha-ādi — killing of the demons like Pūtanā; yata — all; līlā — pastimes; kṣaṇe kṣaṇe — one moment after another; saba līlā — all these pastimes; nitya — eternally; prakaṭa — manifesting; kare — does; anukrame — one after another.

Translation

“When Lord Kṛṣṇa appears, from moment to moment He exhibits His different pastimes, beginning with the killing of Pūtanā. All these pastimes are eternally being demonstrated one after another.

Text

ananta brahmāṇḍa, tāra nāhika gaṇana
kona līlā kona brahmāṇḍe haya prakaṭana

Synonyms

ananta brahmāṇḍa — innumerable universes; tāra — of which; nāhika gaṇana — there is no counting; kona līlā — some pastimes; kona brahmāṇḍe — in some universe; haya — there is; prakaṭana — manifestation.

Translation

“The consecutive pastimes of Kṛṣṇa are being manifested in one of the innumerable universes moment after moment. There is no possibility of counting the universes, but in any case some pastime of the Lord is being manifested at every moment in one universe or another.

Text

ei-mata saba līlā — yena gaṅgā-dhāra
se-se līlā prakaṭa kare vrajendra-kumāra

Synonyms

ei-mata — in this way; saba līlā — all pastimes; yena — like; gaṅgā-dhāra — the flowing of the water of the Ganges; se-se — those; līlā — pastimes; prakaṭa kare — demonstrates; vrajendra-kumāra — the son of Mahārāja Nanda.

Translation

“Thus the Lord’s pastimes are like the flowing Ganges water. In this way all the pastimes are manifested by the son of Nanda Mahārāja.

Text

krame bālya-paugaṇḍa-kaiśoratā-prāpti
rāsa-ādi līlā kare, kaiśore nitya-sthiti

Synonyms

krame — gradually; bālya — childhood; paugaṇḍa — boyhood; kaiśoratā — youth; prāpti — development; rāsa — dancing with the gopīs; ādi — and others; līlā — pastimes; kare — performs; kaiśore — in His age of pre-youth; nitya-sthiti — eternally existing.

Translation

“Lord Kṛṣṇa exhibits His pastimes of childhood, boyhood and pre-youth. When He reaches pre-youth, He continues to exist eternally to perform His rāsa dance and other pastimes.

Purport

The comparison made here is very interesting. Kṛṣṇa does not grow like an ordinary human being, even though He exhibits His pastimes of childhood, boyhood and pre-youth. When He reaches the age of pre-youth, kaiśora, He does not grow any older. He simply remains in His kaiśora age. He is therefore described in the Brahma-saṁhitā (5.33) as nava-yauvana:

advaitam acyutam anādim ananta-rūpam
ādyaṁ purāṇa-puruṣaṁ nava-yauvanaṁ ca
vedeṣu durlabham adurlabham ātma-bhaktau
govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi

This nava-yauvana, or pre-youth, is the eternal transcendental form of Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa never grows older than nava-yauvana.

Text

‘nitya-līlā’ kṛṣṇera sarva-śāstre kaya
bujhite nā pāre līlā kemane ‘nitya’ haya

Synonyms

nitya-līlā — eternal pastimes; kṛṣṇera — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; sarva-śāstre kaya — described in every śāstra; bujhite pāre — not able to understand; līlā — pastimes; kemane — how; nitya haya — are eternal.

Translation

“Descriptions of Kṛṣṇa’s eternal pastimes are in all the revealed scriptures. But one cannot understand how they are continuing eternally.

Text

dṛṣṭānta diyā kahi tabe loka yadi jāne
kṛṣṇa-līlā — nitya, jyotiścakra-pramāṇe

Synonyms

dṛṣṭānta diyā — giving an example; kahi — let Me say; tabe — then; loka — people; yadi — if; jāne — can understand; kṛṣṇa-līlā — pastimes of Lord Kṛṣṇa; nitya — eternal; jyotiḥ-cakra — of the zodiac; pramāṇe — by evidence.

Translation

“Let me give an example by which people may understand Lord Kṛṣṇa’s eternal pastimes. An example can be found in the zodiac.

Text

jyotiścakre sūrya yena phire rātri-dine
sapta-dvīpāmbudhi laṅghi’ phire krame krame

Synonyms

jyotiḥ-cakre — in the zodiac; sūrya — of the sun; yena — as; phire — moves; rātri-dine — the day and night; sapta-dvīpa-ambudhi — the oceans of the islands; laṅghi’ — crossing; phire — rotates; krame krame — one after another.

Translation

“The sun moves across the zodiac day and night and crosses the oceans between the seven islands one after the other.

Text

rātri-dine haya ṣaṣṭi-daṇḍa-parimāṇa
tina-sahasra chaya-śata ‘pala’ tāra māna

Synonyms

rātri-dine — during the whole day and night; haya — there is; ṣaṣṭi-daṇḍa — of sixty daṇḍas (a measure of time); parimāṇa — duration; tina-sahasra — three thousand; chaya-śata — six hundred; palapalas; tāra — of that; māna — measurement.

Translation

“According to Vedic astronomical calculations, the rotation of the sun consists of sixty daṇḍas, and it is divided into thirty-six hundred palas.

Text

sūryodaya haite ṣaṣṭi-pala-kramodaya
sei eka daṇḍa, aṣṭa daṇḍe ‘prahara’ haya

Synonyms

sūrya-udaya haite — beginning from the sunrise; ṣaṣṭi-pala — sixty palas; krama-udaya — gradually rising higher and higher; sei — that; eka daṇḍa — one daṇḍa; aṣṭa daṇḍe — in eight daṇḍas; prahara haya — there is a prahara.

Translation

“The sun rises in steps consisting of sixty palas. Sixty palas equal one daṇḍa, and eight daṇḍas comprise one prahara.

Text

eka-dui-tina-cāri prahare asta haya
cāri-prahara rātri gele punaḥ sūryodaya

Synonyms

eka-dui-tina-cāri — one, two, three, four; prahare — in praharas; asta haya — the sun sets in the evening; cāri-prahara — generally after four praharas; rātri — the night; gele — when it passes; punaḥ — again; sūrya-udaya — the sun rises.

Translation

“The day and the night are divided into eight praharas — four belonging to the day and four belonging to the night. After eight praharas, the sun rises again.

Text

aiche kṛṣṇera līlā-maṇḍala caudda-manvantare
brahmāṇḍa-maṇḍala vyāpi’ krame krame phire

Synonyms

aiche — in the same way; kṛṣṇera — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; līlā-maṇḍala — groups of different pastimes; caudda-manvantare — in the duration of fourteen Manus; brahmāṇḍa-maṇḍala — all of the universes; vyāpi’ — spreading through; krame krame — gradually; phire — return.

Translation

“Just as there is an orbit of the sun, there is an orbit of Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes, which are manifested one after the other. During the lifetime of fourteen Manus, this orbit expands through all the universes, and gradually it returns. Thus Kṛṣṇa moves with His pastimes through all the universes, one after another.

Text

saoyāśata vatsara kṛṣṇera prakaṭa-prakāśa
tāhā yaiche vraja-pure karilā vilāsa

Synonyms

saoyāśata — 125; vatsara — years; kṛṣṇera — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; prakaṭa-prakāśa — manifestation of the appearance; tāhā — that; yaiche — like; vraja-pure — in Vṛndāvana and Dvārakā; karilā vilāsa — enjoys the pastimes.

Translation

“Kṛṣṇa remains within a universe for 125 years, and He enjoys His pastimes both in Vṛndāvana and Dvārakā.

Text

alāta-cakra-prāya sei līlā-cakra phire
saba līlā saba brahmāṇḍe krame udaya kare

Synonyms

alāta-cakra-prāya — exactly like a wheel of fire; sei — that; līlā-cakra — the cycle of Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes; phire — turns; saba līlā — all these pastimes; saba brahmāṇḍe — in all the universes; krame — one after another; udaya kare — are manifested.

Translation

“The cycle of His pastimes turns like a wheel of fire. Thus Kṛṣṇa exhibits His pastimes one after the other in every universe.

Text

janma, bālya, paugaṇḍa, kaiśora prakāśa
pūtanā-vadhādi kari’ mauṣalānta vilāsa

Synonyms

janma — birth; bālya — childhood; paugaṇḍa — boyhood; kaiśora — pre-youth; prakāśa — manifestation; pūtanā-vadha-ādi — killing the demons, beginning from Pūtanā; kari’ — manifesting; mauṣala-anta — until the end of the mauṣala pastimes; vilāsa — pastimes.

Translation

“Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes — appearance, childhood, boyhood and youth — are all manifested, beginning with the killing of Pūtanā and extending to the end of the mauṣala-līlā, the annihilation of the Yadu dynasty. All of these pastimes are rotating in every universe.

Text

kona brahmāṇḍe kona līlāra haya avasthāna
tāte līlā ‘nitya’ kahe āgama-purāṇa

Synonyms

kona brahmāṇḍe — in some universe; kona līlāra — some pastimes; haya — there is; avasthāna — the presence; tāte — therefore; līlā — pastimes; nitya — eternal; kahe — explains; āgama-purāṇa — the Vedas and Purāṇas.

Translation

“Since all Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes are taking place continuously, at every moment some pastime is existing in one universe or another. Consequently these pastimes are called eternal by the Vedas and Purāṇas.

Text

goloka, gokula-dhāma — ‘vibhu’ kṛṣṇa-sama
kṛṣṇecchāya brahmāṇḍa-gaṇe tāhāra saṅkrama

Synonyms

goloka — the planet known as Goloka; gokula-dhāma — the spiritual land, the pasturing fields for the surabhi cows; vibhu — opulent and powerful; kṛṣṇa-sama — as much as Kṛṣṇa; kṛṣṇa-icchāya — by the supreme will of Kṛṣṇa; brahmāṇḍa-gaṇe — in each of the universes; tāhāra — of the Goloka and Gokula dhāmas; saṅkrama — appearance.

Translation

“The spiritual abode known as Goloka, which is a pasturing land for surabhi cows, is as powerful and opulent as Kṛṣṇa. By the will of Kṛṣṇa, the original Goloka and Gokula dhāmas are manifested with Him in all the universes.

Text

ataeva goloka-sthāne nitya vihāra
brahmāṇḍa-gaṇe krame prākaṭya tāhāra

Synonyms

ataeva — therefore; goloka-sthāne — in the original Goloka Vṛndāvana planet; nitya vihāra — eternal pastimes; brahmāṇḍa-gaṇe — within the material universes; krame — gradually; prākaṭya — manifestation; tāhāra — of them.

Translation

“The eternal pastimes of Kṛṣṇa are continuously taking place in the original Goloka Vṛndāvana planet. These same pastimes are gradually manifested within the material world, in each and every brahmāṇḍa.

Purport

Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura elucidates this complicated explanation of Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes. Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes are always present in the material world in one of the many universes. These pastimes appear in the universes one after the other, just as the sun moves across the sky and measures the time. Kṛṣṇa’s appearance may be manifested in this universe at one moment, and immediately after His birth, this pastime is manifested in the next universe. After His killing of Pūtanā is manifested in this universe, it is next manifested in another universe. Thus all the pastimes of Kṛṣṇa are eternally existing both in the original Goloka Vṛndāvana planet and in the material universes. The 125 years calculated in our solar system to be Kṛṣṇa’s lifetime equal one moment for Kṛṣṇa. One moment these pastimes are manifested in one universe, and the next moment they are manifested in the next universe. There are unlimited universes, and Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes are manifested one moment after the other in all of them. This rotation is explained through the example of the sun’s moving across the sky. Kṛṣṇa appears and disappears in innumerable universes, just as the sun appears and disappears during the day. Although the sun appears to rise and set, it is continuously shining somewhere on the earth. Similarly, although Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes seem to appear and disappear, they are continuously existing in one brahmāṇḍa (universe) or another. Thus all of Kṛṣṇa’s līlās are present simultaneously throughout the innumerable universes. By our limited senses we cannot appreciate this; therefore Kṛṣṇa’s eternal pastimes are very difficult for us to understand. One should try to understand how they are taking place by understanding the example of the sun. Although the Lord is appearing constantly in the material universes, His pastimes are eternally present in the original Goloka Vṛndāvana. Therefore these pastimes are called nitya-līlā (eternally present pastimes). Because we cannot see what is going on in other universes, it is a little difficult for us to understand how Kṛṣṇa is eternally manifesting His pastimes. There are fourteen Manus in one day of Brahmā, and this time calculation is also taking place in other universes. Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes are manifested before fourteen Manus expire. Although it is a little difficult to understand the eternal pastimes of Kṛṣṇa in this way, we must accept the verdict of the Vedic literatures.

There are two types of devotees — the sādhaka, who is preparing for perfection, and the siddha, who is already perfect. As far as those who are already perfect are concerned, Lord Kṛṣṇa says in the Bhagavad-gītā (4.9), tyaktvā dehaṁ punar janma naiti mām eti so ’rjuna: “After giving up this material body, such a devotee comes to Me.” After leaving the material body, the perfect devotee takes birth from the womb of a gopī on a planet where Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes are going on. This may be in this universe or another universe. This statement is found in the Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi, which is commented upon by Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura. When a devotee becomes perfect, he is transferred to a universe where Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes are taking place. Kṛṣṇa’s eternal associates go wherever Kṛṣṇa manifests His pastimes. As stated before, first the father and mother of Kṛṣṇa appear, then the other associates. Quitting his material body, the perfect devotee also goes to associate with Kṛṣṇa and His other associates.

Text

vraje kṛṣṇa — sarvaiśvarya-prakāśe ‘pūrṇatama’
purī-dvaye, paravyome — ‘pūrṇatara’, ‘pūrṇa’

Synonyms

vraje — in Vṛndāvana; kṛṣṇa — Lord Kṛṣṇa; sarva-aiśvarya-prakāśe — manifestation of His full opulence; pūrṇa-tama — most complete; purī-dvaye — in Dvārakā and Mathurā; para-vyome — and in the spiritual world; pūrṇa-tara — more complete; pūrṇa — complete.

Translation

“Kṛṣṇa is complete in the spiritual sky [Vaikuṇṭha], He is more complete in Mathurā and Dvārakā, and He is most complete in Vṛndāvana, Vraja, due to His manifesting all His opulences.

Purport

This is confirmed in the following three verses from the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (2.1.221-223).

Text

hariḥ pūrṇatamaḥ pūrṇa-
taraḥ pūrṇa iti tridhā
śreṣṭha-madhyādibhiḥ śabdair
nāṭye yaḥ paripaṭhyate

Synonyms

hariḥ — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; pūrṇa-tamaḥ — most complete; pūrṇa-taraḥ — more complete; pūrṇaḥ — complete; iti — thus; tridhā — three stages; śreṣṭha — best; madhya-ādibhiḥ — middle, etc.; śabdaiḥ — by the words; nāṭye — in books on dramatics; yaḥ — who; paripaṭhyate — is proclaimed.

Translation

“ ‘This is stated in the dramatic literatures as “perfect,” “more perfect” and “most perfect.” Thus Lord Kṛṣṇa manifests Himself in three ways — perfect, more perfect and most perfect.

Text

prakāśitākhila-guṇaḥ
smṛtaḥ pūrṇatamo budhaiḥ
asarva-vyañjakaḥ pūrṇa-
taraḥ pūrṇo ’lpa-darśakaḥ

Synonyms

prakāśita-akhila-guṇaḥ — having all transcendental qualities manifested; smṛtaḥ — is understood; pūrṇa-tamaḥ — most perfect; budhaiḥ — by learned scholars; asarva-vyañjakaḥ — having qualities not fully manifested; pūrṇa-taraḥ — more perfect; pūrṇaḥ — perfect; alpa-darśakaḥ — still less fully manifested.

Translation

“ ‘When the Supreme Personality of Godhead does not manifest all His transcendental qualities, He is called complete. When all the qualities are manifested, but not fully, He is called more complete. When He manifests all His qualities in fullness, He is called most complete. This is the version of all learned scholars in the devotional science.

Text

kṛṣṇasya pūrṇatamatā
vyaktābhūd gokulāntare
pūrṇatā pūrṇataratā
dvārakā-mathurādiṣu

Synonyms

kṛṣṇasya — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; pūrṇa-tamatā — being most perfect; vyaktā — manifested; abhūt — became; gokula-antare — in the domain of Gokula Vṛndāvana; pūrṇatā — completeness; pūrṇa-taratā — more completeness; dvārakā — in Dvārakā; mathurā-ādiṣu — and Mathurā, and so on.

Translation

“ ‘The most complete qualities of Kṛṣṇa are manifested within Vṛndāvana, and His complete and more complete qualities are manifested in Dvārakā and Mathurā.’

Text

ei kṛṣṇa — vraje ‘pūrṇatama’ bhagavān
āra saba svarūpa — ‘pūrṇatara’ ‘pūrṇa’ nāma

Synonyms

ei kṛṣṇa — the same Kṛṣṇa; vraje — Vṛndāvana; pūrṇa-tama bhagavān — the most complete manifestation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; āra — other; saba — all; svarūpa — forms; pūrṇa-tara — more complete; pūrṇa — complete; nāma — named.

Translation

“Lord Kṛṣṇa is the most complete Supreme Personality of Godhead in Vṛndāvana. Elsewhere all His expansions are either complete or more complete.

Text

saṅkṣepe kahiluṅ kṛṣṇera svarūpa-vicāra
‘ananta’ kahite nāre ihāra vistāra

Synonyms

saṅkṣepe — in brief; kahiluṅ — I have described; kṛṣṇera — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; svarūpa-vicāra — consideration of His different forms and features; ananta — Lord Ananta; kahite nāre — not able to describe; ihāra — of this; vistāra — the expanse.

Translation

“Thus I have briefly described Kṛṣṇa’s manifestation of transcendental forms. This subject matter is so large that even Lord Ananta cannot describe it fully.