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CHAPTER NINETEEN

Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu Instructs Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī

A summary of this chapter is given by Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura in his Amṛta-pravāha-bhāṣya. Meeting Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu in a village called Rāmakeli, two brothers, Rūpa and Sanātana, began to devise means to get out of their government service. They appointed some brāhmaṇas to perform puraścaraṇa ceremonies and chant the holy name of Kṛṣṇa. Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī deposited ten thousand gold coins with a grocer, and the balance he brought in two boats to a place called Bāklā Candradvīpa. There he divided this money among the brāhmaṇas, Vaiṣṇavas and his relatives, and a portion he kept for emergency measures and personal needs. He was informed that Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was going to Vṛndāvana from Jagannātha Purī through the forest of Jhārikhaṇḍa (Jharkhand); therefore he sent two people to Jagannātha Purī to find out when the Lord would leave for Vṛndāvana. In this way Rūpa Gosvāmī retired, but Sanātana Gosvāmī told the Nawab that he was sick and could not attend to his work. Giving this excuse, he sat at home and studied Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam with learned brāhmaṇa scholars. The Nawab Hussain Shah first sent his personal physician to see what the real facts were; then he personally came to see why Sanātana was not attending to official business. Knowing that he wanted to resign his post, the Nawab had him arrested and imprisoned. The Nawab then went off to attack Orissa.

When Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu started for Vṛndāvana through the forest of Jhārikhaṇḍa, Rūpa Gosvāmī left home and sent news to Sanātana that he was leaving with his younger brother (Anupama Mallika) to meet Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī finally reached Prayāga and met with Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu for ten successive days. During this time, Vallabha Bhaṭṭa extended an invitation to the Lord with great respect. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu introduced Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī to Vallabha Bhaṭṭa. After this, a brāhmaṇa scholar named Raghupati Upādhyāya arrived and discussed Kṛṣṇa consciousness with the Lord. Kavirāja Gosvāmī then extensively describes the living condition of Śrī Rūpa and Sanātana at Vṛndāvana. During the ten days at Prayāga, Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī was instructed by the Lord, who gave him the basic principles of the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu. The Lord then sent Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī to Vṛndāvana. The Lord Himself returned to Vārāṇasī and stayed at the home of Candraśekhara.

Text

vṛndāvanīyāṁ rasa-keli-vārtāṁ
kālena luptāṁ nija-śaktim utkaḥ
sañcārya rūpe vyatanot punaḥ sa
prabhur vidhau prāg iva loka-sṛṣṭim

Synonyms

vṛndāvanīyām — related to Vṛndāvana; rasa-keli-vārtām — talks about the pastimes of Śrī Kṛṣṇa; kālena — with the course of time; luptām — lost; nija-śaktim — His personal potency; utkaḥ — being eager; sañcārya — infusing; rūpe — to Rūpa Gosvāmī; vyatanot — manifested; punaḥ — again; saḥ — He; prabhuḥ — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; vidhau — unto Lord Brahmā; prāk iva — as formerly; loka-sṛṣṭim — the creation of this cosmic manifestation.

Translation

Before the creation of this cosmic manifestation, the Lord enlightened the heart of Lord Brahmā with the details of the creation and manifested the Vedic knowledge. In exactly the same way, the Lord, being anxious to revive the Vṛndāvana pastimes of Lord Kṛṣṇa, impregnated the heart of Rūpa Gosvāmī with spiritual potency. By this potency, Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī could revive the activities of Kṛṣṇa in Vṛndāvana, activities almost lost to memory. In this way, He spread Kṛṣṇa consciousness throughout the world.

Text

jaya jaya śrī-caitanya jaya nityānanda
jayādvaita-candra jaya gaura-bhakta-vṛnda

Synonyms

jaya jaya śrī-caitanya — all glories to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; jaya nityānanda — all glories to Lord Nityānanda; jaya advaita-candra — all glories to Advaita Prabhu; jaya gaura-bhakta-vṛnda — all glories to the devotees of the Lord.

Translation

All glories to Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu! All glories to Lord Nityānanda! All glories to Advaitacandra! And all glories to all the devotees of the Lord!

Text

śrī-rūpa-sanātana rahe rāmakeli-grāme
prabhure miliyā gelā āpana-bhavane

Synonyms

śrī-rūpa-sanātana — the brothers named Rūpa and Sanātana; rahe — stayed; rāmakeli-grāme — in Rāmakeli; prabhure — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; miliyā — meeting; gelā — went back; āpana-bhavane — to their own homes.

Translation

After meeting Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu in the village of Rāmakeli, the brothers Rūpa and Sanātana returned to their homes.

Text

dui-bhāi viṣaya-tyāgera upāya sṛjila
bahu-dhana diyā dui brāhmaṇe varila

Synonyms

dui-bhāi — the two brothers; viṣaya-tyāgera — of giving up material activities; upāya sṛjila — discovered a means; bahu-dhana — much money; diyā — paying; dui brāhmaṇe — two brāhmaṇas; varila — appointed.

Translation

The two brothers devised a means whereby they could give up their material activities. For this purpose, they appointed two brāhmaṇas and paid them a large amount of money.

Text

kṛṣṇa-mantre karāila dui puraścaraṇa
acirāt pāibāre caitanya-caraṇa

Synonyms

kṛṣṇa-mantre — in the holy mantra Hare Kṛṣṇa; karāila — caused to perform; dui — two; puraścaraṇa — religious ceremonies; acirāt — without delay; pāibāre — to get; caitanya-caraṇa — the shelter of the lotus feet of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

Translation

The brāhmaṇas performed religious ceremonies and chanted the holy name of Kṛṣṇa so that the two brothers might attain shelter at the lotus feet of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu very soon.

Purport

A puraścaraṇa is a ritualistic ceremony performed under the guidance of an expert spiritual master or a brāhmaṇa. It is performed for the fulfillment of certain desires. One rises early in the morning, chants the Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra, performs arcana by the ārati ceremony and worships the Deities. These activities are described in Madhya-līlā, fifteenth chapter, verse 108.

Text

śrī-rūpa-gosāñi tabe naukāte bhariyā
āpanāra ghare āilā bahu-dhana lañā

Synonyms

śrī-rūpa-gosāñi — Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī; tabe — thereafter; naukāte bhariyā — filling boats; āpanāra ghare — to his own house; āilā — returned; bahu-dhana lañā — taking large amounts of riches.

Translation

At this time, Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī returned home, taking with him large quantities of riches loaded in boats.

Text

brāhmaṇa-vaiṣṇave dilā tāra ardha-dhane
eka cauṭhi dhana dilā kuṭumba-bharaṇe

Synonyms

brāhmaṇa-vaiṣṇave — to the brāhmaṇas and Vaiṣṇavas; dilā — gave as charity; tāra — of the riches; ardha-dhane — fifty percent; eka cauṭhi dhana — one-fourth of the riches; dilā — gave; kuṭumba-bharaṇe — to satisfy the relatives.

Translation

Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī divided the wealth that he brought back home. He gave fifty percent in charity to brāhmaṇas and Vaiṣṇavas and twenty-five percent to his relatives.

Purport

This is a practical example of how one should divide his money and retire from household life. Fifty percent of one’s money should be distributed to qualified and pure devotees of the Lord. Twenty-five percent may be given to family members, and twenty-five percent may be kept for personal use in case of emergency.

Text

daṇḍa-bandha lāgi’ cauṭhi sañcaya karilā
bhāla-bhāla vipra-sthāne sthāpya rākhilā

Synonyms

daṇḍa-bandha lāgi’ — in case of legal implications; cauṭhi — one-fourth; sañcaya karilā — he collected; bhāla-bhāla — very respectable; vipra-sthāne — in the custody of a brāhmaṇa; sthāpya rākhilā — kept deposited.

Translation

He kept one-fourth of his wealth with a respectable brāhmaṇa. He kept this for his personal safety because he was expecting some legal complications.

Text

gauḍe rākhila mudrā daśa-hājāre
sanātana vyaya kare, rākhe mudi-ghare

Synonyms

gauḍe — in Bengal; rākhila — kept; mudrā — coins; daśa-hājāre — ten thousand; sanātana — his elder brother; vyaya kare — spent; rākhe — deposited; mudi-ghare — in the place of a local grocer.

Translation

He deposited ten thousand coins, which were later spent by Śrī Sanātana Gosvāmī, in the custody of a local Bengali grocer.

Text

śrī-rūpa śunila prabhura nīlādri-gamana
vana-pathe yābena prabhu śrī-vṛndāvana

Synonyms

śrī-rūpa — Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī; śunila — heard; prabhura — of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; nīlādri-gamana — departure for Jagannātha Purī; vana-pathe — on the path through the forest; yābena — will go; prabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; śrī-vṛndāvana — to Vṛndāvana.

Translation

Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī heard that Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu had returned to Jagannātha Purī and was preparing to go to Vṛndāvana through the forest.

Text

rūpa-gosāñi nīlācale pāṭhāila dui-jana
prabhu yabe vṛndāvana karena gamana

Synonyms

rūpa-gosāñi — Rūpa Gosvāmī; nīlācale — to Jagannātha Purī; pāṭhāila — sent; dui-jana — two persons; prabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; yabe — when; vṛndāvana — to Vṛndāvana; karena — makes; gamana — departure.

Translation

Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī sent two people to Jagannātha Purī to find out when Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu would depart for Vṛndāvana.

Text

śīghra āsi’ more tāṅra dibā samācāra
śuniyā tad-anurūpa kariba vyavahāra

Synonyms

śīghra āsi’ — very hastily returning; more — unto me; tāṅra — His; dibā — give; samācāra — news; śuniyā — hearing; tat-anurūpa — accordingly; kariba — I shall make; vyavahāra — arrangements.

Translation

Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī told the two men, “You are to return quickly and let me know when He will depart. Then I shall make the proper arrangements.”

Text

ethā sanātana-gosāñi bhāve mane mana
rājā more prīti kare, se — mora bandhana

Synonyms

ethā — here (in Gauḍa-deśa); sanātana-gosāñi — the elder brother, Sanātana Gosvāmī; bhāve — considers; mane mana — in the mind; rājā — the Nawab; more — me; prīti kare — loves very much; se — that; mora — my; bandhana — great obligation.

Translation

While Sanātana Gosvāmī was in Gauḍa-deśa, he was thinking, “The Nawab is very pleased with me. I certainly have an obligation.

Text

kona mate rājā yadi more kruddha haya
tabe avyāhati haya, kariluṅ niścaya

Synonyms

kona mate — somehow or other; rājā — the Nawab; yadi — if; more — upon me; kruddha haya — becomes angry; tabe — then; avyāhati — escape; haya — there is; kariluṅ niścaya — I have decided.

Translation

“If the Nawab somehow or other becomes angry with me, I shall be greatly relieved. That is my conclusion.”

Text

asvāsthyera chadma kari’ rahe nija-ghare
rāja-kārya chāḍilā, nā yāya rāja-dvāre

Synonyms

asvāsthyera — of not being well; chadma — pretext; kari’ — making; rahe — remains; nija-ghare — at home; rāja-kārya — government service; chāḍilā — relinquished; yāya — did not go; rāja-dvāre — to the court of the Nawab.

Translation

On the pretext of bad health, Sanātana Gosvāmī remained home. Thus he gave up government service and did not go to the royal court.

Text

lobhī kāyastha-gaṇa rāja-kārya kare
āpane svagṛhe kare śāstrera vicāre

Synonyms

lobhī — greedy; kāyastha-gaṇa — persons engaged in secretarial and clerical work; rāja-kārya kare — executed the government service; āpane — personally; sva-gṛhe — at home; kare — did; śāstrera vicāre — discussion of the revealed scriptures.

Translation

The greedy masters of his clerical and secretarial staff performed the government duties while Sanātana personally remained home and discussed the revealed scriptures.

Purport

Sanātana Gosvāmī was the minister in charge of the government secretariat, and his assistants — the undersecretaries and clerks — all belonged to the kāyastha community. Formerly the kāyasthas belonged to the clerical and secretarial staff of the government, and later if one served in such a post, he was called a kāyastha. Eventually if a person could not identify himself as a brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya or śūdra, he used to introduce himself as a kāyastha to get a wealthy and honorable position. In Bengal it is said that if one cannot give the identity of his caste, he calls himself a kāyastha. On the whole, the kāyastha community is a mixture of all castes, and it especially includes those engaged in clerical or secretarial work. Materially such people are always busy occupying responsible government posts.

When Sanātana Gosvāmī was relaxing and feeling inclined to retire from government service, many kāyasthas on his secretarial staff were very eager to occupy his post. In this regard, Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura states that when Sanātana Gosvāmī was a government minister and the kāyasthas who assisted him saw that he was reluctant to continue, they became very expert in their duties. Sanātana Gosvāmī was a brāhmaṇa belonging to the Sārasvata brāhmaṇa community. It is said that when he resigned, a subordinate named Purandara Khān, who was a kāyastha, occupied his post.

Text

bhaṭṭācārya paṇḍita biśa triśa lañā
bhāgavata vicāra karena sabhāte vasiyā

Synonyms

bhaṭṭācārya paṇḍita — learned scholars known as bhaṭṭācāryas; biśa triśa — twenty or thirty; lañā — taking with him; bhāgavata vicāra — discussion of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam; karena — does; sabhāte vasiyā — sitting in an assembly.

Translation

Śrī Sanātana Gosvāmī used to discuss Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam in an assembly of twenty or thirty learned brāhmaṇa scholars.

Purport

Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura gives the following commentary on the words bhāgavata vicāra. As confirmed in the Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad (1.1.4-5), there are two kinds of educational systems:

dve vidye veditavya iti, ha sma yad brahma-vido vadanti — parā caivāparā ca. tatrāparā ṛg-vedo yajur-vedaḥ sāma-vedo ’tharva-vedaḥ śikṣā kalpo vyākaraṇaṁ niruktaṁ chando jyotiṣam iti. atha parā yayā tad akṣaram adhigamyate.

“There are two kinds of educational systems. One deals with transcendental knowledge [parā vidyā] and the other with material knowledge [aparā vidyā]. All the Vedas — the Ṛg Veda, Yajur Veda, Sāma Veda and Atharva Veda, along with their corollaries, known as śikṣā, kalpa, vyākaraṇa, nirukta, chanda and jyotiṣa — belong to the inferior system of material knowledge [aparā vidyā]. By parā vidyā one can understand the akṣara — Brahman or the Absolute Truth.” As far as the Vedic literature is concerned, the Vedānta-sūtra is accepted as the parā vidyā. Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam is an explanation of that parā vidyā. Those who aspire for liberation (mukti or mokṣa) and introduce themselves as vaidāntika are also equal to those groups aspiring to improve religion (dharma), economic development (artha) and sense gratification (kāma). Dharma, artha, kāma and mokṣa are called catur-varga. They are all within the system of inferior, material knowledge. Any literature giving information about the spiritual world, spiritual life, spiritual identity and the spirit soul is called parā vidyā. Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam does not have anything to do with the materialistic way of life; it gives transcendental information to educate people in the superior system of parā vidyā. Sanātana Gosvāmī was engaged in discussing the bhāgavata-vidyā, which means he discussed transcendental superior knowledge. Those who are karmīs, jñānīs or yogīs are not actually fit to discuss Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. Only Vaiṣṇavas, or pure devotees, are fit to discuss that literature. As stated in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam itself (12.13.18):

śrīmad-bhāgavataṁ purāṇam amalaṁ yad vaiṣṇavānāṁ priyaṁ
yasmin pāramahaṁsyam ekam amalaṁ jñānaṁ paraṁ gīyate
yatra jñāna-virāga-bhakti-sahitaṁ naiṣkarmyam āviṣkṛtaṁ
tac chṛṇvan supaṭhan vicāraṇa-paro bhaktyā vimucyen naraḥ

Although Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam is counted among the Purāṇas, it is called the spotless Purāṇa. Because it does not discuss anything material, it is liked by transcendental Vaiṣṇava devotees. The subject matter found in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam is meant for paramahaṁsas. As it is said, paramo nirmatsarāṇāṁ satāṁ vedyam. A paramahaṁsa is one who does not live in the material world and who does not envy others. In Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, devotional service is discussed to arouse the living entity to the transcendental position of jñāna (knowledge) and vairāgya (renunciation). As stated in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (1.2.12):

tac chraddadhānāḥ munayojñāna-vairāgya-yuktayā
paśyanty ātmani cātmānaṁ
bhaktyā śruta-gṛhītayā

“The seriously inquisitive student or sage, well equipped with knowledge and detachment, realizes that Absolute Truth by rendering devotional service in terms of what he has heard from the Vedānta-śruti.”

This is not sentiment. Knowledge and renunciation can be obtained through devotional service (bhaktyā śruta-gṛhītayā), that is, by arousing one’s dormant devotional consciousness, Kṛṣṇa consciousness. When Kṛṣṇa consciousness is aroused, it relieves one from fruitive activity, activity for economic improvement and material enjoyment. This relief is technically called naiṣkarmya, and when one is relieved, he is no longer interested in working hard for sense gratification. Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam is Śrīla Vyāsadeva’s last, mature contribution, and one should read and hear it in an assembly of realized souls while engaging in devotional service. At such a time one can be liberated from all material bondage. This was the course taken by Sanātana Gosvāmī, who retired from government service to study Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam with learned scholars.

Text

āra dina gauḍeśvara, saṅge eka-jana
ācambite gosāñi-sabhāte kaila āgamana

Synonyms

āra dina — one day; gauḍa-īśvara — the Nawab of Bengal; saṅge — with; eka-jana — one other person; ācambite — suddenly; gosāñi-sabhāte — in the assembly of Sanātana Gosvāmī; kaila āgamana — came.

Translation

While Sanātana Gosvāmī was studying Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam in the assembly of learned brāhmaṇas, one day the Nawab of Bengal and another person suddenly appeared.

Purport

The full name of the Nawab of Bengal (Hussain Shah) was Ālāuddīna Saiyada Husena Sāha Seripha Makkā, and he ruled Bengal for twenty-three years, from 1420 to 1443 Śakābda Era (A.D. 1498 to 1521). Sanātana Gosvāmī was studying Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam with the scholars in the year 1424 (A.D. 1502).

Text

pātsāha dekhiyā sabe sambhrame uṭhilā
sambhrame āsana diyā rājāre vasāilā

Synonyms

pātsāha dekhiyā — seeing the Nawab; sabe — all of them; sambhrame — in great respect; uṭhilā — stood up; sambhrame — with great respect; āsana diyā — giving a sitting place; rājāre — the King; vasāilā — made to sit.

Translation

As soon as all the brāhmaṇas and Sanātana Gosvāmī saw the Nawab appear, they all stood up and respectfully gave him a sitting place to honor him.

Purport

Although Nawab Hussain Shah was a mleccha-yavana, he was nonetheless the governor of the country, and the learned scholars and Sanātana Gosvāmī offered him all the respect due a king or a governor. When a person occupies an exalted executive post, one should consider that he has acquired the grace of the Lord. In the Bhagavad-gītā (10.41) Lord Kṛṣṇa says:

yad yad vibhūtimat sattvaṁśrīmad ūrjitam eva vā
tat tad evāvagaccha tvaṁ
mama tejo-’ṁśa-sambhavam

“Know that all opulent, beautiful and glorious creations spring from but a spark of My splendor.”

Whenever we see something exalted, we must consider it part of the power of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. A powerful man (vibhūtimat sattvam) is one who has obtained the grace of the Lord or has derived some power from Him. In the Bhagavad-gītā (7.10) Kṛṣṇa says, tejas tejasvinām aham: “I am the power of the powerful.” The learned brāhmaṇa scholars showed respect to Nawab Hussain Shah because he represented a fraction of Kṛṣṇa’s power.

Text

rājā kahe, — tomāra sthāne vaidya pāṭhāiluṅ
vaidya kahe, — vyādhi nāhi, sustha ye dekhiluṅ

Synonyms

rājā kahe — the Nawab said; tomāra sthāne — to your place; vaidya — a physician; pāṭhāiluṅ — I sent; vaidya kahe — the physician said; vyādhi nāhi — there is no disease; sustha — completely healthy; ye — that; dekhiluṅ — I have seen.

Translation

The Nawab said, “I sent my physician to you, and he has reported that you are not diseased. As far as he could see, you are completely healthy.

Text

āmāra ye kichu kārya, saba tomā lañā
kārya chāḍi’ rahilā tumi gharete vasiyā

Synonyms

āmāra — my; ye kichu — whatever; kārya — business; saba — everything; tomā — you; lañā — with; kārya chāḍi’ — giving up your duties; rahilā — remained; tumi — you; gharete — at home; vasiyā — sitting.

Translation

“I am depending on you to carry out so many of my activities, but you have given up your governmental duties to sit here at home.

Text

mora yata kārya-kāma, saba kailā nāśa
ki tomāra hṛdaye āche, kaha mora pāśa

Synonyms

mora — my; yata — all; kārya-kāma — occupational duties; saba — everything; kailā nāśa — you have spoiled; ki — what; tomāra — your; hṛdaye — within the heart; āche — there is; kaha — kindly tell; mora pāśa — to me.

Translation

“You have spoiled all my activities. What is your intention? Please tell me frankly.”

Text

sanātana kahe, — nahe āmā haite kāma
āra eka-jana diyā kara samādhāna

Synonyms

sanātana kahe — Sanātana Gosvāmī replied; nahe — not; āmā — me; haite — from; kāma — execution of the duty; āra eka-jana — someone else; diyā — by means of; kara samādhāna — execute the management.

Translation

Sanātana Gosvāmī replied, “You can no longer expect any service from me. Please arrange for someone else to tend to the management.”

Text

tabe kruddha hañā rājā kahe āra-bāra
tomāra ‘baḍa bhāi’ kare dasyu-vyavahāra

Synonyms

tabe — at that time; kruddha hañā — becoming angry; rājā kahe — the Nawab said; āra-bāra — again; tomāra baḍa bhāi — your elder brother; kare — does; dasyu-vyavahāra — the activity of a plunderer.

Translation

Becoming angry with Sanātana Gosvāmī, the Nawab said, “Your elder brother is acting just like a plunderer.

Text

jīva-bahu māri’ kaila cāklā saba nāśa
ethā tumi kailā mora sarva kārya nāśa

Synonyms

jīva — living entities; bahu — many; māri’ — killing; kaila — did; cāklā — the province of Bengal; saba — all; nāśa — destruction; ethā — here; tumi — you; kailā — did; mora — my; sarva — all; kārya — plans; nāśa — destruction.

Translation

“By killing many living entities, your elder brother has destroyed all Bengal. Now here you are destroying all my plans.”

Text

sanātana kahe, — tumi svatantra gauḍeśvara
ye yei doṣa kare, deha’ tāra phala

Synonyms

sanātana kahe — Sanātana Gosvāmī said; tumi — you; svatantra — independent; gauḍa-īśvara — the ruler of Bengal; ye yei — whatever; doṣa — faults; kare — one commits; deha’ — you award; tāra phala — the results of that.

Translation

Sanātana Gosvāmī said, “You are the supreme ruler of Bengal and are completely independent. Whenever someone commits a fault, you punish him accordingly.”

Text

eta śuni’ gauḍeśvara uṭhi’ ghare gelā
palāiba bali’ sanātanere bāndhilā

Synonyms

eta śuni’ — hearing this; gauḍa-īśvara — the Nawab of Bengal; uṭhi’ — standing up; ghare gelā — went back home; palāiba — I shall run away; bali’ — because of this; sanātanere bāndhilā — he arrested Sanātana.

Translation

Hearing this, the Nawab of Bengal stood up and returned to his home. He ordered the arrest of Sanātana Gosvāmī so that he would not be able to leave.

Purport

It is said that the relationship between the Nawab of Bengal and Sanātana Gosvāmī was very intimate. The Nawab used to consider Sanātana Gosvāmī his younger brother, and when Sanātana Gosvāmī showed a very strong intention to resign, the Nawab, feeling familial affection, essentially said, “I am your elder brother, but I do not look after the state management. My only business is attacking other states with my soldiers and fighting everywhere as a plunderer. Because I am a meat-eater [yavana], I am used to hunting all kinds of living beings. In this way I am destroying all kinds of living entities in Bengal. While engaged in this destructive business, I am hoping that you will tend to the administration of the state. Since I, your elder brother, am engaged in such a destructive business, you, being my younger brother, should look after the state management. If you do not, how will things continue?” This talk was based on a family relationship, and Sanātana Gosvāmī also replied in an intimate and joking way. Essentially he told the Nawab, “My dear brother, you are the independent ruler of Bengal. You can act in whatever way you like, and if someone commits a fault, you can punish him accordingly.” In other words, Sanātana Gosvāmī was saying that since the Nawab was accustomed to acting like a plunderer, he should go ahead and take action. Since Sanātana was not showing much enthusiasm for performing his duty, the Nawab should dismiss him from his service. The Nawab could understand the intention of Sanātana Gosvāmī’s statement. He therefore left in an angry mood and ordered Sanātana Gosvāmī’s arrest.

Text

hena-kāle gela rājā uḍiyā mārite
sanātane kahe, — tumi cala mora sāthe

Synonyms

hena-kāle — at this time; gela — went; rājā — the King; uḍiyā mārite — to attack the Orissa province; sanātane kahe — he said to Sanātana Gosvāmī; tumi cala — you come; mora sāthe — along with me.

Translation

At this time the Nawab was going to attack the province of Orissa, and he told Sanātana Gosvāmī, “Come along with me.”

Purport

Hussain Shah attacked the neighboring province of Orissa in 1424 Śakābda Era (A.D. 1502). At that time he conquered the feudal princes there.

Text

teṅho kahe, — yābe tumi devatāya duḥkha dite
mora śakti nāhi, tomāra saṅge yāite

Synonyms

teṅho kahe — Sanātana Gosvāmī replied; yābe — will go; tumi — you; devatāya — to the Supreme Personality of Godhead; duḥkha dite — to give unhappiness; mora śakti — my power; nāhi — there is not; tomāra saṅge — in company with you; yāite — to go.

Translation

Sanātana Gosvāmī replied, “You are going to Orissa to give pain to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. For this reason I am powerless to go with you.”

Text

tabe tāṅre bāndhi’ rākhi’ karilā gamana
ethā nīlācala haite prabhu calilā vṛndāvana

Synonyms

tabe — thereafter; tāṅre — him; bāndhi’ — arresting; rākhi’ — keeping; karilā gamana — he went away; ethā — at this time; nīlācala haite — from Jagannātha Purī; prabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; calilā vṛndāvana — departed for Vṛndāvana.

Translation

The Nawab again arrested Sanātana Gosvāmī and kept him in prison. At this time, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu departed for Vṛndāvana from Jagannātha Purī.

Text

tabe sei dui cara rūpa-ṭhāñi āila
‘vṛndāvana calilā prabhu’ — āsiyā kahila

Synonyms

tabe — at that time; sei — those; dui — two; cara — messengers; rūpa-ṭhāñi — into the presence of Rūpa Gosvāmī; āila — came back; vṛndāvana calilā prabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu has departed for Vṛndāvana; āsiyā — coming; kahila — they informed.

Translation

The two persons who went to Jagannātha Purī to inquire about the Lord’s departure returned and informed Rūpa Gosvāmī that the Lord had already departed for Vṛndāvana.

Text

śuniyā śrī-rūpa likhila sanātana-ṭhāñi
‘vṛndāvana calilā śrī-caitanya-gosāñi

Synonyms

śuniyā — hearing; śrī-rūpa — Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī; likhila — wrote; sanātana-ṭhāñi — to Sanātana Gosvāmī; vṛndāvana — to Vṛndāvana; calilā — has gone; śrī-caitanya-gosāñi — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

Translation

Upon receiving this message from his two messengers, Rūpa Gosvāmī immediately wrote a letter to Sanātana Gosvāmī saying that Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu had departed for Vṛndāvana.

Text

āmi-dui-bhāi calilāṅa tāṅhāre milite
tumi yaiche taiche chuṭi’ āisa tāhāṅ haite

Synonyms

āmi-dui-bhāi — we two brothers; calilāṅa — have gone; tāṅhāre milite — to meet Him; tumi — you; yaiche taiche — somehow or other; chuṭi’ — getting free; āisa — come; tāhāṅ haite — from there.

Translation

In his letter to Sanātana Gosvāmī, Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī wrote, “We two brothers are starting out to go see Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. You must also somehow or other get released and come meet us.”

Purport

The two brothers herein mentioned are Rūpa Gosvāmī and his younger brother, Anupama Mallika. Rūpa Gosvāmī was informing Sanātana Gosvāmī that he should join him and his younger brother.

Text

daśa-sahasra mudrā tathā āche mudi-sthāne
tāhā diyā kara śīghra ātma-vimocane

Synonyms

daśa-sahasra mudrā — ten thousand coins; tathā — there; āche — there are; mudi-sthāne — in the grocer’s place; tāhā diyā — with this amount; kara — get; śīghra — as soon as possible; ātma-vimocane — release from the internment.

Translation

Rūpa Gosvāmī further informed Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī: “I have left a deposit of ten thousand coins with the grocer. Use that money to get out of prison.

Text

yaiche taiche chuṭi’ tumi āisa vṛndāvana’
eta likhi’ dui-bhāi karilā gamana

Synonyms

yaiche taiche — somehow or other; chuṭi’ — getting released; tumi — you; āisa — come; vṛndāvana — to Vṛndāvana; eta likhi’ — writing this; dui-bhāi — the two brothers, namely Rūpa Gosvāmī and his younger brother, Anupama; karilā gamana — departed.

Translation

“Somehow or other get yourself released and come to Vṛndāvana.” After writing this, the two brothers [Rūpa Gosvāmī and Anupama] went to see Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

Text

anupama mallika, tāṅra nāma — ‘śrī-vallabha’
rūpa-gosāñira choṭa-bhāi — parama-vaiṣṇava

Synonyms

anupama mallika — Anupama Mallika; tāṅra nāma — his name; śrī-vallabha — Śrī Vallabha; rūpa-gosāñira — of Rūpa Gosvāmī; choṭa-bhāi — younger brother; parama-vaiṣṇava — great devotee.

Translation

Rūpa Gosvāmī’s younger brother was a great devotee whose actual name was Śrī Vallabha, but he was given the name Anupama Mallika.

Text

tāṅhā lañā rūpa-gosāñi prayāge āilā
mahāprabhu tāhāṅ śuni’ ānandita hailā

Synonyms

tāṅhā lañā — taking him along; rūpa-gosāñi — Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī; prayāge — to Prayāga; āilā — came; mahāprabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; tāhāṅ — there; śuni’ — hearing; ānandita hailā — were very pleased.

Translation

Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī and Anupama Mallika went to Prayāga, and they were very pleased to hear the news that Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was there.

Text

prabhu caliyāchena bindu-mādhava-daraśane
lakṣa lakṣa loka āise prabhura milane

Synonyms

prabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; caliyāchena — was going; bindu-mādhava-daraśane — to see Lord Bindu Mādhava; lakṣa lakṣa loka — many hundreds of thousands of people; āise — came; prabhura — with Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; milane — for meeting.

Translation

At Prayāga, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu went to see the temple of Bindu Mādhava, and many hundreds of thousands of people followed Him just to meet Him.

Text

keha kānde, keha hāse, keha nāce, gāya
‘kṛṣṇa’ ‘kṛṣṇa’ bali’ keha gaḍāgaḍi yāya

Synonyms

keha kānde — some cried; keha hāse — some laughed; keha nāce — some danced; gāya — chanted; kṛṣṇa kṛṣṇa bali’ — saying “Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa”; keha — some; gaḍāgaḍi yāya — rolled on the ground.

Translation

Some of the people following the Lord were crying. Some were laughing, some dancing and some chanting. Indeed, some of them were rolling on the ground, exclaiming “Kṛṣṇa! Kṛṣṇa!”

Text

gaṅgā-yamunā prayāga nārila ḍubāite
prabhu ḍubāila kṛṣṇa-premera vanyāte

Synonyms

gaṅgā-yamunā — the river Ganges and river Yamunā; prayāga — Prayāga; nārila — were not able; ḍubāite — to flood; prabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; ḍubāila — flooded; kṛṣṇa-premera — of ecstatic love of Kṛṣṇa; vanyāte — in an inundation.

Translation

Prayāga is located at the confluence of two rivers — the Ganges and the Yamunā. Although these rivers were not able to flood Prayāga with water, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu inundated the whole area with waves of ecstatic love for Kṛṣṇa.

Text

bhiḍa dekhi’ dui bhāi rahilā nirjane
prabhura āveśa haila mādhava-daraśane

Synonyms

bhiḍa dekhi’ — seeing the crowd; dui bhāi — the two brothers; rahilā — remained; nirjane — in a secluded place; prabhura — of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; āveśa — ecstasy; haila — there was; mādhava-daraśane — by seeing the Deity, Bindu Mādhava.

Translation

Seeing the great crowd, the two brothers remained standing in a secluded place. They could see that Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was ecstatic to see Lord Bindu Mādhava.

Text

premāveśe nāce prabhu hari-dhvani kari’
ūrdhva-bāhu kari’ bale — bala ‘hari’ ‘hari’

Synonyms

prema-āveśe — in ecstatic love; nāce — danced; prabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; hari-dhvani kari’ — vibrating the holy name of Hari; ūrdhva — raised; bāhu — the arms; kari’ — making; bale — says; bala hari hari — chant “Hari, Hari”.

Translation

The Lord was loudly chanting the holy name of Hari. Dancing in ecstatic love and raising His arms, He asked everyone to chant “Hari! Hari!”

Text

prabhura mahimā dekhi’ loke camatkāra
prayāge prabhura līlā nāri varṇibāra

Synonyms

prabhura — of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; mahimā — the greatness; dekhi’ — seeing; loke — in all people; camatkāra — astonishment; prayāge — at Prayāga; prabhura — of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; līlā — the pastimes; nāri — I am not able; varṇibāra — to describe.

Translation

Everyone was astounded to see the greatness of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Indeed, I cannot properly describe the pastimes of the Lord at Prayāga.

Text

dākṣiṇātya-vipra-sane āche paricaya
sei vipra nimantriyā nila nijālaya

Synonyms

dākṣiṇātya — Deccan; vipra-sane — with a brāhmaṇa; āche — there was; paricaya — acquaintance; sei — that; vipra — brāhmaṇa; nimantriyā — inviting; nila — brought; nija-ālaya — to his own place.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu had made an acquaintance with a brāhmaṇa from Deccan [in South India], and that brāhmaṇa invited Him for meals and took Him to his place.

Text

vipra-gṛhe āsi’ prabhu nibhṛte vasilā
śrī-rūpa-vallabha duṅhe āsiyā mililā

Synonyms

vipra-gṛhe — to the house of that brāhmaṇa; āsi’ — coming; prabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; nibhṛte — in a solitary place; vasilā — sat down; śrī-rūpa-vallabha — the two brothers Rūpa Gosvāmī and Śrī Vallabha; duṅhe — both of them; āsiyā — coming; mililā — met Him.

Translation

While Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was sitting in a solitary place in the home of that Deccan brāhmaṇa, Rūpa Gosvāmī and Śrī Vallabha [Anupama Mallika] came to meet Him.

Text

dui-guccha tṛṇa duṅhe daśane dhariyā
prabhu dekhi’ dūre paḍe daṇḍavat hañā

Synonyms

dui-guccha — two bunches; tṛṇa — straw; duṅhe — both of them; daśane dhariyā — holding in the teeth; prabhu dekhi’ — seeing the Lord; dūre — in a distant place; paḍe — fell down; daṇḍa-vat — like rods; hañā — becoming.

Translation

Seeing the Lord from a distance, the two brothers put two clumps of straw between their teeth and immediately fell down on the ground like rods, offering Him obeisances.

Text

nānā śloka paḍi’ uṭhe, paḍe bāra bāra
prabhu dekhi’ premāveśa ha-ila duṅhara

Synonyms

nānā — various; śloka — verses; paḍi’ — reciting; uṭhe — stood up; paḍe — fell down; bāra bāra — again and again; prabhu dekhi’ — seeing the Lord; prema-āveśa — ecstatic emotion; ha-ila — there was; duṅhāra — of both of them.

Translation

Both brothers were overwhelmed with ecstatic emotion, and reciting various Sanskrit verses, they stood up and fell down again and again.

Text

śrī-rūpe dekhiyā prabhura prasanna haila mana
‘uṭha, uṭha, rūpa, āisa’, balilā vacana

Synonyms

śrī-rūpe dekhiyā — seeing Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī; prabhura — of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; prasanna — very pleased; haila — was; mana — mind; uṭha — please stand up; uṭha — please stand up; rūpa — My dear Rūpa; āisa — come; balilā — He said; vacana — the words.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was very pleased to see Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī, and He told him, “Stand up! Stand up! My dear Rūpa, come here.”

Text

kṛṣṇera karuṇā kichu nā yāya varṇane
viṣaya-kūpa haite kāḍila tomā dui-jane

Synonyms

kṛṣṇera — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; karuṇā — the mercy; kichu — any; — not; yāya — is possible; varṇane — to describe; viṣaya-kūpa haite — from the well of material enjoyment; kāḍila — delivered; tomā — you; dui-jane — both.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu then said, “It is not possible to describe Kṛṣṇa’s mercy, for He has delivered you both from the well of material enjoyment.

Text

na me ’bhaktaś catur-vedī
mad-bhaktaḥ śva-pacaḥ priyaḥ
tasmai deyaṁ tato grāhyaṁ
sa ca pūjyo yathā hy aham

Synonyms

na — not; me — My; abhaktaḥ — devoid of pure devotional service; catuḥ-vedī — a scholar in the four Vedas; mat-bhaktaḥ — My devotee; śva-pacaḥ — even from a family of dog-eaters; priyaḥ — very dear; tasmai — to him (a pure devotee, even though born in a very low family); deyam — should be given; tataḥ — from him; grāhyam — should be accepted (remnants of food); saḥ — that person; ca — also; pūjyaḥ — worshipable; yathā — as much as; hi — certainly; aham — I.

Translation

“[Lord Kṛṣṇa said:] ‘Even though a person is a very learned scholar of the Sanskrit Vedic literatures, he is not accepted as My devotee unless he is pure in devotional service. Even though a person is born in a family of dog-eaters, he is very dear to Me if he is a pure devotee who has no motive to enjoy fruitive activities or mental speculation. Indeed, all respects should be given to him, and whatever he offers should be accepted. Such devotees are as worshipable as I am.”’

Purport

This verse is included in the Hari-bhakti-vilāsa (10.127), compiled by Sanātana Gosvāmī.

Text

ei śloka paḍi’ duṅhāre kailā āliṅgana
kṛpāte duṅhāra māthāya dharilā caraṇa

Synonyms

ei śloka — this verse; paḍi’ — reciting; duṅhāre — the two brothers; kailā āliṅgana — embraced; kṛpāte — out of causeless mercy; duṅhāra — of the two of them; māthāya — on the heads; dharilā — placed; caraṇa — His feet.

Translation

After reciting this verse, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu embraced the two brothers, and out of His causeless mercy He placed His feet on their heads.

Text

prabhu-kṛpā pāñā duṅhe dui hāta yuḍi’
dīna hañā stuti kare vinaya ācari’

Synonyms

prabhu-kṛpā — the Lord’s mercy; pāñā — getting; duṅhe — the two of them; dui — two; hāta — hands; yuḍi’ — folding; dīna hañā — most humbly; stuti kare — offer prayers; vinaya ācari’ — with submission.

Translation

After receiving the Lord’s causeless mercy, the two brothers folded their hands and in great humility offered the following prayers unto the Lord.

Text

namo mahā-vadānyāya
kṛṣṇa-prema-pradāya te
kṛṣṇāya kṛṣṇa-caitanya-
nāmne gaura-tviṣe namaḥ

Synonyms

namaḥ — obeisances; mahā-vadānyāya — who is most munificent and charitably disposed; kṛṣṇa-prema — love of Kṛṣṇa; pradāya — who can give; te — unto You; kṛṣṇāya — the original Personality of Godhead; kṛṣṇa-caitanya-nāmne — under the name Kṛṣṇa Caitanya; gaura-tviṣe — whose complexion is the golden complexion of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; namaḥ — obeisances.

Translation

“O most munificent incarnation! You are Kṛṣṇa Himself appearing as Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya Mahāprabhu. You have assumed the golden color of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, and You are widely distributing pure love of Kṛṣṇa. We offer our respectful obeisances unto You.

Text

yo ’jñāna-mattaṁ bhuvanaṁ dayālur
ullāghayann apy akarot pramattam
sva-prema-sampat-sudhayādbhutehaṁ
śrī-kṛṣṇa-caitanyam amuṁ prapadye

Synonyms

yaḥ — that Personality of Godhead who; ajñāna-mattam — maddened by ignorance or foolishly passing time in karma, jñāna, yoga and Māyāvāda philosophy; bhuvanam — the entire three worlds; dayāluḥ — so merciful; ullāghayan — subduing such processes as karma, jñāna and yoga; api — despite; akarot — made; pramattam — maddened; sva-prema-sampat-sudhayā — by the nectar of His personal devotional service, which is an invaluable treasure of bliss; adbhuta-īham — whose activities are wonderful; śrī-kṛṣṇa-caitanyam — unto Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; amum — that; prapadye — I surrender.

Translation

“We offer our respectful obeisances unto that merciful Supreme Personality of Godhead who has converted all three worlds, which were maddened by ignorance, and saved them from their diseased condition by making them mad with the nectar from the treasure-house of love of God. Let us take full shelter of that Personality of Godhead, Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya, whose activities are wonderful.”

Purport

This verse is found in the Govinda-līlāmṛta (1.2).

Text

tabe mahāprabhu tāṅre nikaṭe vasāilā
‘sanātanera vārtā kaha’ — tāṅhāre puchilā

Synonyms

tabe — thereafter; mahāprabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; tāṅre — them; nikaṭe — near Him; vasāilā — sat down; sanātanera vārtā — news of Sanātana; kaha — please tell; tāṅhāre — them; puchilā — questioned.

Translation

After this, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu sat them down by His side and asked them, “What news do you have of Sanātana?”

Text

rūpa kahena, — teṅho bandī haya rāja-ghare
tumi yadi uddhāra’, tabe ha-ibe uddhāre

Synonyms

rūpa kahena — Rūpa Gosvāmī said; teṅho — he; bandī — arrested; haya — is; rāja-ghare — in the court of the government; tumi — You; yadi — if; uddhāra’ — kindly rescue; tabe — then; ha-ibe — he will be; uddhāre — relieved from that entanglement.

Translation

Rūpa Gosvāmī replied, “Sanātana has now been arrested by the government of Hussain Shah. If You kindly save him, he can be liberated from that entanglement.”

Text

prabhu kahe, — sanātanera hañāche mocana
acirāt āmā-saha ha-ibe milana

Synonyms

prabhu kahe — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu said; sanātanera — of Sanātana Gosvāmī; hañāche — there has been; mocana — release; acirāt — very soon; āmā-saha — with Me; ha-ibe milana — there will be meeting.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu immediately replied, “Sanātana has already been released from his confinement, and he will very soon meet with Me.”

Text

madhyāhna karite vipra prabhure kahilā
rūpa-gosāñi se-divasa tathāñi rahilā

Synonyms

madhyāhna karite — to accept lunch; vipra — the brāhmaṇa of Deccan; prabhure — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; kahilā — requested; rūpa-gosāñi — Rūpa Gosvāmī; se-divasa — that day; tathāñi — there; rahilā — remained.

Translation

The brāhmaṇa then requested Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu to accept His lunch. Rūpa Gosvāmī also remained there that day.

Text

bhaṭṭācārya dui bhāiye nimantraṇa kaila
prabhura śeṣa prasāda-pātra dui-bhāi pāila

Synonyms

bhaṭṭācārya — Balabhadra Bhaṭṭācārya; dui bhāiye — the two brothers; nimantraṇa kaila — invited to take lunch; prabhura śeṣa prasāda-pātra — the remnants of the plate of food offered to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; dui-bhāi pāila — the two brothers obtained.

Translation

Balabhadra Bhaṭṭācārya invited the two brothers to take lunch also. The remnants of food from the plate of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu were offered to them.

Text

triveṇī-upara prabhura vāsā-ghara sthāna
dui bhāi vāsā kaila prabhu-sannidhāna

Synonyms

triveṇī-upara — on the bank of the confluence of the Yamunā and the Ganges; prabhura — of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; vāsā-ghara — of the residential house; sthāna — the place; dui bhāi — the two brothers; vāsā kaila — resided; prabhu-sannidhāna — near Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu selected His residence beside the confluence of the Ganges and the Yamunā, a place called Triveṇī. The two brothers — Rūpa Gosvāmī and Śrī Vallabha — selected their residence near the Lord’s.

Text

se-kāle vallabha-bhaṭṭa rahe āḍāila-grāme
mahāprabhu āilā śuni’ āila tāṅra sthāne

Synonyms

se-kāle — at that time; vallabha-bhaṭṭa — Vallabha Bhaṭṭa; rahe — resided; āḍāila-grāme — in the village known as Āḍāila; mahāprabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; āilā — has come; śuni’ — hearing; āila — came; tāṅra sthāne — to His place.

Translation

At that time, Śrī Vallabha Bhaṭṭa was staying at Āḍāila-grāma, and when he heard that Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu had arrived, he went to His place to see Him.

Purport

Vallabha Bhaṭṭa was a great learned scholar of Vaiṣṇavism. In the beginning he was very much devoted to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, but since he thought that he could not receive proper respect from Him, he later joined the Viṣṇu Svāmī sect and became the ācārya of that sect. His sect is celebrated as the Vallabhācārya-sampradāya. This sampradāya has had great influence in Vṛndāvana near Gokula and in Bombay. Vallabha Bhaṭṭa wrote many books, including a commentary on Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam called Subodhinī-ṭīkā and notes on the Vedānta-sūtra in the form of an Anubhāṣya. He also wrote a combination of sixteen short works called Ṣoḍaśa-grantha. The village where he was staying — Āḍāila-grāma, or Adelī-grāma — was near the confluence of the rivers Ganges and Yamunā, on the other side of the Yamunā from Prayāga, about one mile from the river. A temple of Lord Viṣṇu there still belongs to the Vallabha-sampradāya.

Vallabha Bhaṭṭa was originally from a place in southern India called Trailaṅga. There is a railway station there called Niḍāḍābhalu. Sixteen miles from that station is a village called Kāṅkaḍabāḍa, or Kākuṅrapāḍhu. A learned brāhmaṇa named Lakṣmaṇa Dīkṣita used to live there, and Vallabha Bhaṭṭa was his son. There are five sections of the brāhmaṇa community of Āndhra Pradesh, known as Bella-nāṭī, Vegī-nāṭī, Muraki-nāṭī, Telagu-nāṭī and Kāśala-nāṭī. Out of these five brahminical communities, Vallabhācārya took his birth in the community of Bella-nāṭī in the year 1400 Śakābda Era (A.D. 1478). According to some people, Vallabha Bhaṭṭācārya’s father took sannyāsa before Vallabha’s birth, and he returned home to take Vallabhācārya as his son. According to the opinion of others, Vallabhācārya was born in 1400 Śakābda Era on the Ekādaśī day of the dark moon in the month of Caitra, and he took his birth in a brāhmaṇa family surnamed Khambhaṁpāṭībāru. According to this account, his father’s name was Lakṣmaṇa Bhaṭṭa Dīkṣita, and he was born in Campakāraṇya. In someone else’s opinion, Vallabhācārya appeared near the village named Cāṅpā-jhāra-grāma, which is near a railway station named Rājima in Madhya Pradesh.

After studying for eleven years at Vārāṇasī, Vallabhācārya returned home. On his return, he heard that his father had departed from the material world. Keeping his brother and mother at home, he went to the banks of the river Tuṅgabhadrā, to a village called Vidyānagara, where he enlightened Kṛṣṇadeva, the grandson of King Bukkarāja. After that, he traveled throughout India thrice on trips lasting six years each. Thus he passed eighteen years and became victorious in his discussions of revealed scripture. When he was thirty years old, he married Mahālakṣmī, who belonged to the same brāhmaṇa community as his. Near Govardhana Hill he established a Deity in the valley. Finally he came to Āḍāila, which is on the other side of the Yamunā from Prayāga.

Vallabhācārya had two sons, Gopīnātha and Viṭhṭhaleśvara, and in his old age he accepted the renounced order. In 1452 Śakābda Era (A.D. 1530), he passed away from the material world at Vārāṇasī. His book known as Ṣoḍaśa-grantha and his commentaries on the Vedānta-sūtra (Anubhāṣya) and Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (Subodhinī) are very famous. He wrote many other books besides.

Text

teṅho daṇḍavat kaila, prabhu kailā āliṅgana
dui jane kṛṣṇa-kathā haila kata-kṣaṇa

Synonyms

teṅho — he; daṇḍavat — obeisances; kaila — made; prabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; kailā — did; āliṅgana — embracing; dui jane — between the two of them; kṛṣṇa-kathā — topics about Lord Kṛṣṇa; haila — there were; kata-kṣaṇa — for some time.

Translation

Vallabha Bhaṭṭācārya offered Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu his obeisances, and the Lord embraced him. After that, they discussed topics about Kṛṣṇa for some time.

Text

kṛṣṇa-kathāya prabhura mahā-prema uthalila
bhaṭṭera saṅkoce prabhu samvaraṇa kaila

Synonyms

kṛṣṇa-kathāya — in the discussion on Kṛṣṇa; prabhura — of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; mahā-prema — great love; uthalila — arose; bhaṭṭera — of the Bhaṭṭācārya; saṅkoce — due to shyness; prabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; samvaraṇa kaila — restrained Himself.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu felt great ecstatic love when they began discussing Kṛṣṇa, but the Lord checked His feelings because He felt shy before Vallabha Bhaṭṭa.

Text

antare gara-gara prema, nahe samvaraṇa
dekhi’ camatkāra haila vallabha-bhaṭṭera mana

Synonyms

antare — inside; gara-gara — raged; prema — ecstatic love; nahe — there was not; samvaraṇa — checking; dekhi’ — detecting; camatkāra — astonishment; haila — there was; vallabha-bhaṭṭera mana — in the mind of Vallabha Bhaṭṭa.

Translation

Although the Lord restrained Himself externally, ecstatic love raged within. There was no checking that. Vallabha Bhaṭṭa was astonished to detect this.

Text

tabe bhaṭṭa mahāprabhure nimantraṇa kailā
mahāprabhu dui-bhāi tāṅhāre milāilā

Synonyms

tabe — then; bhaṭṭa — Vallabha Bhaṭṭa; mahāprabhure — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; nimantraṇa kailā — invited; mahāprabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; dui-bhāi — the two brothers Rūpa and Vallabha; tāṅhāre — to him; milāilā — introduced.

Translation

Thereafter, Vallabha Bhaṭṭa invited Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu for lunch, and the Lord introduced the brothers Rūpa and Vallabha to him.

Text

dui-bhāi dūra haite bhūmite paḍiyā
bhaṭṭe daṇḍavat kailā ati dīna hañā

Synonyms

dui-bhāi — the two brothers; dūra haite — from a distance; bhūmite — on the ground; paḍiyā — falling flat; bhaṭṭe — to Vallabha Bhaṭṭa; daṇḍavat kailā — offered obeisances; ati dīna hañā — being very humble.

Translation

From a distance, the brothers Rūpa Gosvāmī and Śrī Vallabha fell on the ground and offered obeisances to Vallabha Bhaṭṭa with great humility.

Text

bhaṭṭa milibāre yāya, duṅhe palāya dūre
‘aspṛśya pāmara muñi, nā chuṅiha more’

Synonyms

bhaṭṭa — Vallabha Bhaṭṭa; milibāre — to meet; yāya — goes; duṅhe — the two brothers; palāya — ran away; dūre — to a distant place; aspṛśya — untouchable; pāmara — most fallen; muñi — I; chuṅiha — do not touch; more — me.

Translation

When Vallabha Bhaṭṭācārya walked toward them, they ran away to a more distant place. Rūpa Gosvāmī said, “I am untouchable and most sinful. Please do not touch me.”

Text

bhaṭṭera vismaya haila, prabhura harṣa mana
bhaṭṭere kahilā prabhu tāṅra vivaraṇa

Synonyms

bhaṭṭera — of Vallabha Bhaṭṭācārya; vismaya haila — there was surprise; prabhura — of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; harṣa — very happy; mana — the mind; bhaṭṭere kahilā — said to Vallabha Bhaṭṭācārya; prabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; tāṅra vivaraṇa — description of Rūpa Gosvāmī.

Translation

Vallabha Bhaṭṭācārya was very much surprised at this. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, however, was very pleased, and He therefore spoke to him this description of Rūpa Gosvāmī.

Text

‘iṅho nā sparśiha, iṅho jāti ati-hīna!
vaidika, yājñika tumi kulīna pravīṇa!’

Synonyms

iṅho — him; sparśiha — do not touch; iṅho — he; jāti — caste; ati-hīna — very low; vaidika — a follower of Vedic principles; yājñika — a performer of many sacrifices; tumi — you; kulīna — aristocratic brāhmaṇa; pravīṇa — an experienced person.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu said, “Don’t touch him, for he belongs to a very low caste. You are a follower of Vedic principles and are a well experienced performer of many sacrifices. You also belong to the aristocracy.”

Purport

Generally brāhmaṇas are puffed up with false prestige because they belong to the aristocracy and perform many Vedic sacrifices. In South India especially, this fastidious position is most prominent. At any rate, this was the case five hundred years ago. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu actually started a revolution against this brahminical system by inaugurating the chanting of the Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra. By this chanting, one can be delivered regardless of caste, creed, color or social position. Whoever chants the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra is immediately purified due to the transcendental position of devotional service. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu is here hinting to Vallabha Bhaṭṭācārya that an exalted brāhmaṇa who makes sacrifices and follows Vedic principles should not neglect a person who is engaged in devotional service by chanting the holy name of the Lord.

Actually Rūpa Gosvāmī did not belong to a lower caste. He was from a highly aristocratic brāhmaṇa family, but due to his association with the Muslim Nawab, he was considered fallen and was excommunicated from brāhmaṇa society. However, due to his advanced devotional service, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu accepted him as a gosvāmī. Vallabha Bhaṭṭācārya knew all this. One who is a devotee is above caste and creed, yet Vallabha Bhaṭṭācārya felt himself prestigious.

The present head of the Vallabha Bhaṭṭācārya sampradāya of Bombay is named Dīkṣita Mahārāja. He is very friendly to our movement, and whenever we meet him, this learned brāhmaṇa scholar highly praises the activities of the Hare Kṛṣṇa movement. He is a life member of our Society, and although he is a learned scholar in the brahminical caste tradition, he accepts our Society and considers its members bona fide devotees of Lord Viṣṇu.

Text

duṅhāra mukhe nirantara kṛṣṇa-nāma śuni’
bhaṭṭa kahe, prabhura kichu iṅgita-bhaṅgī jāni’

Synonyms

duṅhāra mukhe — in the mouths of both Rūpa Gosvāmī and his brother Vallabha; nirantara — continuously; kṛṣṇa-nāma śuni’ — hearing the chanting of the holy name of Kṛṣṇa; bhaṭṭa kahe — Vallabha Bhaṭṭācārya said; prabhura — of Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; kichu — some; iṅgita — indications; bhaṅgī — hints; jāni’ — understanding.

Translation

Hearing the holy name constantly vibrated by the two brothers, Vallabha Bhaṭṭācārya could understand the hints of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

Text

‘duṅhāra mukhe kṛṣṇa-nāma kariche nartana
ei-dui ‘adhama’ nahe, haya ‘sarvottama’

Synonyms

duṅhāra mukhe — in the mouths of both; kṛṣṇa-nāma — the holy name of Lord Kṛṣṇa; kariche — is doing; nartana — dancing; ei-dui — both of them; adhama nahe — not fallen; haya — are; sarva-uttama — the most exalted.

Translation

Vallabha Bhaṭṭācārya said, “Since these two are constantly chanting the holy name of Kṛṣṇa, how can they be untouchable? On the contrary, they are most exalted.”

Purport

Vallabha Bhaṭṭācārya’s admission of the brothers’ exalted position should serve as a lesson to one who is falsely proud of his position as a brāhmaṇa. Sometimes so-called brāhmaṇas do not recognize our European and American disciples as devotees or brāhmaṇas, and some brāhmaṇas are so proud that they do not allow them to enter temples. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu herein gives a great lesson. Although Vallabha Bhaṭṭācārya was a great authority on brahmanism and a learned scholar, he admitted that those who chant the Lord’s holy name are bona fide brāhmaṇas and Vaiṣṇavas and are therefore exalted.

Text

aho bata śva-paco ’to garīyān
yaj-jihvāgre vartate nāma tubhyam
tepus tapas te juhuvuḥ sasnur āryā
brahmānūcur nāma gṛṇanti ye te

Synonyms

aho bata — how wonderful it is; śva-pacaḥ — dog-eaters; ataḥ — than the initiated brāhmaṇa; garīyān — more glorious; yat — of whom; jihvā-agre — on the tongue; vartate — remains; nāma — the holy name; tubhyam — of You, my Lord; tepuḥ — have performed; tapaḥ — austerity; te — they; juhuvuḥ — have performed sacrifices; sasnuḥ — have bathed in all holy places; āryāḥ — really belonging to the Āryan race; brahma — all the Vedas; anūcuḥ — have studied; nāma — the holy name; gṛṇanti — chant; ye — who; te — they.

Translation

Vallabha Bhaṭṭācārya then recited the following verse: “ ‘My dear Lord, one who always keeps Your holy name on his tongue becomes greater than an initiated brāhmaṇa. Although he may be born in a family of dog-eaters and may therefore, by material calculation, be the lowest among men, he is still glorious. This is the wonderful effect of chanting the holy name of the Lord. It is therefore concluded that one who chants the holy name of the Lord should be understood to have performed all kinds of austerities and great sacrifices mentioned in the Vedas. He has already taken his bath in all the holy places of pilgrimage, he has studied all the Vedas, and he is actually an Āryan.’ ”

Purport

This verse is quoted from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (3.33.7).

Text

śuni’ mahāprabhu tāṅre bahu praśaṁsilā
premāviṣṭa hañā śloka paḍite lāgilā

Synonyms

śuni’ — hearing; mahāprabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; tāṅre — him; bahu — very much; praśaṁsilā — praised; prema-āviṣṭa hañā — becoming ecstatic in love of Godhead; śloka — verses; paḍite lāgilā — began to recite.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was very pleased to hear Vallabha Bhaṭṭa quoting from śāstra about the position of a devotee. The Lord praised him personally, and, feeling ecstatic love of Godhead, began to quote many verses from śāstra.

Text

śuciḥ sad-bhakti-dīptāgni-
dagdha-durjāti-kalmaṣaḥ
śva-pāko ’pi budhaiḥ ślāghyo
na veda-jño ’pi nāstikaḥ

Synonyms

śuciḥ — a brāhmaṇa purified internally and externally; sat-bhakti — of devotional service without motives; dīpta-agni — by the blazing fire; dagdha — burnt to ashes; durjāti — such as birth in a low family; kalmaṣaḥ — whose sinful reactions; śva-pākaḥ api — even though born in a family of dog-eaters; budhaiḥ — by learned scholars; ślāghyaḥ — recognized; na — not; veda-jñaḥ api — even though completely conversant in Vedic knowledge; nāstikaḥ — an atheist.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu said, “ ‘A person who has the pure characteristics of a brāhmaṇa due to devotional service, which is like a blazing fire burning to ashes all the sinful reactions of past lives, is certainly saved from the consequences of sinful acts, such as taking birth in a lower family. Even though he may be born in a family of dog-eaters, he is recognized by learned scholars. But although a person may be a learned scholar in Vedic knowledge, he is not recognized if he is an atheist.

Purport

This verse and the next are quoted from the Hari-bhakti-sudhodaya (3.11, 12), a transcendental literature extracted from the Purāṇas.

Text

bhagavad-bhakti-hīnasya
jātiḥ śāstraṁ japas tapaḥ
aprāṇasyeva dehasya
maṇḍanaṁ loka-rañjanam

Synonyms

bhagavat-bhakti-hīnasya — of a person devoid of devotional service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead; jātiḥ — birth in a high caste; śāstram — knowledge in the revealed scriptures; japaḥ — pronunciation of mantras; tapaḥ — austerities and penances; aprāṇasya — which is dead; iva — like; dehasya — of a body; maṇḍanam — decoration; loka — to the whims of people in general; rañjanam — simply pleasing.

Translation

“ ‘For a person devoid of devotional service, birth in a great family or nation, knowledge of the revealed scriptures, performance of austerities and penance, and chanting of Vedic mantras are all like ornaments on a dead body. Such ornaments simply serve the concocted pleasures of the general populace.’ ”

Text

prabhura premāveśa, āra prabhāva bhakti-sāra
saundaryādi dekhi’ bhaṭṭera haila camatkāra

Synonyms

prabhura — of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; prema-āveśa — ecstasy in love of Godhead; āra — and; prabhāva — the influence; bhakti-sāra — the essence of devotional service; saundarya-ādi — personal beauty and other qualities; dekhi’ — seeing; bhaṭṭera — of Vallabha Bhaṭṭācārya; haila — there was; camatkāra — astonishment.

Translation

When he saw the Lord’s ecstatic love, Vallabha Bhaṭṭācārya was certainly very much astonished. He was also astonished by the Lord’s knowledge of the essence of devotional service, as well as by His personal beauty and influence.

Text

sagaṇe prabhure bhaṭṭa naukāte caḍāñā
bhikṣā dite nija-ghare calilā lañā

Synonyms

sa-gaṇe — with His associates; prabhure — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; bhaṭṭa — Vallabha Bhaṭṭācārya; naukāte — a boat; caḍāñā — putting aboard; bhikṣā dite — to offer lunch; nija-ghare — to his own place; calilā — departed; lañā — taking.

Translation

Vallabha Bhaṭṭācārya then put Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and His associates aboard a boat and took them to his own place to offer them lunch.

Text

yamunāra jala dekhi’ cikkaṇa śyāmala
premāveśe mahāprabhu ha-ilā vihvala

Synonyms

yamunāra — of the river Yamunā; jala — the water; dekhi’ — seeing; cikkaṇa — glossy; śyāmala — blackish; prema-āveśe — in ecstatic love; mahāprabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; ha-ilā — became; vihvala — bewildered.

Translation

While crossing the river Yamunā, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu saw the glossy black water and was immediately bewildered with ecstatic love.

Text

huṅkāra kari’ yamunāra jale dilā jhāṅpa
prabhu dekhi’ sabāra mane haila bhaya-kāṅpa

Synonyms

huṅkāra kari’ — making a loud sound; yamunāra jale — in the water of the river Yamunā; dilā — gave; jhāṅpa — a plunge; prabhu dekhi’ — seeing Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; sabāra — of everyone; mane — in the mind; haila — there was; bhaya-kāṅpa — fear and trembling.

Translation

Indeed, as soon as Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu saw the river Yamunā, He immediately made a great sound and jumped into the water. Everyone was filled with fear and trembling to see this.

Text

āste-vyaste sabe dhari’ prabhure uṭhāila
naukāra upare prabhu nācite lāgila

Synonyms

āste-vyaste — with great haste; sabe — all of them; dhari’ — catching; prabhure — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; uṭhāila — raised; naukāra — of the boat; upare — on top; prabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; nācite lāgila — began to dance.

Translation

They all hastily grabbed Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and pulled Him out of the water. Once on the boat’s platform, the Lord began to dance.

Text

mahāprabhura bhare naukā kare ṭalamala
ḍubite lāgila naukā, jhalake bhare jala

Synonyms

mahāprabhura — of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; bhare — because of the weight; naukā — the boat; kare — does; ṭalamala — tilting; ḍubite — to sink; lāgila — began; naukā — the boat; jhalake — in gushes; bhare — fills; jala — water.

Translation

Due to the Lord’s heavy weight, the boat began to tilt. It began filling up with water and was on the verge of sinking.

Text

yadyapi bhaṭṭera āge prabhura dhairya haila mana
durvāra udbhaṭa prema nahe samvaraṇa

Synonyms

yadyapi — although; bhaṭṭera — of Vallabhācārya; āge — in front; prabhura — of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; dhairya — patient; haila — was; mana — the mind; durvāra — difficult to stop; udbhaṭa — wonderful; prema — ecstatic love; nahe — there is not; samvaraṇa — checking.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu tried to restrain Himself as far as possible before Vallabhācārya, but although He tried to keep calm, His ecstatic love could not be checked.

Text

deśa-pātra dekhi’ mahāprabhu dhairya ha-ila
āḍāilera ghāṭe naukā āsi’ uttarila

Synonyms

deśa-pātra dekhi’ — seeing the circumstances; mahāprabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; dhairya ha-ila — became calm; āḍāilera ghāṭe — at the shore of the village Āḍāila; naukā — the boat; āsi’ — coming; uttarila — landed.

Translation

Seeing the circumstances, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu finally became calm so that the boat was able to reach the shore of Āḍāila and land there.

Text

bhaye bhaṭṭa saṅge rahe, madhyāhna karāñā
nija-gṛhe ānilā prabhure saṅgete lañā

Synonyms

bhaye — with fear; bhaṭṭa — Vallabha Bhaṭṭācārya; saṅge — in Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s association; rahe — remains; madhyāhna karāñā — after arranging for His bath; nija-gṛhe — to his own home; ānilā — brought; prabhure — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; saṅgete — in the company; lañā — taking.

Translation

Fearing for the Lord’s welfare, Vallabha Bhaṭṭācārya stayed in His association. After arranging for His bath, the Bhaṭṭācārya took the Lord to his own house.

Text

ānandita hañā bhaṭṭa dila divyāsana
āpane karila prabhura pāda-prakṣālana

Synonyms

ānandita hañā — becoming pleased; bhaṭṭa — Vallabha Bhaṭṭācārya; dila — gave; divya-āsana — a nice sitting place; āpane — personally; karila — did; prabhura — of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; pāda-prakṣālana — washing of the feet.

Translation

When Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu arrived at his home, Vallabha Bhaṭṭācārya, being greatly pleased, offered the Lord a nice sitting place and personally washed His feet.

Text

savaṁśe sei jala mastake dharila
nūtana kaupīna-bahirvāsa parāila

Synonyms

sa-vaṁśe — with all the family members; sei — that; jala — water; mastake — on the head; dharila — sprinkled; nūtana — fresh; kaupīna — underwear; bahirvāsa — external covering; parāila — put on.

Translation

Vallabha Bhaṭṭācārya and his whole family then sprinkled that water over their heads. They then offered the Lord new underwear and outer garments.

Text

gandha-puṣpa-dhūpa-dīpe mahā-pūjā kaila
bhaṭṭācārye mānya kari’ pāka karāila

Synonyms

gandha — scents; puṣpa — flowers; dhūpa — incense; dīpe — by lamps; mahā-pūjā kaila — he worshiped the Lord with great pomp; bhaṭṭācārye — to Balabhadra Bhaṭṭācārya; mānya kari’ — offering respect; pāka karāila — engaging in cooking.

Translation

Vallabhācārya worshiped the Lord with great pomp, offering scents, incense, flowers and lamps, and with great respect he induced Balabhadra Bhaṭṭācārya [the Lord’s cook] to cook.

Text

bhikṣā karāila prabhure sasneha yatane
rūpa-gosāñi dui-bhāiye karāila bhojane

Synonyms

bhikṣā karāila — made to take His lunch; prabhure — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; sasneha — with affection; yatane — with great care; rūpa-gosāñi — Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī; dui-bhāiye — the two brothers; karāila bhojane — made eat.

Translation

Thus Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was offered lunch with great care and affection. The brothers Rūpa Gosvāmī and Śrī Vallabha were also offered food.

Text

bhaṭṭācārya śrī-rūpe deoyāila ‘avaśeṣa’
tabe sei prasāda kṛṣṇadāsa pāila śeṣa

Synonyms

bhaṭṭācārya — Vallabha Bhaṭṭācārya; śrī-rūpe — to Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī; deoyāila — offered; avaśeṣa — the remnants; tabe — thereafter; sei — those; prasāda — remnants of food; kṛṣṇadāsa — Kṛṣṇadāsa; pāila — got; śeṣa — the balance.

Translation

Vallabha Bhaṭṭācārya first offered the remnants of the Lord’s food to Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī, and then to Kṛṣṇadāsa.

Text

mukha-vāsa diyā prabhure karāila śayana
āpane bhaṭṭa karena prabhura pāda-samvāhana

Synonyms

mukha-vāsa — spices; diyā — offering; prabhure — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; karāila — made to do; śayana — resting; āpane — personally; bhaṭṭa — Śrīla Vallabha Bhaṭṭa; karena — does; prabhura — of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; pāda-samvāhana — massaging the legs.

Translation

The Lord was then given spices to purify His mouth. Afterwards He was made to rest, and Vallabha Bhaṭṭācārya personally massaged His legs.

Text

prabhu pāṭhāila tāṅre karite bhojane
bhojana kari’ āilā teṅho prabhura caraṇe

Synonyms

prabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; pāṭhāila — sent; tāṅre — him (Vallabha Bhaṭṭācārya); karite bhojane — to take his lunch; bhojana kari’ — after taking lunch; āilā — came; teṅho — he; prabhura caraṇe — to the lotus feet of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

Translation

While Vallabha Bhaṭṭācārya was massaging Him, the Lord asked him to go take prasādam. After taking prasādam, he returned to the lotus feet of the Lord.

Text

hena-kāle āilā raghupati upādhyāya
tiruhitā paṇḍita, baḍa vaiṣṇava, mahāśaya

Synonyms

hena-kāle — at this time; āilā — arrived; raghupati upādhyāya — a brāhmaṇa named Raghupati Upādhyāya; tiruhitā — belonging to the Tiruhitā state; paṇḍita — a very learned scholar; baḍa — great; vaiṣṇava — devotee; mahāśaya — respectable gentleman.

Translation

At that time Raghupati Upādhyāya of the Tiruhitā district arrived. He was a very learned scholar, a great devotee and a respectable gentleman.

Purport

Tiruhitā, or Tirhuṭiyā, is a combination of four districts in Bihar: Saran, Champaran, Muzaffarpur and Darbhanga. The people of this state are called Tiruṭiyā.

Text

āsi’ teṅho kaila prabhura caraṇa vandana
‘kṛṣṇe mati rahu’ bali’ prabhura vacana

Synonyms

āsi’ — coming; teṅho — he; kaila — did; prabhura — of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; caraṇa vandana — worshiping the lotus feet; kṛṣṇe mati rahu — just remain always Kṛṣṇa conscious; bali’ — saying; prabhura vacana — the blessings of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

Translation

Raghupati Upādhyāya first offered his respects to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, and the Lord gave him His blessings, saying, “Always stay in Kṛṣṇa consciousness.”

Text

śuni’ ānandita haila upādhyāyera mana
prabhu tāṅre kahila, — ‘kaha kṛṣṇera varṇana’

Synonyms

śuni’ — hearing; ānandita — very pleased; haila — became; upādhyāyera mana — the mind of Upādhyāya; prabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; tāṅre — to him; kahila — spoke; kaha kṛṣṇera varṇana — just try to describe Kṛṣṇa.

Translation

Raghupati Upādhyāya was very pleased to hear the Lord’s blessings. The Lord then asked him to describe Kṛṣṇa.

Text

nija-kṛta kṛṣṇa-līlā-śloka paḍila
śuni’ mahāprabhura mahā premāveśa haila

Synonyms

nija-kṛta — personally composed; kṛṣṇa-līlā — on pastimes of Kṛṣṇa; śloka — verses; paḍila — recited; śuni’ — hearing; mahāprabhura — of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; mahā — great; prema-āveśa — ecstatic love; haila — there was.

Translation

When Raghupati Upādhyāya was requested to describe Kṛṣṇa, he began to recite some verses he had personally composed about Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes. Hearing those verses, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was overwhelmed with ecstatic love.

Text

śrutim apare smṛtim itare bhāratam anye bhajantu bhava-bhītāḥ
aham iha nandaṁ vande yasyālinde paraṁ brahma

Synonyms

śrutim — Vedic literature; apare — someone; smṛtim — corollary to the Vedic literature; itare — others; bhāratam — the Mahābhārata; anye — still others; bhajantu — let them worship; bhava-bhītāḥ — those who are afraid of material existence; aham — I; iha — here; nandam — Mahārāja Nanda; vande — worship; yasya — whose; alinde — in the courtyard; param brahma — the Supreme Brahman, Absolute Truth.

Translation

Raghupati Upādhyāya recited, “Those who are afraid of material existence worship the Vedic literature. Some worship smṛti, the corollaries to the Vedic literature, and others worship the Mahābhārata. As far as I am concerned, I worship Kṛṣṇa’s father, Mahārāja Nanda, in whose courtyard the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the Absolute Truth, is playing.”

Purport

This verse recited by Raghupati Upādhyāya was later included in Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī’s Padyāvalī (126).

Text

‘āge kaha’ — prabhu-vākye upādhyāya kahila
raghupati upādhyāya namaskāra kaila

Synonyms

āge kaha — please speak further; prabhu-vākye — on the request of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; upādhyāya — Raghupati Upādhyāya; kahila — said; raghupati upādhyāya — Raghupati Upādhyāya; namaskāra kaila — offered Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu obeisances.

Translation

When Raghupati Upādhyāya was requested by the Lord to recite more, he immediately offered his respects to the Lord and granted His request.

Text

kaṁ prati kathayitum īśe
samprati ko vā pratītim āyātu
go-pati-tanayā-kuñje
gopa-vadhūṭī-viṭaṁ brahma

Synonyms

kam prati — unto whom; kathayitum — to speak; īśe — am I able; samprati — now; kaḥ — who; — or; pratītim — belief; āyātu — would do; go-pati — of the sun-god; tanayā — of the daughter (the Yamunā); kuñje — in the bushes on the bank; gopa-vadhūṭī — of the cowherd girls; viṭam — the hunter; brahma — the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

Translation

“To whom can I speak who will believe me when I say that Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is hunting the gopīs in the bushes by the banks of the river Yamunā? In this way the Lord demonstrates His pastimes.”

Purport

This verse was also later included in the Padyāvalī (99).

Text

prabhu kahena, — kaha, teṅho paḍe kṛṣṇa-līlā
premāveśe prabhura deha-mana āluyāilā

Synonyms

prabhu kahena — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu said; kaha — please go on speaking; teṅho — he; paḍe — recites; kṛṣṇa-līlā — the pastimes of Lord Kṛṣṇa; prema-āveśe — in great ecstasy of love; prabhura — of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; deha-mana — body and mind; āluyāilā — became slackened.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu requested Raghupati Upādhyāya to continue speaking about the pastimes of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Thus the Lord was absorbed in ecstatic love, and His mind and body slackened.

Purport

Our minds and bodies are always engaged in material activities. When they are activated on the spiritual platform, they slacken on the material platform.

Text

prema dekhi’ upādhyāyera haila camatkāra
‘manuṣya nahe, iṅho — kṛṣṇa’ — karila nirdhāra

Synonyms

prema dekhi’ — seeing His ecstatic love; upādhyāyera — of Raghupati Upādhyāya; haila — there was; camatkāra — wonder; manuṣya nahe — not a human being; iṅho — He; kṛṣṇa — Lord Kṛṣṇa Himself; karila nirdhāra — made assessment.

Translation

When Raghupati Upādhyāya saw Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s ecstatic symptoms, he decided that the Lord was not a human being but Kṛṣṇa Himself.

Text

prabhu kahe, — upādhyāya, śreṣṭha māna’ kāya?
‘śyāmam eva paraṁ rūpaṁ’ — kahe upādhyāya

Synonyms

prabhu kahe — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu inquired; upādhyāya — My dear Upādhyāya; śreṣṭha — the supermost; māna’ — you consider; kāya — what; śyāmam — Śyāmasundara, Kṛṣṇa; eva — certainly; param rūpam — the supreme form; kahe — replied; upādhyāya — Raghupati Upādhyāya.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu asked Raghupati Upādhyāya, “According to your decision, who is the foremost being?”

Purport

Raghupati Upādhyāya replied, “Lord Śyāmasundara is the supreme form.”

Text

śyāma-rūpera vāsa-sthāna śreṣṭha māna’ kāya?
‘purī madhu-purī varā’ — kahe upādhyāya

Synonyms

śyāma-rūpera — of the supreme form, Śyāmasundara; vāsa-sthāna — residence; śreṣṭha — the supreme; māna’ — you accept; kāya — which; purī — the city; madhu-purī — Mathurā; varā — best; kahe — said; upādhyāya — Raghupati Upādhyāya.

Translation

“Of all Kṛṣṇa’s abodes, which do you think is the best?”

Purport

Raghupati Upādhyāya said, “Madhu-purī, or Mathurā-dhāma, is certainly the best.”

Lord Kṛṣṇa has many forms, as stated in the Brahma-saṁhitā (5.33): advaitam acyutam anādim ananta-rūpam. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu asked Raghupati Upādhyāya which form was the best of Lord Kṛṣṇa’s millions of forms, and he immediately replied that the supreme form was the Śyāmasundara form. In that form, Kṛṣṇa stands curved in three places and holds His flute. The Śyāmasundara form is also described in the Brahma-saṁhitā (5.38):

premāñjana-cchurita-bhakti-vilocanena
santaḥ sadaiva hṛdayeṣu vilokayanti
yaṁ śyāmasundaram acintya-guṇa-svarūpaṁ
govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi

“I worship the primeval Lord, Govinda, who is always seen by the devotee whose eyes are anointed with the pulp of love. He is seen in His eternal form of Śyāmasundara, situated within the heart of the devotee.”

Those who are filled with ecstatic love for Kṛṣṇa always see the form of Śyāmasundara within their hearts. Raghupati Upādhyāya confirms that the Absolute Truth, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, has many incarnations — Nārāyaṇa, Nṛsiṁha, Varāha and others — but Kṛṣṇa is distinguished as the supermost. According to Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (1.3.28), kṛṣṇas tu bhagavān svayam: “Kṛṣṇa is the original Personality of Godhead.” Kṛṣṇa means Śyāmasundara, who plays His flute in Vṛndāvana. Of all forms, this form is the best of all. Kṛṣṇa lives sometimes in Mathurā and sometimes in Dvārakā, but Mathurā is considered the better place. This is also confirmed by Rūpa Gosvāmī in his Upadeśāmṛta (9): vaikuṇṭhāj janito varā madhu-purī. “Madhu-purī, or Mathurā, is far superior to the Vaikuṇṭhalokas in the spiritual world.”

Text

bālya, paugaṇḍa, kaiśore, śreṣṭha māna’ kāya?
‘vayaḥ kaiśorakaṁ dhyeyaṁ’ — kahe upādhyāya

Synonyms

bālya — childhood; paugaṇḍa — the boyhood age before youth; kaiśore — the beginning of youth; śreṣṭha — best; māna’ — you think; kāya — which; vayaḥ — the age; kaiśorakam — kaiśora or fresh youth; dhyeyam — most worshipable; kahe — said; upādhyāya — Raghupati Upādhyāya.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu asked, “Of the three ages of Kṛṣṇa known as childhood, boyhood and fresh youth, which do you consider best?”

Purport

Raghupati Upādhyāya replied, “Fresh youth is the best age.”

Text

rasa-gaṇa-madhye tumi śreṣṭha māna’ kāya?
‘ādya eva paro rasaḥ’ — kahe upādhyāya

Synonyms

rasa-gaṇa-madhye — among all the mellows; tumi — you; śreṣṭha — as supreme; māna’ — accept; kāya — which one; ādyaḥ — conjugal love; eva — certainly; paraḥ rasaḥ — the best of all mellows; kahe — replied; upādhyāya — Raghupati Upādhyāya.

Translation

When Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu asked, “Among all the mellows, which do you consider best?”

Purport

Raghupati Upādhyāya replied, “The mellow of conjugal love is supermost.”

Text

prabhu kahe, — bhāla tattva śikhāilā more
eta bali’ śloka paḍe gadgada-svare

Synonyms

prabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; kahe — said; bhāla — good; tattva — conclusions; śikhāilā more — you have taught Me; eta bali’ — saying this; śloka paḍe — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu recited the full verse; gadgada-svare — in a faltering voice.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu then said, “You have certainly given first-class conclusions.” After saying this, He began to recite the full verse in a faltering voice.

Text

śyāmam eva paraṁ rūpaṁ
purī madhu-purī varā
vayaḥ kaiśorakaṁ dhyeyam
ādya eva paro rasaḥ

Synonyms

śyāmam — the form of Śyāmasundara; eva — certainly; param — supreme; rūpam — form; purī — the place; madhu-purī — Mathurā; varā — best; vayaḥ — the age; kaiśorakam — fresh youth; dhyeyam — always to be meditated on; ādyaḥ — the original transcendental mellow, or conjugal love; eva — certainly; paraḥ — the supreme; rasaḥ — mellow.

Translation

“ ‘The form of Śyāmasundara is the supreme form, the city of Mathurā is the supreme abode, Lord Kṛṣṇa’s fresh youth should always be meditated upon, and the mellow of conjugal love is the supreme mellow.’ ”

Purport

This verse is found in the Padyāvalī (82).

Text

premāveśe prabhu tāṅre kailā āliṅgana
prema matta hañā teṅho karena nartana

Synonyms

prema-āveśe — in ecstatic love; prabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; tāṅre — him; kailā — did; āliṅgana — embracing; prema matta hañā — being overwhelmed by ecstatic love; teṅho — he; karena nartana — began to dance.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu then embraced Raghupati Upādhyāya in ecstatic love. Raghupati Upādhyāya also was overwhelmed by love, and he began to dance.

Text

dekhi’ vallabha-bhaṭṭa mane camatkāra haila
dui putra āni’ prabhura caraṇe pāḍila

Synonyms

dekhi’ — seeing; vallabha-bhaṭṭa — of Vallabha Bhaṭṭācārya; mane — in the mind; camatkāra haila — there was astonishment; dui putra āni’ — bringing his two sons; prabhura caraṇe pāḍila — made them lie at the lotus feet of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

Translation

Vallabha Bhaṭṭācārya was struck with wonder to see Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and Raghupati Upādhyāya dance. He even brought forward his two sons and made them fall down at the Lord’s lotus feet.

Purport

The two sons of Vallabhācārya were Gopīnātha and Viṭhṭhaleśvara. When Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu visited Prayāga in the year 1434 or 1435 Śakābda Era (A.D. 1512 or 1513), Viṭhṭhaleśvara was not yet born. In this regard, one should see Madhya-līlā 18.47.

Text

prabhu dekhibāre grāmera saba-loka āila
prabhu-daraśane sabe ‘kṛṣṇa-bhakta’ ha-ila

Synonyms

prabhu dekhibāre — to see Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; grāmera — of the village; saba-loka — all the people; āila — came; prabhu-daraśane — simply by seeing Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; sabe — all of them; kṛṣṇa-bhakta ha-ila — became devotees of Lord Kṛṣṇa.

Translation

Upon hearing that Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu had arrived, all the villagers went to see Him. Simply by seeing Him, they all became devotees of Kṛṣṇa.

Text

brāhmaṇa-sakala karena prabhura nimantraṇa
vallabha-bhaṭṭa tāṅ-sabāre karena nivāraṇa

Synonyms

brāhmaṇa-sakala — all the brāhmaṇas of that village; karena — make; prabhura — of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; nimantraṇa — invitations; vallabha-bhaṭṭa — Vallabha Bhaṭṭācārya; tāṅ-sabāre — all of them; karena — does; nivāraṇa — forbidding.

Translation

All the brāhmaṇas of the village were eager to extend invitations to the Lord, but Vallabha Bhaṭṭācārya forbade them to do so.

Text

‘premonmāde paḍe gosāñi madhya-yamunāte
prayāge cālāiba, ihāṅ nā diba rahite

Synonyms

prema-unmāde — in the madness of ecstatic love; paḍe — fell down; gosāñi — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; madhya-yamunāte — in the river Yamunā; prayāge cālāiba — I shall again take Him to Prayāga; ihāṅ — here; — not; diba — I shall allow Him; rahite — to stay.

Translation

Vallabha Bhaṭṭa then decided not to keep Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu at Āḍāila because the Lord had jumped into the river Yamunā in ecstatic love. Therefore he decided to bring Him to Prayāga.

Text

yāṅra icchā, prayāge yāñā karibe nimantraṇa’
eta bali’ prabhu lañā karila gamana

Synonyms

yāṅra — of whom; icchā — there is a desire; prayāge yāñā — going to Prayāga; karibe — may do; nimantraṇa — invitations; eta bali’ — saying this; prabhu lañā — with Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; karila gamana — he departed for Prayāga.

Translation

Vallabha Bhaṭṭa said, “If anyone likes, he can go to Prayāga and extend invitations to the Lord.” In this way he took the Lord with him and departed for Prayāga.

Text

gaṅgā-pathe mahāprabhure naukāte vasāñā
prayāge āilā bhaṭṭa gosāñire lañā

Synonyms

gaṅgā-pathe — on the Ganges; mahāprabhure — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; naukāte vasāñā — making to sit down on the boat; prayāge āilā — went to Prayāga; bhaṭṭa — Vallabha Bhaṭṭa; gosāñire lañā — with Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

Translation

Vallabha Bhaṭṭācārya avoided the river Yamunā. Putting the Lord on a boat in the river Ganges, he went with Him to Prayāga.

Text

loka-bhiḍa-bhaye prabhu ‘daśāśvamedhe’ yāñā
rūpa-gosāñire śikṣā karā’na śakti sañcāriyā

Synonyms

loka-bhiḍa-bhaye — from fear of the great crowd of people; prabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; daśāśvamedhe — to Daśāśvamedha-ghāṭa; yāñā — going; rūpa-gosāñire — Rūpa Gosvāmī; śikṣā karāna — teaches; śakti sañcāriyā — endowing him with potency.

Translation

Due to the great crowds in Prayāga, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu went to a place called Daśāśvamedha-ghāṭa. It was there that the Lord instructed Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī and empowered him in the philosophy of devotional service.

Purport

Parāsya śaktir vividhaiva śrūyate. The Supreme Lord has multipotencies, which the Lord bestows on His fortunate devotees. The Lord has a special potency by which He spreads the Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement. This is explained in the Caitanya-caritāmṛta (Antya 7.11): kali-kālera dharma — kṛṣṇa-nāma-saṅkīrtana/ kṛṣṇa-śakti vinā nahe tāra pravartana. “One cannot spread the holy name of Kṛṣṇa without being specifically empowered by Lord Kṛṣṇa.” A devotee who receives this power from the Lord must be considered very fortunate. The Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is spreading to enlighten people about their real position, their original relationship with Kṛṣṇa. One requires Kṛṣṇa’s special power in order to be able to do this. People forget their relationship with Kṛṣṇa and work under the spell of māyā life after life, transmigrating from one body to another. This is the process of material existence. The Supreme Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa personally descends to teach people that their position in the material world is a mistaken one. The Lord again comes as Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu to induce people to take to Kṛṣṇa consciousness. The Lord also empowers a special devotee to teach people their constitutional position.

Text

kṛṣṇatattva-bhaktitattva-rasatattva-prānta
saba śikhāila prabhu bhāgavata-siddhānta

Synonyms

kṛṣṇa-tattva — of the truth about Lord Kṛṣṇa; bhakti-tattva — of the truth about devotional service; rasa-tattva — of the truth about transcendental mellows; prānta — the ultimate limit; saba — all; śikhāila — taught; prabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; bhāgavata-siddhānta — the conclusions of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu taught Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī the ultimate limit of the truth about Lord Kṛṣṇa, the truth about devotional service and the truth about transcendental mellows, culminating in conjugal love between Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. Finally He told Rūpa Gosvāmī about the ultimate conclusions of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.

Text

rāmānanda-pāśe yata siddhānta śunilā
rūpe kṛpā kari’ tāhā saba sañcārilā

Synonyms

rāmānanda-pāśe — from Rāmānanda Rāya; yata — all; siddhānta — the ultimate conclusions; śunilā — He heard; rūpe — unto Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī; kṛpā kari’ — showing His causeless mercy; tāhā saba — all those; sañcārilā — infused.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu taught Rūpa Gosvāmī all the conclusions He had heard from Rāmānanda Rāya and duly empowered him so that he could understand them.

Text

śrī-rūpa-hṛdaye prabhu śakti sañcārilā
sarva-tattva-nirūpaṇe ‘pravīṇa’ karilā

Synonyms

śrī-rūpa-hṛdaye — in the heart of Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī; prabhu — Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; śakti sañcārilā — infused spiritual strength; sarva-tattva — all conclusive truths; nirūpaṇe — in ascertaining; pravīṇa karilā — made him fully experienced.

Translation

By entering the heart of Rūpa Gosvāmī, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu empowered him to ascertain properly the conclusions of all truths. He made him an experienced devotee whose decisions correctly agreed with the verdicts of the disciplic succession. Thus Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī was personally empowered by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

Purport

The principles of devotional service are only apparently under the jurisdiction of material activity. To be rightly guided, one must be personally guided by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. This was the case with Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī, Sanātana Gosvāmī and other ācāryas.

Text

śivānanda-senera putra ‘kavi-karṇapūra’
‘rūpera milana’ sva-granthe likhiyāchena pracura

Synonyms

śivānanda-senera — of Śivānanda Sena; putra — the son; kavi-karṇapūra — Kavi-karṇapūra; rūpera milana — of the meeting with Rūpa Gosvāmī; sva-granthe — in his own book; likhiyāchena pracura — has written profusely.

Translation

In his book Caitanya-candrodaya, Kavi-karṇapūra, the son of Śivānanda Sena, has elaborately described the meeting between Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī and Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

Text

kālena vṛndāvana-keli-vārtā
lupteti tāṁ khyāpayituṁ viśiṣya
kṛpāmṛtenābhiṣiṣeca devas
tatraiva rūpaṁ ca sanātanaṁ ca

Synonyms

kālena — in the course of time; vṛndāvana-keli-vārtā — topics concerning the transcendental mellows of the pastimes of Lord Kṛṣṇa in Vṛndāvana; luptā — almost lost; iti — thus; tām — all those; khyāpayitum — to enunciate; viśiṣya — making specific; kṛpā-amṛtena — with the nectar of mercy; abhiṣiṣeca — sprinkled; devaḥ — the Lord; tatra — there, in Vṛndāvana; eva — indeed; rūpam — Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī; ca — and; sanātanam — Sanātana Gosvāmī; ca — as well as.

Translation

“In the course of time, the transcendental news of Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes in Vṛndāvana was almost lost. To enunciate explicitly those transcendental pastimes, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu empowered Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī and Sanātana Gosvāmī with the nectar of His mercy to carry out this work in Vṛndāvana.”

Purport

This verse and the following two verses are from Act Nine (38, 29, 30) of the Caitanya-candrodaya, by Śrī Kavi-karṇapūra.

Text

yaḥ prāg eva priya-guṇa-gaṇair gāḍha-baddho ’pi mukto
gehādhyāsād rasa iva paro mūrta evāpy amūrtaḥ
premālāpair dṛḍhatara-pariṣvaṅga-raṅgaiḥ prayāge
taṁ śrī-rūpaṁ samam anupamenānujagrāha devaḥ

Synonyms

yaḥ — who; prāk eva — previously; priya-guṇa-gaṇaiḥ — by the desirable transcendental qualities of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; gāḍha — deeply; baddhaḥ — attached; api — although; muktaḥ — liberated; geha-adhyāsāt — from the bondage of family life; rasaḥ — transcendental mellows; iva — like; paraḥ — transcendental; mūrtaḥ — personal form; eva — certainly; api — although; amūrtaḥ — without having a material form; prema-ālāpaiḥ — by discussions of transcendental love of the Supreme; dṛḍha-tara — firm; pariṣvaṅga — of embracing; raṅgaiḥ — with great pleasure; prayāge — at Prayāga; tam — to him; śrī-rūpam — Rūpa Gosvāmī; samam — with; anupamena — Anupama; anujagrāha — showed mercy; devaḥ — the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

Translation

“From the very beginning, Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī was deeply attracted by the transcendental qualities of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Thus he was permanently relieved from family life. Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī and his younger brother, Vallabha, were blessed by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Although the Lord was transcendentally situated in His transcendental eternal form, at Prayāga He told Rūpa Gosvāmī about transcendental ecstatic love of Kṛṣṇa. The Lord then embraced him very fondly and bestowed all His mercy upon him.”

Text

priya-svarūpe dayita-svarūpe
prema-svarūpe sahajābhirūpe
nijānurūpe prabhur eka-rūpe
tatāna rūpe sva-vilāsa-rūpe

Synonyms

priya-svarūpe — unto the person whose dear friend was Śrīla Svarūpa Dāmodara Gosvāmī; dayita-svarūpe — who was very dear to Him (Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu); prema-svarūpe — unto the replica of His personal ecstatic love; sahaja-abhirūpe — who was naturally very beautiful; nija-anurūpe — who exactly followed the principles of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; prabhuḥ — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; eka-rūpe — to the one; tatāna — explained; rūpe — unto Rūpa Gosvāmī; sva-vilāsa-rūpe — who describes the pastimes of Lord Kṛṣṇa.

Translation

“Indeed, Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī, whose dear friend was Svarūpa Dāmodara, was the exact replica of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, and he was very, very dear to the Lord. Being the embodiment of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s ecstatic love, Rūpa Gosvāmī was naturally very beautiful. He very carefully followed the principles enunciated by the Lord, and he was a competent person to explain properly the pastimes of Lord Kṛṣṇa. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu expanded His mercy to Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī just so he could render service by writing transcendental literatures.”

Text

ei-mata karṇapūra likhe sthāne-sthāne
prabhu kṛpā kailā yaiche rūpa-sanātane

Synonyms

ei-mata — in this way; karṇapūra — the poet known as Kavi-karṇapūra; likhe — writes; sthāne-sthāne — in various places; prabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; kṛpā kailā — showed His mercy; yaiche — how; rūpa-sanātane — to Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī and Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī.

Translation

The characteristics of Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī have thus been described in various places by the poet Kavi-karṇapūra. An account has also been given of how Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu bestowed His causeless mercy upon Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī and Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī.

Text

mahāprabhura yata baḍa baḍa bhakta mātra
rūpa-sanātana — sabāra kṛpā-gaurava-pātra

Synonyms

mahāprabhura — of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; yata — all; baḍa baḍa — great, great; bhakta — devotees; mātra — up to; rūpa-sanātana — Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī and Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī; sabāra — of everyone; kṛpā — of the mercy; gaurava — and honor; pātra — objects.

Translation

Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī and Sanātana Gosvāmī were the objects of love and honor for all the great stalwart devotees of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

Text

keha yadi deśe yāya dekhi’ vṛndāvana
tāṅre praśna karena prabhura pāriṣada-gaṇa

Synonyms

keha — someone; yadi — if; deśe — to his country; yāya — goes; dekhi’ — after seeing; vṛndāvana — Vṛndāvana; tāṅre — unto that person; praśna karena — put questions; prabhura — of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; pāriṣada-gaṇa — personal associates.

Translation

If someone returned to his country after seeing Vṛndāvana, the associates of the Lord would ask him questions.

Text

“kaha, — tāhāṅ kaiche rahe rūpa-sanātana?
kaiche rahe, kaiche vairāgya, kaiche bhojana?

Synonyms

kaha — please describe; tāhāṅ — there; kaiche — how; rahe — remain; rūpa — Rūpa Gosvāmī; sanātana — Sanātana Gosvāmī; kaiche rahe — how do they live; kaiche vairāgya — how do they practice renunciation; kaiche bhojana — how do they eat.

Translation

They would ask those returning from Vṛndāvana, “How are Rūpa and Sanātana doing in Vṛndāvana? What are their activities in the renounced order? How do they manage to eat?” These were the questions asked.

Text

kaiche aṣṭa-prahara karena śrī-kṛṣṇa-bhajana?”
tabe praśaṁsiyā kahe sei bhakta-gaṇa

Synonyms

kaiche — how; aṣṭa-prahara — twenty-four hours; karena — do; śrī-kṛṣṇa-bhajana — worshiping of Lord Kṛṣṇa; tabe — at that time; praśaṁsiyā — praising; kahe — described; sei bhakta-gaṇa — those devotees.

Translation

The Lord’s associates would also ask, “How is it that Rūpa and Sanātana are engaging in devotional service twenty-four hours daily?” At that time the person who had returned from Vṛndāvana would praise Śrīla Rūpa and Sanātana Gosvāmīs.

Text

“aniketa duṅhe, vane yata vṛkṣa-gaṇa
eka eka vṛkṣera tale eka eka rātri śayana

Synonyms

aniketa — without a residence; duṅhe — both of them; vane — in the forest; yata vṛkṣa-gaṇa — as many trees as there are; eka eka vṛkṣera — of one tree after another; tale — at the base; eka eka rātri — one night after another; śayana — lying down to sleep.

Translation

“The brothers actually have no fixed residence. They reside beneath trees — one night under one tree and the next night under another.

Text

‘vipra-gṛhe’ sthūla-bhikṣā, kāhāṅ mādhu-karī
śuṣka ruṭī-cānā civāya bhoga parihari’

Synonyms

vipra-gṛhe — in the house of a brāhmaṇa; sthūla-bhikṣā — full meals; kāhāṅ — sometimes; mādhu-karī — begging little by little, like honeybees; śuṣka — dry; ruṭī — bread; cānā — chickpeas; civāya — chew; bhoga parihari’ — giving up all kinds of material enjoyment.

Translation

“Śrīla Rūpa and Sanātana Gosvāmī beg a little food from the houses of brāhmaṇas. Giving up all kinds of material enjoyment, they take only some dry bread and fried chickpeas.

Text

karoṅyā-mātra hāte, kāṅthā chiṅḍā, bahirvāsa
kṛṣṇa-kathā, kṛṣṇa-nāma, nartana-ullāsa

Synonyms

karoṅyā — the waterpot of a sannyāsī; mātra — only; hāte — in the hand; kāṅthā chiṅḍā — torn quilt; bahirvāsa — outer garments; kṛṣṇa-kathā — discussion of Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes; kṛṣṇa-nāma — chanting the holy name of Lord Kṛṣṇa; nartana-ullāsa — dancing in jubilation.

Translation

“They carry only waterpots, and they wear torn quilts. They always chant the holy names of Kṛṣṇa and discuss His pastimes. In great jubilation, they also dance.

Text

aṣṭa-prahara kṛṣṇa-bhajana, cāri daṇḍa śayane
nāma-saṅkīrtane seha nahe kona dine

Synonyms

aṣṭa-prahara — twenty-four hours; kṛṣṇa-bhajana — worshiping Lord Kṛṣṇa; cāri daṇḍa — four daṇḍas (one daṇḍa equals twenty-four minutes); śayane — for sleeping; nāma-saṅkīrtane — because of chanting the holy name of the Lord; seha — that much time; nahe — not; kona dine — some days.

Translation

“They engage almost twenty-four hours daily in rendering service to the Lord. They usually sleep only an hour and a half, and some days, when they continuously chant the Lord’s holy name, they do not sleep at all.

Text

kabhu bhakti-rasa-śāstra karaye likhana
caitanya-kathā śune, kare caitanya-cintana”

Synonyms

kabhu — sometimes; bhakti-rasa-śāstra — transcendental literatures about the mellows of devotional service; karaye likhana — write; caitanya-kathā — talks about the pastimes of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; śune — they hear; kare — do; caitanya-cintana — thinking of Lord Caitanya.

Translation

“Sometimes they write transcendental literatures about devotional service, and sometimes they hear about Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and spend their time thinking about the Lord.”

Text

ei-kathā śuni’ mahāntera mahā-sukha haya
caitanyera kṛpā yāṅhe, tāṅhe ki vismaya?

Synonyms

ei-kathā śuni’ — hearing this news; mahāntera — of all the devotees; mahā-sukha — great pleasure; haya — was; caitanyera — of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; kṛpā — mercy; yāṅhe — on whom; tāṅhe — in him; ki — what; vismaya — wonderful.

Translation

When the personal associates of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu would hear of the activities of Rūpa and Sanātana Gosvāmīs, they would say, “What is wonderful for a person who has been granted the Lord’s mercy?”

Purport

Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī and Sanātana Gosvāmī had no fixed residence. They stayed beneath a tree for one day only and wrote huge volumes of transcendental literature. They not only wrote books but chanted, danced, discussed Kṛṣṇa and remembered Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s pastimes. Thus they executed devotional service.

In Vṛndāvana there are prākṛta-sahajiyās who say that writing books or even touching books is taboo. For them, devotional service means being relieved from these activities. Whenever they are asked to hear a recitation of Vedic literature, they refuse, saying, “What business do we have reading or hearing transcendental literatures? They are meant for neophytes.” They pose themselves as too elevated to exert energy for reading, writing and hearing. However, pure devotees under the guidance of Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī reject this sahajiyā philosophy. It is certainly not good to write literature for money or reputation, but to write books and publish them for the enlightenment of the general populace is real service to the Lord. That was Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī’s opinion, and he specifically told his disciples to write books. He actually preferred to publish books rather than establish temples. Temple construction is meant for the general populace and neophyte devotees, but the business of advanced and empowered devotees is to write books, publish them and distribute them widely. According to Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura, distributing literature is like playing on a great mṛdaṅga. Consequently we always request members of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness to publish as many books as possible and distribute them widely throughout the world. By thus following in the footsteps of Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī, one can become a rūpānuga devotee.

Text

caitanyera kṛpā rūpa likhiyāchena āpane
rasāmṛta-sindhu-granthera maṅgalācaraṇe

Synonyms

caitanyera — of Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; kṛpā — the mercy; rūpa — Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī; likhiyāchena — has written; āpane — personally; rasāmṛta-sindhu-granthera — of the book known as Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu; maṅgala-ācaraṇe — in the auspicious introduction.

Translation

Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī has personally spoken about the mercy of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu in his auspicious introduction to his book Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu [1.1.2].

Text

hṛdi yasya preraṇayā pravartito ’haṁ varāka-rūpo ’pi
tasya hareḥ pada-kamalaṁ vande caitanya-devasya

Synonyms

hṛdi — within the heart; yasya — of whom (the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who gives His pure devotees intelligence with which to spread the Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement); preraṇayā — by the inspiration; pravartitaḥ — engaged; aham — I; varāka — insignificant and low; rūpaḥ — Rūpa Gosvāmī; api — although; tasya — of Him; hareḥ — who is Lord Hari, the Supreme Personality of Godhead; pada-kamalam — to the lotus feet; vande — let me offer my prayers; caitanya-devasya — of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

Translation

“Although I am the lowest of men and have no knowledge, the inspiration to write transcendental literatures about devotional service has been mercifully bestowed upon me. Therefore I am offering my obeisances at the lotus feet of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who has given me the chance to write these books.”

Text

ei-mata daśa-dina prayāge rahiyā
śrī-rūpe śikṣā dila śakti sañcāriyā

Synonyms

ei-mata — in this way; daśa-dina — for ten days; prayāge — at Prayāga; rahiyā — staying; śrī-rūpe — to Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī; śikṣā — instructions; dila — imparted; śakti sañcāriyā — bestowing upon him the necessary potency.

Translation

For ten days Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu stayed at Prayāga and instructed Rūpa Gosvāmī, empowering him with the necessary potency.

Purport

This is a confirmation of the statement kṛṣṇa-śakti vinā nahe tāra pravartana. Unless one is specifically empowered by the Supreme Personality of Godhead, he cannot spread the Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement. An empowered devotee sees and feels himself to be the lowest of men, for he knows that whatever he does is due to the inspiration given by the Lord in the heart. This is confirmed by Lord Kṛṣṇa in the Bhagavad-gītā (10.10):

teṣāṁ satata-yuktānāṁbhajatāṁ prīti-pūrvakam
dadāmi buddhi-yogaṁ taṁ
yena mām upayānti te

“To those who are constantly devoted to serving Me with love, I give the understanding by which they can come to Me.”

To be empowered by the Supreme Personality of Godhead, one has to qualify himself. This means that one must engage twenty-four hours daily in the loving devotional service of the Lord. The material position of a devotee doesn’t matter because devotional service is not dependent on material considerations. In his earlier life, Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī was a government officer and a gṛhastha. He was not even a brahmacārī or sannyāsī. He associated with mlecchas and yavanas, but because he was always eager to serve, he was a qualified recipient for the Lord’s mercy. A sincere devotee can therefore be empowered by the Lord regardless of his situation. In the preceding verse from the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu, Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī has described how he was personally empowered by the Lord. He further states in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (1.2.187):

īhā yasya harer dāsyekarmaṇā manasā girā
nikhilāsv apy avasthāsu
jīvan-muktaḥ sa ucyate

“A person acting in the service of Kṛṣṇa with his body, mind and words is a liberated person even in the material world, although he may be engaged in many so-called material activities.”

To keep oneself free from material contamination and attain the Lord’s favor, one must be sincerely eager to render service to the Lord. This is the only qualification necessary. As soon as one is favored by the mercy of the spiritual master and the Lord, one is immediately given all the power necessary to write books and propagate the Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement without being hampered by material considerations.

Text

prabhu kahe, — śuna, rūpa, bhakti-rasera lakṣaṇa
sūtra-rūpe kahi, vistāra nā yāya varṇana

Synonyms

prabhu kahe — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu spoke; śuna — please listen; rūpa — My dear Rūpa; bhakti-rasera — of the transcendental mellows in devotional service; lakṣaṇa — the symptoms; sūtra-rūpe — in the form of a synopsis; kahi — I shall explain; vistāra — the whole breadth; — not; yāya — is possible; varṇana — description.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu said, “My dear Rūpa, please listen to Me. It is not possible to describe devotional service completely; therefore I am just trying to give you a synopsis of the symptoms of devotional service.

Text

pārāpāra-śūnya gabhīra bhakti-rasa-sindhu
tomāya cākhāite tāra kahi eka ‘bindu’

Synonyms

pāra-apāra — the length and breadth; śūnya — without; gabhīra — deep; bhakti-rasa — of the mellows in devotional service; sindhu — the ocean; tomāya — to you; cākhāite — to give a taste; tāra — of this ocean; kahi — I shall speak; eka — one; bindu — drop.

Translation

“The ocean of the transcendental mellows of devotional service is so big that no one can estimate its length and breadth. However, just to help you taste it, I am describing but one drop.

Text

eita brahmāṇḍa bhari’ ananta jīva-gaṇa
caurāśī-lakṣa yonite karaye bhramaṇa

Synonyms

ei-ta — in this way; brahmāṇḍa — the whole universe; bhari’ — filling; ananta — unlimited; jīva-gaṇa — living entities; caurāśī-lakṣa — 8,400,000; yonite — in species of life; karaye — do; bhramaṇa — wandering.

Translation

“In this universe there are limitless living entities in 8,400,000 species, and all are wandering within this universe.

Purport

This is a challenge to so-called scientists and philosophers who presume that there are living entities on this planet only. So-called scientists are going to the moon, and they say that there is no life there. This does not tally with Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s version. He says that everywhere within the universe there are unlimited numbers of living entities in 8,400,000 different forms. In the Bhagavad-gītā (2.24) we find that the living entities are sarva-gata, which means that they can go anywhere. This indicates that there are living entities everywhere. They exist on land, in water, in air, in fire and in ether. Thus there are living entities in all types of material elements. Since the entire material universe is composed of five elements — earth, water, fire, air and ether — why should there be living entities on one planet and not others? Such a foolish version can never be accepted by Vedic students. From the Vedic literatures we understand that there are living entities on each and every planet, regardless of whether the planet is composed of earth, water, fire or air. These living entities may not have the same forms that are found on this planet earth, but they have different forms composed of different elements. Even on this earth we can see that the forms of land animals are different from the forms of aquatics. According to the circumstance, living conditions differ, but undoubtedly there are living entities everywhere. Why should we deny the existence of living entities on this or that planet? Those who have claimed to have gone to the moon have not gone there, or else with their imperfect vision they cannot actually perceive the particular type of living entities there.

The living entities are described as ananta, or unlimited; nonetheless, they are said to belong to 8,400,000 species. As stated in the Viṣṇu Purāṇa:

jala-jā nava-lakṣāṇisthāvarā lakṣa-viṁśati
kṛmayo rudra-saṅkhyakāḥ
pakṣiṇāṁ daśa-lakṣaṇam
triṁśal-lakṣāṇi paśavaḥ
catur-lakṣāṇi mānuṣāḥ

“There are 900,000 species living in the water. There are also 2,000,000 nonmoving living entities (sthāvara), such as trees and plants. There are also 1,100,000 species of insects and reptiles, and there are 1,000,000 species of birds. As far as quadrupeds are concerned, there are 3,000,000 varieties, and there are 400,000 human species.” Some of these species may exist on one planet and not on another, but in any case within all the planets of the universe — and even in the sun — there are living entities. This is the verdict of the Vedic literatures. As the Bhagavad-gītā (2.20) confirms:

na jāyate mriyate vā kadācin
nāyaṁ bhūtvā bhavitā vā na bhūyaḥ
ajo nityaḥ śāśvato ’yaṁ purāṇo
na hanyate hanyamāne śarīre

“For the soul there is neither birth nor death at any time. He has not come into being, does not come into being, and will not come into being. He is unborn, eternal, ever-existing and primeval. He is not slain when the body is slain.”

Since the living entities are never annihilated, they simply transmigrate from one life form to another. Thus there is an evolution of forms according to the degree of developed consciousness. One experiences different degrees of consciousness in different forms. A dog’s consciousness is different from a man’s. Even within a species we find that a father’s consciousness is different from his son’s and that a child’s consciousness is different from a youth’s. Just as we find different forms, we find different states of consciousness. When we see different states of consciousness, we may take it for granted that the bodies are different. In other words, different types of bodies depend on different states of consciousness. This is also confirmed in the Bhagavad-gītā (8.6):

yaṁ yaṁ vāpi smaran bhāvaṁtyajanty ante kalevaram
taṁ tam evaiti kaunteya
sadā tad bhāva-bhāvitaḥ

“One’s consciousness at the time of death determines one’s type of body in the next life.” This is the process of transmigration of the soul. A variety of bodies is already there; we change from one body to another in terms of our consciousness.

Text

keśāgra-śateka-bhāga punaḥ śatāṁśa kari
tāra sama sūkṣma jīvera ‘svarūpa’ vicāri

Synonyms

keśa-agra — from the tip of a hair; śata-eka — one hundred; bhāga — divisions; punaḥ — again; śata-aṁśa — one hundred divisions; kari — making; tāra sama — equal to that; sūkṣma — very fine; jīvera — of the living entity; svarūpa — the actual form; vicāri — I consider.

Translation

“The length and breadth of the living entity is described as one ten-thousandth part of the tip of a hair. This is the original subtle nature of the living entity.

Text

keśāgra-śata-bhāgasya
śatāṁśa-sadṛśātmakaḥ
jivaḥ sūkṣma-svarūpo ’yaṁ
saṅkhyātīto hi cit-kaṇaḥ

Synonyms

keśa-agra — of the tip of a hair; śata-bhāgasya — of one hundredth; śata-aṁśa — a hundredth part; sadṛśa — equal to; ātmakaḥ — whose nature; jīvaḥ — the living entity; sūkṣma — very fine; svarūpaḥ — identification; ayam — this; saṅkhya-atītaḥ — numbering beyond calculation; hi — certainly; cit-kaṇaḥ — spiritual particle.

Translation

“ ‘If we divide the tip of a hair into a hundred parts and then take one of these parts and divide it again into a hundred parts, that very fine division is the size of but one of the numberless living entities. They are all cit-kaṇa, particles of spirit, not matter.’

Purport

This is quoted from the commentary on the portion of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam wherein the Vedas personified offer their obeisances unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Lord Kṛṣṇa confirms this statement in the Bhagavad-gītā (15.7): mamaivāṁśo jīva-loke jīva-bhūtaḥ sanātanaḥ. “The living entities in this conditioned world are My eternal fragmental parts.”

Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa personally identifies Himself with the minute living entities. Lord Kṛṣṇa is the supreme spirit, the Supersoul, and the living entities are His very minute parts and parcels. Of course, we cannot divide the tip of a hair into such fine particles, but spiritually such small particles can exist. Spiritual strength is so powerful that a mere atomic portion of spirit can be the biggest brain in the material world. The same spiritual spark is within an ant and within the body of Brahmā. According to his karma, material activities, the spiritual spark attains a certain type of body. Material activities are carried out in goodness, passion and ignorance or a combination of these. According to the mixture of the modes of material nature, the living entity is awarded a particular type of body. This is the conclusion.

Text

bālāgra-śata-bhāgasya
śatadhā kalpitasya ca
bhāgo jīvaḥ sa vijñeya
iti cāha parā śrutiḥ

Synonyms

bāla-agra — the tip of a hair; śata-bhāgasya — of one hundredth; śatadhā — into one hundred parts; kalpitasya — divided; ca — and; bhāgaḥ — minute portion; jīvaḥ — the living entity; saḥ — that; vijñeyaḥ — to be understood; iti — thus; ca — and; āha — have said; parā — chief; śrutiḥ — Vedic mantras.

Translation

“ ‘If we divide the tip of a hair into one hundred parts and then take one part and divide this into another one hundred parts, that ten-thousandth part is the dimension of the living entity. This is the verdict of the chief Vedic mantras.’

Purport

The first three padas of this verse from the Pañcadaśī-citra-dīpa (81) are taken from the Śvetāśvatara Upaniṣad (5.9).

Text

sūkṣmāṇām apy ahaṁ jīvaḥ

Synonyms

sūkṣmāṇām — of the minute particles; api — certainly; aham — I; jīvaḥ — the living entity.

Translation

“[Lord Kṛṣṇa says:] ‘Among minute particles, I am the living entity.’

Purport

The living entity is one with and different from the Supreme Personality of Godhead. As spirit soul, the living entity is one in quality with the Supreme Lord; however, the Supreme Lord is bigger than the biggest, and the living entity is the smallest of the small. This quotation is the third pada of a verse from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (11.16.11).

Text

aparimitā dhruvās tanu-bhṛto yadi sarva-gatās
tarhi na śāsyateti niyamo dhruva netarathā
ajani ca yan-mayaṁ tad avimucya niyantṛ bhavet
samam anujānatāṁ yad amataṁ mata-duṣṭatayā

Synonyms

aparimitāḥ — unlimited in number; dhruvāḥ — eternals; tanu-bhṛtaḥ — who have accepted material bodies; yadi — if; sarva-gatāḥ — all-pervading; tarhi — then; na — not; śāsyatā — controllable; iti — thus; niyamaḥ — regulation; dhruva — O Supreme Truth; na — not; itarathā — in another manner; ajani — have been born; ca — and; yat-mayam — consisting of which; tat — that; avimucya — without giving up; niyantṛ — controller; bhavet — may become; samam — equal in all respects; anujānatām — of those who follow this philosophical calculation; yat — that; amatam — not conclusive; mata-duṣṭatayā — by faulty calculations.

Translation

“ ‘O Lord, although the living entities who have accepted material bodies are spiritual and unlimited in number, if they were all-pervading there would be no question of their being under Your control. If they are accepted, however, as particles of the eternally existing spiritual entity — as part of You, who are the supreme spirit whole — we must conclude that they are always under Your control. If the living entities are simply satisfied with being identical with You as spiritual particles, then they will be happy being controllers of so many things. The conclusion that the living entities and the Supreme Personality of Godhead are one and the same is a faulty conclusion. It is not a fact.’

Purport

This verse, which is also from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.87.30), was spoken by the personified Vedas.

Text

tāra madhye ‘sthāvara’, ‘jaṅgama’ — dui bheda
jaṅgame tiryak-jala-sthalacara-vibheda

Synonyms

tāra madhye — among the living entities who are conditioned within the material world; sthāvara — immobile; jaṅgama — mobile; dui bheda — two divisions; jaṅgame — among the living entities who can move; tiryak — the living entities who can move in the air (the birds); jala — or living entities who can move within the water; sthala-cara — living entities who can move on land; vibheda — three divisions.

Translation

“The unlimited living entities can be divided into two divisions — those that can move and those that cannot move. Among living entities that can move, there are birds, aquatics and animals.

Purport

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu is giving clear instructions on how the living entities live under different conditions. There are trees, plants and stones that cannot move, but still they must be considered living entities, or spiritual sparks. The soul is present in bodies like those of trees, plants and stones. They are all living entities. Among moving living entities such as birds, aquatics and animals, the same spiritual spark is there. As stated herein, there are living entities that can fly, swim and walk. We must also conclude that there are living entities that can move within fire and ether. Living entities have different material bodies composed of earth, water, air, fire and ether. The words tāra madhye mean “within this universe.” The entire material universe is composed of five material elements. It is not true that living entities reside only within this planet and not within others. Such a conclusion is completely contradictory to the Vedas. As stated in the Bhagavad-gītā (2.24):

acchedyo ’yam adāhyo ’yamakledyo ’śoṣya eva ca
nityaḥ sarva-gataḥ sthāṇur
acalo ’yaṁ sanātanaḥ

“This individual soul is unbreakable and insoluble, and can be neither burned nor dried. He is everlasting, present everywhere, unchangeable, immovable and eternally the same.”

The soul has nothing to do with the material elements. Any material element can be cut to pieces, especially earth. As far as the living entity is concerned, however, he can be neither burned nor cut to pieces. He can therefore live within fire. We can conclude that there are also living entities within the sun. Why should living entities be denied this planet or that planet? According to the Vedas, the living entities can live anywhere and everywhere — on land, in water, in air and in fire. Whatever the condition, the living entity is unchangeable (sthāṇu). From the statements of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and the Bhagavad-gītā, we are to conclude that living entities exist everywhere throughout the universes. They are distributed as trees, plants, aquatics, birds, human beings and so on.

Text

tāra madhye manuṣya-jāti ati alpatara
tāra madhye mleccha, pulinda, bauddha, śabara

Synonyms

tāra madhye — among all such living entities; manuṣya-jāti — entities born as human beings; ati — very; alpatara — small in quantity; tāra madhye — among the small quantity of human beings; mleccha — uncivilized men who cannot follow the Vedic principles; pulinda — unregulated; bauddha — followers of Buddhist philosophy; śabara — the lowest of men (the hunter class).

Translation

“Although the living entities known as human beings are very small in quantity, that division may be still further subdivided, for there are many uncultured human beings like mlecchas, pulindas, bauddhas and śabaras.

Text

veda-niṣṭha-madhye ardheka veda ‘mukhe’ māne
veda-niṣiddha pāpa kare, dharma nāhi gaṇe

Synonyms

veda-niṣṭha-madhye — among persons who are followers of the Vedas; ardheka — almost half; veda — Vedic scriptures; mukhe — in the mouth; māne — accept; veda-niṣiddha — forbidden in the Vedas; pāpa — sins; kare — perform; dharma — religious principles; nāhi — not; gaṇe — count.

Translation

“Among human beings, those who are followers of the Vedic principles are considered civilized. Among these, almost half simply give lip service while committing all kinds of sinful activities against these principles. Such people do not care for the regulative principles.

Purport

The word veda means “knowledge.” Supreme knowledge consists of understanding the Supreme Personality of Godhead and our relationship with Him and acting according to that relationship. Action in accordance with the Vedic principles is called religion. Religion means following the orders of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The Vedic principles are the injunctions given by the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Āryans are civilized human beings who have been following the Vedic principles since time immemorial. No one can trace out the history of the Vedic principles set forth so that man might understand the Supreme Being. Literature or knowledge that seeks the Supreme Being can be accepted as a bona fide religious system, but there are many different types of religious systems according to the place, the disciples and the people’s capacity to understand.

The highest type of religious system is described in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (1.2.6) thus: sa vai puṁsāṁ paro dharmo yato bhaktir adhokṣaje. The highest form of religion is that by which one becomes fully conscious of the existence of God, including His form, name, qualities, pastimes, abode and all-pervasive features. When everything is completely known, that is the perfection of Vedic knowledge. The fulfillment of Vedic knowledge is systematic knowledge of the characteristics of God. This is confirmed by Lord Kṛṣṇa in the Bhagavad-gītā (15.15): vedaiś ca sarvair aham eva vedyaḥ. The aim of Vedic knowledge is to understand God. Therefore those who are actually following Vedic knowledge and searching after God cannot commit sinful activities against the Supreme Lord’s order. However, in this Age of Kali, although men profess to belong to so many different kinds of religions, most of them commit sinful activities against the orders of the Vedic scriptures. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu therefore says herein, veda-niṣiddha pāpa kare, dharma nāhi gaṇe. In this age, men may profess a religion, but they actually do not follow the principles. Instead, they commit all kinds of sins.

Text

dharmācāri-madhye bahuta ‘karma-niṣṭha’
koṭi-karma-niṣṭha-madhye eka ‘jñānī’ śreṣṭha

Synonyms

dharma-ācāri-madhye — among persons who actually follow the Vedic principles or religious system; bahuta — many of them; karma-niṣṭha — attracted to fruitive activities; koṭi-karma-niṣṭha-madhye — among millions of such performers of fruitive activities according to Vedic principles; eka — one; jñānī — wise man; śreṣṭha — the chief.

Translation

“Among the followers of Vedic knowledge, most are following the process of fruitive activity and distinguishing between good and bad work. Out of many such sincere fruitive actors, there may be one who is actually wise.

Purport

Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura states that the word karma-niṣṭha refers to one who aspires to enjoy the results of his good work and pious activity. Some followers of Vedic principles offer everything to the Absolute Truth and do not aspire to enjoy the results of their pious actions. These are also considered among the karma-niṣṭhas. Sometimes we see pious men earn money with great hardship and then spend the money for some pious cause by opening public charities, schools and hospitals. Whether one earns money for himself or for the public benefit, he is called a karma-niṣṭha. Out of millions of karma-niṣṭhas there may be one who is wise. Those who try to avoid fruitive activity and who become silent in order to merge into the spiritual existence of the Absolute Truth are generally known as jñānīs, wise men. They are not interested in fruitive activity but in merging into the Supreme. In either case, both the karma-niṣṭhas and the jñānīs are interested in personal benefit. The karmīs are directly interested in personal benefit within the material world, and the jñānīs are interested in merging into the existence of the Supreme. The jñānīs maintain that fruitive activity is imperfect. For them, perfection is the cessation of work and the merging into the supreme existence. That is their goal in life. The jñānī wants to extinguish the distinction between knowledge, the knower and the aim of knowledge. This philosophy is called monism, or oneness, and is characterized by spiritual silence.

Text

koṭi-jñāni-madhye haya eka-jana ‘mukta’
koṭi-mukta-madhye ‘durlabha’ eka kṛṣṇa-bhakta

Synonyms

koṭi-jñāni-madhye — out of many millions of such wise men; haya — there is; eka-jana — one person; mukta — actually liberated; koṭi-mukta-madhye — out of many millions of such liberated persons; durlabha — very rare; eka — one; kṛṣṇa-bhakta — pure devotee of Lord Kṛṣṇa.

Translation

“Out of many millions of such wise men, one may actually become liberated [mukta], and out of many millions of such liberated persons, a pure devotee of Lord Kṛṣṇa is very difficult to find.

Purport

In Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.2.32) it is said that due to their poor fund of knowledge, the jñānīs are not actually liberated. They simply think that they are liberated. The perfection of knowledge culminates when one comes to the platform of knowing the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Brahmeti paramātmeti bhagavān iti śabdyate. The Absolute Truth (satya-vastu) is described as Brahman, Paramātmā and Bhagavān. Knowledge of impersonal Brahman and the Supersoul is imperfect until one comes to the platform of knowing the Supreme Personality of Godhead. It is therefore clearly said in this verse, koṭi-mukta-madhye ‘durlabha’ eka kṛṣṇa-bhakta. Those who search after the knowledge of impersonal Brahman or localized Paramātmā are certainly accepted as liberated, but due to their imperfect knowledge they are described in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam as vimukta-māninaḥ. Since their knowledge is imperfect, their conception of liberation is imperfect. Perfect knowledge is possible when one knows the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This is supported by Lord Kṛṣṇa in the Bhagavad-gītā (5.29):

bhoktāraṁ yajña-tapasāṁsarva-loka-maheśvaram
suhṛdaṁ sarva-bhūtānāṁ
jñātvā māṁ śāntim ṛcchati

“A person in full consciousness of Me, knowing Me to be the ultimate beneficiary of all sacrifices and austerities, the Supreme Lord of all planets and demigods, and the benefactor and well-wisher of all living entities, attains peace from the pangs of material miseries.”

Research is going on for the karmīs, jñānīs and yogīs, but until the search is complete, no one can attain peace. Therefore the Bhagavad-gītā says, jñātvā māṁ śāntim ṛcchati: one can actually attain peace when he knows Kṛṣṇa. This is described in the next verse.

Text

kṛṣṇa-bhakta — niṣkāma, ataeva ‘śānta’
bhukti-mukti-siddhi-kāmī — sakali ‘aśānta’

Synonyms

kṛṣṇa-bhakta — a devotee of Lord Kṛṣṇa; niṣkāma — actually desireless; ataeva — therefore; śānta — peaceful; bhukti — of material enjoyment; mukti — of liberation from material activities; siddhi — of perfection in yogic performance; kāmī — those who are desirous; sakali — all of them; aśānta — not peaceful.

Translation

“Because a devotee of Lord Kṛṣṇa is desireless, he is peaceful. Fruitive workers desire material enjoyment, jñānīs desire liberation, and yogīs desire material opulence; therefore they are all lusty and cannot be peaceful.

Purport

The devotee of Lord Kṛṣṇa has no desire other than serving Kṛṣṇa. Even so-called liberated people are full of desires. Fruitive actors desire better living accommodations, and jñānīs want to be one with the Supreme. Yogīs desire material opulence, yogic perfections and magic. All of these nondevotees are lusty (kāmī). Because they desire something, they cannot have peace.

The peace formula is given by Kṛṣṇa in the Bhagavad-gītā (5.29):

bhoktāraṁ yajña-tapasāṁsarva-loka-maheśvaram
suhṛdaṁ sarva-bhūtānāṁ
jñātvā māṁ śāntim ṛcchati

One who simply understands that throughout the entire universe Kṛṣṇa is the supreme enjoyer and beneficiary of all kinds of sacrifices, penances and austerities, which should be performed only to attain His devotional service, that Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme Being and thus the proprietor of all the material worlds, and that Kṛṣṇa is the only friend who can actually do good to all living entities (suhṛdaṁ sarvabhūtānām) — one who understands these three principles about Kṛṣṇa immediately becomes desireless (niṣkāma) and therefore peaceful. A kṛṣṇa-bhakta knows that his friend and protector in all respects is Kṛṣṇa, who is able to do anything for His devotee. Kṛṣṇa says, kaunteya pratijānīhi na me bhaktaḥ praṇaśyati: “O son of Kuntī, declare it boldly that My devotee never perishes.” Since Kṛṣṇa gives this assurance, the devotee lives in Kṛṣṇa and has no desire for personal benefit. The background for the devotee is the all-good Himself. Why should the devotee aspire for something good for himself? His only business is to please the Supreme by rendering as much service as possible. A kṛṣṇa-bhakta has no desire for his own personal benefit. He is completely protected by the Supreme. Avaśya rakṣibe kṛṣṇa viśvāsa pālana. Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura says that he is desireless because Kṛṣṇa will give him protection in all circumstances. It is not that he expects any assistance from Kṛṣṇa; he simply depends on Kṛṣṇa just as a child depends on his parents. The child does not know how to expect service from his parents, but he is always protected nevertheless. This is called niṣkāma (desirelessness).

Although karmīs, jñānīs and yogīs fulfill their desires by performing various activities, they are never satisfied. A karmī may work very hard to acquire a million dollars, but as soon as he gets a million dollars he desires another million. For the karmīs, there is no end of desire. The more the karmī gets, the more he desires. The jñānīs cannot be desireless because their intelligence is unsound. They want to merge into the Brahman effulgence, but even though they may be raised to that platform, they cannot be satisfied there. There are many jñānīs or sannyāsīs who, after taking sannyāsa and giving up the world as false, return to the world to engage in politics or philanthropy or to open schools and hospitals. This means that they could not attain the real Brahman (brahma satyam). They have to come down to the material platform to engage in philanthropic activity. Thus they again cultivate desires, and when these desires are exhausted, they desire something different. Therefore the jñānī cannot be niṣkāma, desireless. Nor can the yogīs be desireless, for they desire yogic perfections in order to exhibit some magical feats and gain popularity. People gather around these yogīs, and the yogīs desire more and more adulation. Because they misuse their mystic power, they fall down again to the material platform. It is not possible for them to become niṣkāma, desireless.

The conclusion is that only the devotees, who are simply satisfied in serving the Lord, can actually become desireless. Therefore Caitanya Mahāprabhu says here, kṛṣṇa-bhakta niṣkāma. Since the kṛṣṇa-bhakta, the devotee of Kṛṣṇa, is satisfied with Kṛṣṇa, there is no possibility of falldown.

Text

muktānām api siddhānāṁ
nārāyaṇa-parāyaṇaḥ
sudurlabhaḥ praśāntātmā
koṭiṣv api mahā-mune

Synonyms

muktānām — of persons liberated or freed from the bondage of ignorance; api — even; siddhānām — of persons who have achieved perfection; nārāyaṇa — of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; parāyaṇaḥ — the devotee; su-durlabhaḥ — very rare; praśānta-ātmā — completely satisfied, desireless; koṭiṣu — among many millions; api — certainly; mahā-mune — O great sage.

Translation

“ ‘O great sage, out of many millions of materially liberated people who are free from ignorance, and out of many millions of siddhas who have nearly attained perfection, there is hardly one pure devotee of Nārāyaṇa. Only such a devotee is actually completely satisfied and peaceful.’

Purport

This verse is quoted from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (6.14.5). The nārāyaṇa-parāyaṇa, the devotee of Lord Nārāyaṇa, is the only blissful person. One who becomes a nārāyaṇa-parāyaṇa is already liberated from material bondage. He already possesses all the perfections of yoga. Unless one comes to the platform of nārāyaṇa-parāyaṇa and passes over the platform of bhukti-mukti-siddhi, he cannot be fully satisfied. That is the pure devotional stage.

anyābhilāṣitā-śūnyaṁjñāna-karmādy-anāvṛtam
ānukūlyena kṛṣṇānu-
śīlanaṁ bhaktir uttamā

One who desires nothing but Kṛṣṇa and who is not influenced by the process of jñāna-mārga (cultivation of knowledge) actually becomes free from ignorance. A first-class person is one who is not influenced by karma (fruitive activity) or yoga (mystic power). He simply depends on Kṛṣṇa and is satisfied in his devotional service. According to Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (6.17.28): nārāyaṇa-parāḥ sarve na kutaścana bibhyati. Such a person is never afraid of anything. For him, heaven and hell are the same. Not knowing the situation of a nārāyaṇaparāyaṇa, rascals become envious. By the grace of Nārāyaṇa, a devotee is situated in the most opulent position in the material world. Rascals are envious of Nārāyaṇa and His devotee, but the devotee endeavors to please another devotee of Nārāyaṇa because he knows that by pleasing Nārāyaṇa’s representative one directly pleases Lord Nārāyaṇa. Therefore a devotee offers the best comforts and facilities to his spiritual master. Outsiders who have no knowledge of Nārāyaṇa are envious of both Nārāyaṇa and His devotee. Consequently when they see that Nārāyaṇa’s devotee is opulently situated, they become even more envious. But when the devotee of Nārāyaṇa asks such foolish people to come live with him in the same comfortable situation, they do not agree because they cannot give up illicit sex, meat-eating, intoxication and gambling. Therefore the materialist refuses the company of a nārāyaṇa-parāyaṇa, although he is envious of the devotee’s material situation. In Western countries when ordinary men — storekeepers and workers — see our devotees living and eating sumptuously and yet not working, they become very eager to know where they get the money. Such people become envious and ask, “How is it possible to live so comfortably without working? How is it you have so many cars, bright faces and nice clothes?” Not knowing that Kṛṣṇa looks after His devotees, such people become surprised, and some become envious.

Text

brahmāṇḍa bhramite kona bhāgyavān jīva
guru-kṛṣṇa-prasāde pāya bhakti-latā-bīja

Synonyms

brahmāṇḍa bhramite — wandering in this universe; kona — some; bhāgyavān — most fortunate; jīva — living being; guru — of the spiritual master; kṛṣṇa — of Kṛṣṇa; prasāde — by the mercy; pāya — gets; bhakti-latā — of the creeper of devotional service; bīja — the seed.

Translation

“According to their karma, all living entities are wandering throughout the entire universe. Some of them are being elevated to the upper planetary systems, and some are going down into the lower planetary systems. Out of many millions of wandering living entities, one who is very fortunate gets an opportunity to associate with a bona fide spiritual master by the grace of Kṛṣṇa. By the mercy of both Kṛṣṇa and the spiritual master, such a person receives the seed of the creeper of devotional service.

Purport

When we speak of brahmāṇḍa, we refer to the whole universe, or to the cluster of many millions of universes. In all the universes there are innumerable planets, and there are innumerable living entities upon those planets — in the air, on land and in the water. There are millions and trillions of living entities everywhere, and they are engaged by māyā in suffering and enjoying the results of their fruitive activity, life after life. This is the position of the materially conditioned living entities. Out of many of these living entities, one who is actually fortunate (bhāgyavān) comes in contact with a bona fide spiritual master by Kṛṣṇa’s mercy.

Kṛṣṇa is situated in everyone’s heart, and if one desires something, Kṛṣṇa fulfills one’s desire. If the living entity by chance or fortune comes in contact with the Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement and wishes to associate with that movement, Kṛṣṇa, who is situated in everyone’s heart, gives him the chance to meet a bona fide spiritual master. This is called guru-kṛṣṇa-prasāda. Kṛṣṇa is prepared to bestow His mercy upon all living entities, and as soon as a living entity desires the Lord’s mercy, the Lord immediately gives him an opportunity to meet a bona fide spiritual master. Such a fortunate person is fortified by both Kṛṣṇa and the spiritual master. He is helped from within by Kṛṣṇa and from without by the spiritual master. Both are prepared to help the sincere living being become free from material bondage.

How one can become this fortunate can be seen in the life of Śrīla Nārada Muni. In his previous life he was born of a maidservant. Although he was not born into a prestigious position, his mother was fortunately engaged in rendering service to some Vaiṣṇavas. When these Vaiṣṇavas were resting during the Cāturmāsya period, the boy Nārada took the opportunity to engage in their service. Taking compassion upon the boy, the Vaiṣṇavas offered him the remnants of their food. By serving these Vaiṣṇavas and obeying their orders, the boy became the object of their sympathy, and by the Vaiṣṇavas’ unknown mercy, he gradually became a pure devotee. In the next life he was Nārada Muni, the most exalted of Vaiṣṇavas and the most important guru and ācārya of Vaiṣṇavas.

Following in the footsteps of Nārada Muni, this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is rendering service to humanity by giving everyone a chance to come in contact with Kṛṣṇa. If one is fortunate, he becomes intimately related with this movement. Then, by the grace of Kṛṣṇa, one’s life becomes successful. Everyone has dormant kṛṣṇa-bhakti — love for Kṛṣṇa — and in the association of good devotees, that love is revealed. As stated in the Caitanya-caritāmṛta (Madhya 22.107):

nitya-siddha-kṛṣṇa-prema ‘sādhya’ kabhu naya
śravaṇādi-śuddha-citte karaye udaya

Dormant devotional service to Kṛṣṇa is within everyone. Simply by associating with devotees, hearing their good instructions and chanting the Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra, dormant love for Kṛṣṇa is awakened. In this way one acquires the seed of devotional service. Guru-kṛṣṇa-prasāde pāya bhakti-latā-bīja.

Text

mālī hañā kare sei bīja āropaṇa
śravaṇa-kīrtana-jale karaye secana

Synonyms

mālī hañā — becoming a gardener; kare — does; sei — that; bīja — seed of devotional service; āropaṇa — sowing; śravaṇa — of hearing; kīrtana — of chanting; jale — with the water; karaye — does; secana — sprinkling.

Translation

“When a person receives the seed of devotional service, he should take care of it by becoming a gardener and sowing the seed in his heart. If he waters the seed gradually by the process of śravaṇa and kīrtana [hearing and chanting], the seed will begin to sprout.

Purport

To live with devotees or to live in a temple means to associate with the śravaṇa-kīrtana process. Sometimes neophyte devotees think that they can continue the śravaṇa-kīrtana process without worshiping the Deity, but the execution of such śravaṇa-kīrtana is meant for highly developed devotees like Haridāsa Ṭhākura, who engaged in the śravaṇa-kīrtana process without worshiping the Deity. However, one should not falsely imitate Haridāsa Ṭhākura and abandon Deity worship just to try to engage in śravaṇa-kīrtana. This is not possible for neophyte devotees.

The word guru-prasāda indicates that the spiritual master is very merciful in bestowing the boon of devotional service upon the disciple. That is the best possible gift the spiritual master has to offer. Those with a background of pious life are eligible to receive life’s supreme benefit, and to bestow this benefit, the Supreme Personality of Godhead sends His representative to impart His mercy. endowed with the mercy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the spiritual master distributes the mercy to those who are elevated and pious. Thus the spiritual master trains his disciples to render devotional service unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This is called guru-kṛpā. It is kṛṣṇa-prasāda, Kṛṣṇa’s mercy, that He sends a bona fide spiritual master to the deserving disciple. By the mercy of Kṛṣṇa, one meets the bona fide spiritual master, and by the mercy of the spiritual master, the disciple is fully trained in the devotional service of the Lord.

Bhakti-latā-bīja means “the seed of devotional service.” Everything has an original cause, or seed. For any idea, program, plan or device, there is first of all the contemplation of the plan, and that is called the bīja, or seed. The methods, rules and regulations by which one is perfectly trained in devotional service constitute the bhakti-latā-bīja, or seed of devotional service. This bhakti-latā-bīja is received from the spiritual master by the grace of Kṛṣṇa. Other seeds, called anyābhilāṣa-bīja, include karma-bīja and jñāna-bīja. If one is not fortunate enough to receive the bhakti-latā-bīja from the spiritual master, he instead cultivates such seeds as karma-bīja, jñāna-bīja, or political, social or philanthropic bījas. However, the bhakti-latā-bīja is different from these other bījas. The bhakti-latā-bīja can be received only through the mercy of the spiritual master. Therefore one has to satisfy the spiritual master to get the bhakti-latā-bīja (yasya prasādād bhagavat-prasādaḥ). The bhakti-latā-bīja is the origin of devotional service. Unless one satisfies the spiritual master, he gets the bīja, or root cause, of karma, jñāna and yoga without the benefit of devotional service. But one who is faithful to his spiritual master gets the bhakti-latā-bīja. This bhakti-latā-bīja is received when one is initiated by the bona fide spiritual master. After receiving the spiritual master’s mercy, one must repeat his instructions, and this is called śravaṇa-kīrtana — hearing and chanting. One who has not properly heard from the spiritual master or who does not follow the regulative principles is not fit for chanting (kīrtana). This is explained in the Bhagavad-gītā (2.41): vyavasāyātmikā buddhir ekeha kuru-nandana. One who has not listened carefully to the instructions of the spiritual master is unfit for chanting or for preaching the cult of devotional service. One has to water the bhakti-latā-bīja by receiving instructions from the spiritual master.

Text

upajiyā bāḍe latā ‘brahmāṇḍa’ bhedi’ yāya
‘virajā’, ‘brahma-loka’ bhedi’ ‘para-vyoma’ pāya

Synonyms

upajiyā — being cultivated; bāḍe — grows; latā — the creeper of devotional service; brahmāṇḍa — the whole universe; bhedi’ — penetrating; yāya — goes; virajā — the river between the spiritual world and the material world; brahma-loka — the Brahman effulgence; bhedi’ — penetrating; para-vyoma — the spiritual sky; pāya — attains.

Translation

“As one waters the bhakti-latā-bīja, the seed sprouts, and the creeper gradually grows to the point where it penetrates the walls of this universe and goes beyond the Virajā River, lying between the spiritual world and the material world. It attains brahma-loka, the Brahman effulgence, and penetrating through that stratum, it reaches the spiritual sky and the spiritual planet Goloka Vṛndāvana.

Purport

A creeper generally takes shelter of a big tree, but the bhakti-latā, being the creeper of spiritual energy, cannot take shelter of any material planet, for there is no tree on any material planet that the bhakti creeper can utilize for shelter. In other words, devotional service cannot be utilized for any material purpose. Devotional service is meant only for the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Sometimes men with a poor fund of knowledge maintain that bhakti can be applied to material things also. In other words, they say that devotional service can be rendered to one’s country or to the demigods, but this is not a fact. Devotional service is especially meant for the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and it is beyond this material range. There is a river, or causal ocean, between the spiritual and material natures, and this river is free from the influence of the three modes of material nature; therefore it is called Virajā. The prefix vi means vigata (“completely eradicated”), and rajas means “the influence of the material world.” On this platform, a living entity is completely free from material entanglement. For the jñānīs who want to merge into the Brahman effulgence, there is Brahma-loka. The bhakti-latā, however, has no shelter in the material world, nor has it shelter in Brahma-loka, although Brahma-loka is beyond the material world. The bhakti-latā grows until it reaches the spiritual sky, where Goloka Vṛndāvana is situated.

Text

tabe yāya tad-upari ‘goloka-vṛndāvana’
‘kṛṣṇa-caraṇa’-kalpa-vṛkṣe kare ārohaṇa

Synonyms

tabe — thereafter; yāya — goes; tat-upari — to the top of that (the spiritual sky); goloka-vṛndāvana — to the planet known as Goloka Vṛndāvana where Kṛṣṇa lives; kṛṣṇa-caraṇa — of the lotus feet of Lord Kṛṣṇa; kalpa-vṛkṣe — on the desire tree; kare ārohaṇa — climbs.

Translation

“Being situated in one’s heart and being watered by śravaṇa-kīrtana, the bhakti creeper grows more and more. In this way it attains the shelter of the desire tree of the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa, who is eternally situated in the planet known as Goloka Vṛndāvana, in the topmost region of the spiritual sky.

Purport

In the Brahma-saṁhitā (5.37) it is said:

ānanda-cinmaya-rasa-pratibhāvitābhis
tābhir ya eva nija-rūpatayā kalābhiḥ
goloka eva nivasaty akhilātma-bhūto
govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi

“I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord. He resides in His own realm, Goloka, with Rādhā, who resembles His own spiritual figure and who embodies the ecstatic potency [hlādinī]. Their companions are Her confidantes, who embody extensions of Her bodily form and who are imbued and permeated with ever-blissful spiritual rasa.” In the spiritual world, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa, has expanded Himself by His spiritual potency. He has His eternal form of bliss and knowledge (sac-cid-ānanda-vigraha). Everything in the Goloka Vṛndāvana planet is a spiritual expansion of sac-cid-ānanda. Everyone there is of the same potency — ānanda-cinmaya-rasa. The relationship between the Supreme Personality of Godhead and His servitor is cinmaya-rasa. Kṛṣṇa and His entourage and paraphernalia are of the same cinmaya potency. In this way the Supreme Personality of Godhead is expanded throughout the spiritual world, and when that cinmaya-rasa potency expands through the material potency, it becomes all-pervading. The idea is that although the Supreme Personality of Godhead exists on His own planet, Goloka Vṛndāvana, He is also present everywhere. Aṇḍāntara-stha-paramāṇu-cayāntara-stham. He is present within all the universes, although they are innumerable, and He is also present within the atom. Īśvaraḥ sarva-bhūtānāṁ hṛd-deśe ’rjuna tiṣṭhati: He is also present within the heart of all living entities. This is His all-pervasive potency.

Goloka Vṛndāvana is the highest planet in the spiritual world. In order to go to the spiritual world after penetrating the covering of the material universe, one must penetrate Brahma-loka, the spiritual effulgence. Then one can come to the Goloka Vṛndāvana planet. There are also other planets in the spiritual world, called Vaikuṇṭha planets, and on these planets Lord Nārāyaṇa is worshiped with awe and veneration. On these planets śānta-rasa is prevalent, and some of the devotees are also connected with the Supreme Personality of Godhead in dāsya-rasa, the mellow of servitorship. As far as the mellow of fraternity is concerned, in Vaikuṇṭha this rasa is represented by gaurava-sakhya, friendship in awe and veneration. The other fraternity rasa, exhibited as viśrambha (friendship in equality), is found in the Goloka Vṛndāvana planet. Above that is service to the Lord in vātsalya-rasa (parental love), and above all is the relationship with the Lord in the mādhurya-rasa (conjugal love). These five rasas are fully exhibited in the spiritual world in one’s relationship with the Lord. Therefore in the spiritual world the bhakti creeper finds its resting place at the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa.

Text

tāhāṅ vistārita hañā phale prema-phala
ihāṅ mālī sece nitya śravaṇādi jala

Synonyms

tāhāṅ — there in the spiritual world (in the Goloka Vṛndāvana planet); vistārita — expanded; hañā — becoming; phale — produces; prema-phala — the fruit known as love of Godhead; ihāṅ — in the material world, where the devotee is still present; mālī — exactly like a gardener; sece — sprinkles; nitya — regularly, without fail; śravaṇa-ādi jala — the water of śravaṇa, kīrtana and so on.

Translation

“The creeper greatly expands in the Goloka Vṛndāvana planet, and there it produces the fruit of love for Kṛṣṇa. Although remaining in the material world, the gardener regularly sprinkles the creeper with the water of hearing and chanting.

Purport

In Goloka Vṛndāvana the devotees have very intimate relationships with the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The devotee engages in the Lord’s service in great ecstatic love. Such love was exhibited personally by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu in His teachings to the people of the material world. The fruit of the devotional creeper is the pure desire to serve and please the senses of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Kṛṣṇendriya-prīti-icchā dhare ‘prema’ nāma. (Cc. Ādi. 4.165) In the spiritual world one has no desire other than to please the senses of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The conditioned soul within the material world can neither understand nor appreciate how a pure devotee in the material world can render confidential service to the Lord out of feelings of ecstatic love and always engage in pleasing the Supreme Lord’s senses. Although seen within this material world, the pure devotee always engages in the confidential service of the Lord. An ordinary neophyte devotee cannot realize this; therefore it is said, vaiṣṇavera kriyā-mudrā vijñeha nā bujhaya. The activities of a pure Vaiṣṇava cannot be understood even by a learned scholar in the material world.

Every living entity is wandering within this universe in different species and on different planetary systems according to his fruitive activities. Out of many millions of living entities, one may be fortunate enough to receive the seed of the bhakti-latā, the creeper of devotional service. By the grace of the spiritual master and Kṛṣṇa, one nourishes the bhakti-latā by regularly sprinkling it with the water of śravaṇa-kīrtana, hearing and chanting. In this way the seed of the bhakti-latā sprouts and grows up and up through the whole universe until it penetrates the covering of the material universe and reaches the spiritual world. The bhakti-latā continues to grow until it reaches the topmost planetary system, Goloka Vṛndāvana, where Kṛṣṇa lives. There the creeper takes shelter at the lotus feet of the Lord, and that is its final destination. At that time the creeper begins to grow the fruits of ecstatic love of God. It is the duty of the devotee who nourishes the creeper to be very careful. It is said that the watering of the creeper must continue: ihāṅ mālī sece nitya śravaṇādi jala. It is not that at a certain stage one can stop chanting and hearing and become a mature devotee. If one stops, one certainly falls down from devotional service. Although one may be very much exalted in devotional service, he should not give up the watering process of śravaṇa-kīrtana. If one gives up that process, it is due to an offense. This is described in the following verse.

Text

yadi vaiṣṇava-aparādha uṭhe hātī mātā
upāḍe vā chiṇḍe, tāra śukhi’ yāya pātā

Synonyms

yadi — if; vaiṣṇava-aparādha — an offense at the feet of a Vaiṣṇava; uṭhe — arises; hātī — an elephant; mātā — mad; upāḍe — uproots; — or; chiṇḍe — breaks; tāra — of the creeper; śukhi’ — shriveling up; yāya — goes; pātā — the leaf.

Translation

“If the devotee commits an offense at the feet of a Vaiṣṇava while cultivating the creeper of devotional service in the material world, his offense is compared to a mad elephant that uproots the creeper and breaks it. In this way the leaves of the creeper are dried up.

Purport

One’s devotional attitude increases in the association of a Vaiṣṇava:

tāṅdera caraṇa sevi bhakta-sane vāsa
janame janame haya, ei abhilāṣa

By his personal example, Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura stresses that a devotee must always remember to please his predecessor ācārya. The Gosvāmīs are represented by one’s spiritual master. One cannot be an ācārya (spiritual master) without following strictly in the disciplic succession of the ācāryas. One who is actually serious about advancing in devotional service should desire only to satisfy the previous ācāryas. Ei chaya gosāñi yāra, mui tāra dāsa. One should always think of oneself as a servant of the servant of the ācāryas, and thinking this, one should live in the society of Vaiṣṇavas. However, if one thinks that he has become very mature and can live separate from the association of Vaiṣṇavas and thus gives up all the regulative principles due to offending a Vaiṣṇava, one’s position becomes very dangerous. Offenses against the holy name are explained in Ādi-līlā, chapter eight, verse 24. Giving up the regulative principles and living according to one’s whims is compared to a mad elephant, which by force uproots the bhakti-latā and breaks it to pieces. In this way the bhakti-latā shrivels up. Such an offense is especially created when one disobeys the instructions of the spiritual master. This is called guru-avajñā. The devotee must therefore be very careful not to commit offenses against the spiritual master by disobeying his instructions. As soon as one is deviated from the instructions of the spiritual master, the uprooting of the bhakti-latā begins, and gradually all the leaves dry up.

Text

tāte mālī yatna kari’ kare āvaraṇa
aparādha-hastīra yaiche nā haya udgama

Synonyms

tāte — therefore; mālī — the gardener devotee; yatna kari’ — with great attention; kare — makes; āvaraṇa — protective fencing; aparādha — of offenses; hastīra — of the elephant; yaiche — so that; — not; haya — there is; udgama — birth.

Translation

“The gardener must defend the creeper by fencing it all around so that the powerful elephant of offenses may not enter.

Purport

While the bhakti creeper is growing, the devotee must protect it by fencing it all around. The neophyte devotee must be protected by being surrounded by pure devotees. In this way he will not give the maddened elephant a chance to uproot his bhakti creeper. When one associates with nondevotees, the maddened elephant is set loose. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu has said, asat-saṅga-tyāga, — ei vaiṣṇava-ācāra. The first business of a Vaiṣṇava is to give up the company of nondevotees. A so-called mature devotee, however, commits a great offense by giving up the company of pure devotees. The human being is a social animal, and if one gives up the society of pure devotees, he must associate with nondevotees (asat-saṅga). By contacting nondevotees and engaging in nondevotional activities, a so-called mature devotee will fall victim to the mad elephant offense. Whatever growth has taken place is quickly uprooted by such an offense. One should therefore be very careful to defend the creeper by fencing it in — that is, by following the regulative principles and associating with pure devotees.

Even if one thinks that there are many pseudo devotees or nondevotees in the Kṛṣṇa Consciousness Society, still one should stick to the Society; if one thinks the Society’s members are not pure devotees, one can keep direct company with the spiritual master, and if there is any doubt, one should consult the spiritual master. However, unless one follows the spiritual master’s instructions concerning the regulative principles and chanting and hearing the holy name of the Lord, one cannot become a pure devotee. By one’s mental concoctions, one falls down. By associating with nondevotees, one breaks the regulative principles and is thereby lost. In the Upadeśāmṛta (2) of Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī, it is said:

atyāhāraḥ prayāsaś caprajalpo niyamāgrahaḥ
jana-saṅgaś ca laulyaṁ ca
ṣaḍbhir bhaktir vinaśyati

“One’s devotional service is spoiled when he becomes too entangled in the following six activities: (1) eating more than necessary or collecting more funds than required, (2) overendeavoring for mundane things that are very difficult to attain, (3) talking unnecessarily about mundane subject matters, (4) practicing the scriptural rules and regulations only for the sake of following them and not for the sake of spiritual advancement, or rejecting the rules and regulations of the scriptures and working independently or whimsically, (5) associating with worldly-minded persons who are not interested in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, and (6) being greedy for mundane achievements.”

Text

kintu yadi latāra saṅge uṭhe ‘upaśākhā’
bhukti-mukti-vāñchā, yata asaṅkhya tāra lekhā

Synonyms

kintu — but; yadi — if; latāra — the creeper of devotional service; saṅge — with; uṭhe — arise; upaśākhā — unwanted creepers; bhukti — for material enjoyment; mukti — for liberation from the material world; vāñchā — the desires; yata — as many as there are; asaṅkhya — unlimited; tāra — of those unwanted creepers; lekhā — the writing.

Translation

“Sometimes unwanted creepers, such as the creepers of desires for material enjoyment and liberation from the material world, grow along with the creeper of devotional service. The varieties of such unwanted creepers are unlimited.

Text

‘niṣiddhācāra’, ‘kuṭīnāṭī’, ‘jīva-hiṁsana’
‘lābha’, ‘pūjā’, ‘pratiṣṭhādi’ yata upaśākhā-gaṇa

Synonyms

niṣiddha-ācāra — behavior not to be exhibited by a person desiring to become perfect; kuṭīnāṭī — diplomacy; jīva-hiṁsana — unnecessarily killing animals or the soul; lābha — profit according to material calculations; pūjā — adoration achieved by satisfying mundane people; pratiṣṭha-ādi — becoming an important man in material calculations, and so on; yata — all these; upaśākhā-gaṇa — unnecessary creepers.

Translation

“Some unnecessary creepers growing with the bhakti creeper are the creepers of behavior unacceptable for those trying to attain perfection, diplomatic behavior, animal-killing, mundane profiteering, mundane adoration and mundane importance. All these are unwanted creepers.

Purport

There is a certain pattern of behavior prescribed for those actually trying to become perfect. In our Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement we advise our students not to eat meat, not to gamble, not to engage in illicit sex and not to indulge in intoxication. People who indulge in these activities can never become perfect; therefore these regulative principles are for those interested in becoming perfect and going back to Godhead. Kuṭīnāṭī, or diplomatic behavior, cannot satisfy the ātmā, the soul. It cannot even satisfy the body or the mind. The culprit mind is always suspicious; therefore our dealings should always be straightforward and approved by Vedic authorities. If we treat people diplomatically or duplicitously, our spiritual advancement is obstructed. Jīva-hiṁsana refers to the killing of animals or to envy of other living entities. The killing of poor animals is undoubtedly due to envy of those animals. The human form is meant for the understanding of Kṛṣṇa consciousness (athāto brahma-jijñāsā), for inquiring about the Supreme Brahman. In the human form, everyone has a chance to understand the Supreme Brahman. The so-called leaders of human society do not know the real aim of human life and are therefore busy with economic development. This is misleading. Every state and every society is busy trying to improve the quality of eating, sleeping, mating and defending. This human form of life is meant for more than these four animal principles. Eating, sleeping, mating and defending are problems found in the animal kingdom, and the animals have solved these problems without difficulty. Why should human society be so busy trying to solve these problems? The difficulty is that people are not educated to understand this simple philosophy. They think that advancement of civilization means increasing sense gratification.

There are many religious propagandists who do not know how the ultimate problems of life can be solved, and they also try to educate people in a form of sense gratification. This is also jīva-hiṁsana. Real knowledge is not given, and religionists mislead the general populace. As far as material profits are concerned, one should know that whatever material profit one has must be abandoned at the time of death. Unfortunately people do not know that there is life after death; therefore mundane people waste their time amassing material profit which has to be left behind at the time of death. Such profit has no eternal benefit. Similarly, adoration by mundane people is valueless because after death one has to accept another body. Material adoration and titles are decorations that cannot be carried over to the next body. In the next life, everything is forgotten.

All these obstructions have been described in this verse as unwanted creepers. They simply present obstacles for the real creeper, the bhakti-latā. One should be very careful to avoid all these unwanted things. Sometimes these unwanted creepers look exactly like the bhakti creeper. They appear to be of the same size and the same species when they are packed together with the bhakti creeper, but in spite of this, the creepers are called upaśākhā. A pure devotee can distinguish between the bhakti creeper and a mundane creeper, and he is very alert to distinguish them and keep them separate.

Text

seka-jala pāñā upaśākhā bāḍi’ yāya
stabdha hañā mūla-śākhā bāḍite nā pāya

Synonyms

seka-jala — sprinkling water; pāñā — getting; upaśākhā — the unwanted creepers; bāḍiyāya — grow luxuriantly; stabdha hañā — becoming stopped; mūla-śākhā — the chief creeper; bāḍite — to increase; pāya — is not able.

Translation

“If one does not distinguish between the bhakti creeper and the other creepers, the sprinkling of water is misused because the other creepers are nourished while the bhakti creeper is curtailed.

Purport

If one chants the Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra while committing offenses, these unwanted creepers will grow. One should not take advantage of chanting the Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra for some material profit. As mentioned in verse 159:

‘niṣiddhācāra’, ‘kuṭīnāṭī’, ‘jīva-hiṁsana’
‘lābha’, ‘pūjā’, ‘pratiṣṭhādi’ yata upaśākhā-gaṇa

The unwanted creepers have been described by Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura. He states that if one hears and chants without trying to give up offenses, one becomes materially attached to sense gratification. One may also desire freedom from material bondage like the Māyāvādīs, or one may become attached to the yoga-siddhis and desire wonderful yogic powers. If one is attached to wonderful material activities, one is called siddhi-lobhī, greedy for material perfection. One may also be victimized by diplomatic or crooked behavior, or one may associate with women for illicit sex. One may make a show of devotional service like the prākṛta-sahajiyās, or one may try to support his philosophy by joining some caste or identifying himself with a certain dynasty, claiming a monopoly on spiritual advancement. Thus with the support of family tradition, one may become a pseudo guru, or so-called spiritual master. One may become attached to the four sinful activities — illicit sex, intoxication, gambling and meat-eating — or one may consider a Vaiṣṇava to belong to a mundane caste or creed. One may think, “This is a Hindu Vaiṣṇava, and this is a European Vaiṣṇava. European Vaiṣṇavas are not allowed to enter the temples.” In other words, one may consider Vaiṣṇavas in terms of birth, thinking one a brāhmaṇa Vaiṣṇava, another a śūdra Vaiṣṇava, another a mleccha Vaiṣṇava and so on. One may also try to carry out a professional business by means of chanting the Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra or reading Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, or one may try to increase his monetary strength by illegal means. Also, one may become a cheap Vaiṣṇava by trying to chant in a secluded place for material adoration, or one may desire mundane reputation by making compromises with nondevotees concerning one’s philosophy or spiritual life, or one may become a supporter of a hereditary caste system. All these are pitfalls of personal sense gratification. Just to cheat some innocent people, one makes a show of advanced spiritual life and becomes known as a sādhu, mahātmā or religious person. All this means that the so-called devotee has become victimized by all these unwanted creepers and that the real creeper, the bhakti-latā, has been stunted.

Text

prathamei upaśākhāra karaye chedana
tabe mūla-śākhā bāḍi’ yāya vṛndāvana

Synonyms

prathamei — from the very beginning; upaśākhāra — of the unwanted creepers; karaye — does; chedana — the cutting away; tabe — then only; mūla-śākhā — the chief creeper; bāḍi’ — growing; yāya — goes; vṛndāvana — to the lotus feet of Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa in Vṛndāvana.

Translation

“As soon as an intelligent devotee sees an unwanted creeper growing beside the original creeper, he must cut it down instantly. Then the real creeper, the bhakti-latā, grows nicely, returns home, back to Godhead, and seeks shelter under the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa.

Purport

If one is misled by unwanted creepers and is victimized, he cannot make progress back to Godhead. Rather, he remains within the material world and engages in activities having nothing to do with pure devotional service. Such a person may be elevated to the higher planetary systems, but because he remains within the material world, he is subjected to the threefold material miseries.

Text

‘prema-phala’ pāki’ paḍe, mālī āsvādaya
latā avalambi’ mālī ‘kalpa-vṛkṣa’ pāya

Synonyms

prema-phala — the fruit of love of God; pāki’ — becoming mature; paḍe — falls down; mālī — the gardener; āsvādaya — tastes; latā avalambi’ — taking advantage of the growing bhakti-latā; mālī — the gardener; kalpa-vṛkṣa pāya — reaches the desire tree in Goloka Vṛndāvana.

Translation

“When the fruit of devotional service becomes ripe and falls down, the gardener tastes the fruit and thus takes advantage of the creeper and reaches the desire tree of the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa in Goloka Vṛndāvana.

Text

tāhāṅ sei kalpa-vṛkṣera karaye sevana
sukhe prema-phala-rasa kare āsvādana

Synonyms

tāhāṅ — there (in Goloka Vṛndāvana); sei kalpa-vṛkṣera — of the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa, which are compared to a desire tree; karaye sevana — engages in the service; sukhe — in transcendental bliss; prema-phala-rasa — the juice of the fruit of devotional service; kare — does; āsvādana — tasting.

Translation

“There the devotee serves the lotus feet of the Lord, which are compared to a wish-fulfilling tree. With great bliss he tastes the juice of the fruit of love and becomes eternally happy.

Purport

The word tāhāṅ indicates that in the spiritual world one can taste the juice of the fruit of devotional service and thus become blissful.

Text

eita parama-phala ‘parama-puruṣārtha’
yāṅra āge tṛṇa-tulya cāri puruṣārtha

Synonyms

eita — this; parama-phala — the supreme goal of life; parama — supreme; puruṣa-artha — interest of the living being; yāṅra āge — in the presence of which; tṛṇa-tulya — very insignificant; cāri — four; puruṣa-artha — the different types of human interests.

Translation

“To taste the fruit of devotional service in Goloka Vṛndāvana is the highest perfection of life, and in the presence of such perfection, the four material perfections — religion, economic development, sense gratification and liberation — are very insignificant achievements.

Purport

The highest achievement attained by the jñānīs, or impersonalists, is becoming one with the Supreme, generally known as mokṣa, liberation. The highest achievements of the yogīs are the eight material perfections, such as aṇimā, laghimā and prāpti. Yet these are nothing compared to the eternal bliss of the devotee who returns back to Godhead and tastes the fruit of devotional service to the lotus feet of the Lord. The material perfections, even up to the point of liberation, are very insignificant in comparison; therefore the pure devotee is never interested in such things. His only interest is in perfecting his devotional service to the Lord. The pleasure of the impersonalist, monist philosophers is condemned in the following verse, which is also found in Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī’s Lalita-mādhava.

Text

ṛddhā siddhi-vraja-vijayitā satya-dharmā samādhir
brahmānando gurur api camatkārayaty eva tāvat
yāvat premṇāṁ madhu-ripu-vaśī-kāra-siddhauṣadhīnāṁ
gandho ’py antaḥ-karaṇa-saraṇī-pānthatāṁ na prayāti

Synonyms

ṛddhā — excellent; siddhi-vraja — of the groups of material perfections of the yogīs (aṇimā, laghimā, prāpti and so on); vijayitā — the victory; satya-dharmā — the religious principles of perfection (satya, śama, titikṣā and so on); samādhiḥ — the yogic perfection of meditation; brahma-ānandaḥ — the spiritually blissful life of the monist; guruḥ — very high in material considerations; api — although; camatkārayati — they appear very important; eva — only; tāvat — that long; yāvat — as long as; premṇām — of love of Kṛṣṇa; madhu-ripu — of Kṛṣṇa, the enemy of the Madhu demon; vaśī-kāra — in the controlling; siddha-auṣadhīnām — which is like perfect herbs that can control snakes; gandhaḥ — a slight fragrance; api — even; antaḥ-karaṇa-saraṇī-pānthatām — a traveler on the path of the heart; na prayāti — does not become.

Translation

“ ‘As long as there is not the slightest fragrance of pure love of Kṛṣṇa, which is the perfect medicinal herb for controlling Lord Kṛṣṇa within the heart, the opulences of the material perfections known as the siddhis, the brahminical perfections [satya, śama, titikṣā and so on], the trance of the yogīs and the monistic bliss of Brahman all seem wonderful for men.’

Purport

There are different types of perfections known as siddhi-vraja, and also the perfections of achieving brahminical qualifications, yogic trance and merging into the Supreme. All these material perfections are certainly very attractive for a mundane person, but their brilliance exists only as long as one does not take to devotional service. Devotional service can control the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is the supreme controller of all universal affairs. The five rasas (mellows) in the transcendental world are practiced by the inhabitants of Goloka Vṛndāvana in neutrality, servitorship, friendship, parental affection and conjugal love. All these please the Lord so much that He is controlled by the devotees. For instance, mother Yaśodā was so advanced in devotional service that Kṛṣṇa agreed to be controlled by her stick. In other words, the five principal mellows are so great and glorious that they are able to control the Supreme Personality of Godhead. In the material world, however, the so-called siddhis, or perfections, manifest their brightness only as long as one is not interested in devotional service. In other words, the perfection of the karmīs, jñānīs, yogīs and others remains attractive only as long as one does not come to the point of devotional service, which is so great and significant that it can control the supreme controller, Kṛṣṇa.

Text

‘śuddha-bhakti’ haite haya ‘premā’ utpanna
ataeva śuddha-bhaktira kahiye ‘lakṣaṇa’

Synonyms

śuddha-bhakti — pure devotional service without material contaminations; haite — from; haya — is; premā — love of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; utpanna — produced; ataeva — therefore; śuddha-bhaktira — of pure devotional service; kahiye — let me explain; lakṣaṇa — the symptoms.

Translation

“When one is situated in pure devotional service, he develops love of Godhead; therefore let me describe some of the symptoms of pure devotional service.

Purport

In the Bhagavad-gītā (18.55) it is said, bhaktyā mām abhijānāti yāvān yaś cāsmi tattvataḥ. One cannot understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead in truth unless he takes to devotional service.

Text

anyābhilāṣitā-śūnyaṁ
jñāna-karmādy-anāvṛtam
ānukūlyena kṛṣṇānu-
śīlanaṁ bhaktir uttamā

Synonyms

anya-abhilāṣitā-śūnyam — without desires other than those for the service of Lord Kṛṣṇa, or without material desires (such as those for meat-eating, illicit sex, gambling and addiction to intoxicants); jñāna — by the knowledge of the philosophy of the monist Māyāvādīs*; karma — by fruitive activities; ādi — by artificially practicing detachment, by the mechanical practice of yoga, by studying the Sāṅkhya philosophy, and so on; anāvṛtam — not covered; ānukūlyena — favorable; kṛṣṇa-anuśīlanam — cultivation of service in relationship to Kṛṣṇa; bhaktiḥ uttamā — first-class devotional service.

Translation

“ ‘When first-class devotional service develops, one must be devoid of all material desires, knowledge obtained by monistic philosophy, and fruitive action. The devotee must constantly serve Kṛṣṇa favorably, as Kṛṣṇa desires.’

Purport

This verse is also found in Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī’s Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (1.1.11). As we can understand from the Bhagavad-gītā (9.34 and 18.65), the Supreme Personality of Godhead wants everyone to think of Him always (man-manā bhava mad-bhaktaḥ). Everyone should become His devotee, not the devotee of a demigod. Everyone should engage in His devotional service, including arcana (Deity worship) in the temple. Man-manā bhava mad-bhakto mad-yājī māṁ namaskuru. Everyone should offer obeisances, from moment to moment, to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. These are the desires of the Supreme Lord, and one who fulfills His desires favorably is actually a pure devotee. Kṛṣṇa wants everyone to surrender unto Him, and devotional service means preaching this gospel all over the world. The Lord says openly in the Bhagavad-gītā (18.69), na ca tasmān manuṣyeṣu kaścin me priya-kṛttamaḥ: One who preaches the gospel of the Bhagavad-gītā for the benefit of all is most dear to Kṛṣṇa. The Bhagavad-gītā is spoken by the Lord so that human society can be perfectly organized from all angles of vision — politically, socially, economically, philosophically and religiously. From any point of view, human society can be reformed by the Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement; therefore one who spreads this philosophy of Kṛṣṇa consciousness for the benefit of all conditioned souls in the universe is perfect in pure devotional service.

The criterion is that a devotee must know what Kṛṣṇa wants him to do. This understanding can be achieved through the medium of a spiritual master who is a bona fide representative of Kṛṣṇa. Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī advises, ādau gurv-āśrayam. One who is serious in wanting to render pure devotional service to the Lord must take shelter of a spiritual master who comes in the disciplic succession from Kṛṣṇa. Evaṁ paramparā-prāptam imaṁ rājarṣayo viduḥ. Without accepting a bona fide spiritual master coming in the disciplic succession, one cannot find out the real purpose of devotional service. Therefore one has to accept the shelter of a bona fide spiritual master and agree to be directed by him. The first business of a pure devotee is to satisfy his spiritual master, whose only business is to spread Kṛṣṇa consciousness. And if one can satisfy the spiritual master, Kṛṣṇa is automatically satisfied — yasya prasādād bhagavat-prasādaḥ. This is the success of devotional service. This is the meaning of the word ānukūlyena — that is, favorable devotional service to the Lord. A pure devotee has no plans other than those for the Lord’s service. He is not interested in attaining success in mundane activities. He simply wants success in the progress of devotional service. For a devotee, there cannot be worship of others or demigod worship. A pure devotee does not engage himself in such pseudo devotional service. He is interested only in satisfying Kṛṣṇa. If one lives only for the satisfaction of Kṛṣṇa, it does not matter whether he belongs to this order of life or that order of life. One’s only business should be to satisfy Kṛṣṇa. This process is completely manifest in the activities of the Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement. It has been actually proved that the entire world can accept devotional service without failure. One simply has to follow the instructions of the representative of Kṛṣṇa.

Text

anya-vāñchā, anya-pūjā chāḍi’ ‘jñāna’, ‘karma’
ānukūlye sarvendriye kṛṣṇānuśīlana

Synonyms

anya-vāñchā — other desires; anya-pūjā — other types of worship; chāḍi’ — giving up; jñāna — material knowledge; karma — material activities; ānukūlye — favorably; sarva-indriye — with all the senses; kṛṣṇa-anuśīlana — cultivation of Kṛṣṇa consciousness.

Translation

“A pure devotee must not cherish any desire other than to serve Kṛṣṇa. He should not offer worship to the demigods or to mundane personalities. He should not cultivate artificial knowledge, which is devoid of Kṛṣṇa consciousness, and he should not engage himself in anything other than Kṛṣṇa conscious activities. One must engage all one’s purified senses in the service of the Lord. This is the favorable execution of Kṛṣṇa conscious activities.

Text

ei ‘śuddha-bhakti’ — ihā haite ‘premā’ haya
pañcarātre, bhāgavate ei lakṣaṇa kaya

Synonyms

ei — this; śuddha-bhakti — pure devotional service; ihā haite — from which; premā — unalloyed love of Kṛṣṇa; haya — there is; pañcarātre — in the Vedic literatures known as the Pañcarātras; bhāgavate — also in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam; ei — these; lakṣaṇa — symptoms; kaya — are described.

Translation

“These activities are called śuddha-bhakti, pure devotional service. If one renders such pure devotional service, he develops his original love for Kṛṣṇa in due course of time. In Vedic literatures like the Pañcarātras and Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, these symptoms are described.

Purport

One has to develop his devotional service under the directions of a pure devotee, the spiritual master, and in accordance with the Vedic directions given in the Pañcarātra and Bhāgavata systems. The Pañcarātra system includes methods of temple worship, and the Bhāgavata system includes the spreading of Kṛṣṇa conscious philosophy through the recitation of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam and the discussion of philosophy with people who are interested. Through discussion, one can create an interest and understanding of the Pañcarātra and Bhāgavata systems.

Text

sarvopādhi-vinirmuktaṁ
tat-paratvena nirmalam
hṛṣīkeṇa hṛṣīkeśa-
sevanaṁ bhaktir ucyate

Synonyms

sarva-upādhi-vinirmuktam — free from all kinds of material designations, or free from all desires except the desire to render service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead; tat-paratvena — by the sole purpose of serving the Supreme Personality of Godhead; nirmalam — uncontaminated by the effects of speculative philosophical research or fruitive activity; hṛṣīkeṇa — by purified senses freed from all designations; hṛṣīka-īśa — of the master of the senses; sevanam — the service to satisfy the senses; bhaktiḥ — devotional service; ucyate — is called.

Translation

“ ‘Bhakti, or devotional service, means engaging all our senses in the service of the Lord, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the master of all the senses. When the spirit soul renders service unto the Supreme, there are two side effects. One is freed from all material designations, and one’s senses are purified simply by being employed in the service of the Lord.’

Purport

This verse quoted from the Nārada-pañcarātra is found in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (1.1.12).

Text

mad-guṇa-śruti-mātreṇa
mayi sarva-guhāśaye
mano-gatir avicchinnā
yathā gaṅgāmbhaso ’mbudhau

Synonyms

mat — of Me; guṇa — of the qualities; śruti-mātreṇa — only by hearing; mayi — to Me; sarva-guhā — in all hearts; āśaye — who am situated; manaḥ-gatiḥ — the movement of the mind; avicchinnā — unobstructed; yathā — just as; gaṅgā-ambhasaḥ — of the celestial waters of the Ganges; ambudhau — to the ocean.

Translation

“ ‘Just as the celestial waters of the Ganges flow unobstructed into the ocean, so when My devotees simply hear of Me, their minds come to Me. I reside in the hearts of all.

Purport

This verse and the following three verses are quoted from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (3.29.11-14). They were spoken by Lord Kṛṣṇa in the form of Kapiladeva.

Text

lakṣaṇaṁ bhakti-yogasya
nirguṇasya hy udāhṛtam
ahaituky avyavahitā
yā bhaktiḥ puruṣottame

Synonyms

lakṣaṇam — the symptom; bhakti-yogasya — of devotional service; nirguṇasya — beyond the three modes of nature; hi — certainly; udāhṛtam — is cited; ahaitukī — causeless; avyavahitā — uninterrupted; — which; bhaktiḥ — devotional service; puruṣa-uttame — to the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

Translation

“ ‘These are the characteristics of transcendental loving service to Puruṣottama, the Supreme Personality of Godhead: it is causeless, and it cannot be obstructed in any way.

Text

sālokya-sārṣṭi-sāmīpya-
sārūpyaikatvam apy uta
dīyamānaṁ na gṛhṇanti
vinā mat-sevanaṁ janāḥ

Synonyms

sālokya — being on the same planet as Me; sārṣṭi — having opulence equal to Mine; sāmīpya — having direct association with Me; sārūpya — having the same form as Me; ekatvam — oneness with Me; api — even; uta — or; dīyamānam — being given; na — not; gṛhṇanti — accept; vinā — without; mat-sevanam — My service; janāḥ — the devotees.

Translation

“ ‘My devotees do not accept sālokya, sārṣṭi, sārūpya, sāmīpya or oneness with Me — even if I offer these liberations — in preference to serving Me.

Text

sa eva bhakti-yogākhya
ātyantika udāhṛtaḥ
yenātivrajya tri-guṇaṁ
mad-bhāvāyopapadyate

Synonyms

saḥ — that (having the above symptoms); eva — certainly; bhakti-yoga-ākhyaḥ — called bhakti-yoga; ātyantikaḥ — the ultimate goal of life; udāhṛtaḥ — described as; yena — by which; ativrajya — transcending; tri-guṇam — the three modes of material nature; mat-bhāvāya — for direct touch with Me, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and My nature; upapadyate — one becomes qualified.

Translation

“ ‘Bhakti-yoga, as described above, is the ultimate goal of life. By rendering devotional service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, one transcends the modes of material nature and attains the spiritual position on the platform of direct devotional service.’

Text

bhukti-mukti ādi-vāñchā yadi mane haya
sādhana karile prema utpanna nā haya

Synonyms

bhukti — material enjoyment; mukti — to become liberated from material bondage; ādi — and so on; vāñchā — desires; yadi — if; mane — in the mind; haya — are; sādhana karile — even executing devotional service according to the regulative routine; prema — real love of Kṛṣṇa; utpanna — awakened; — not; haya — is.

Translation

“If one is infected with the desire for material enjoyment or material liberation, he cannot rise to the platform of pure loving service unto the Lord, even though he may superficially render devotional service according to the routine regulative principles.

Purport

Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura mentions that if one maintains within his heart the desire to enjoy the result of good work, or, being embarrassed by the material world, the desire to get out of material entanglement, one will never be able to attain the transcendental mellows of devotional service. In other words, one must not desire material profit when rendering devotional service. Even if one follows all the sixty-four regulative principles, he cannot attain pure devotional service with a contaminated heart.

Text

bhukti-mukti-spṛhā yāvat
piśācī hṛdi vartate
tāvad bhakti-sukhasyātra
katham abhyudayo bhavet

Synonyms

bhukti — for material enjoyment; mukti — and for liberation from material existence; spṛhā — desires; yāvat — as long as; piśācī — the witches; hṛdi — within the heart; vartate — remain; tāvat — that long; bhakti — of devotional service; sukhasya — of the happiness; atra — here; katham — how; abhyudayaḥ — awakening; bhavet — can there be.

Translation

“ ‘The material desire to enjoy the material world and the desire to become liberated from material bondage are considered to be two witches, and they haunt one like ghosts. As long as these witches remain within the heart, how can one feel transcendental bliss? As long as these two witches remain in the heart, there is no possibility of enjoying the transcendental bliss of devotional service.’

Purport

This verse is found in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (1.2.22).

Text

sādhana-bhakti haite haya ‘rati’ra udaya
rati gāḍha haile tāra ‘prema’ nāma kaya

Synonyms

sādhana-bhakti — the process of regularly rendering devotional service; haite — from; haya — there is; ratira — of attachment; udaya — the awakening; rati — such attachment; gāḍha haile — becoming thick; tāra — of this; prema — love of Godhead; nāma — the name; kaya — is said.

Translation

“By regularly rendering devotional service, one gradually becomes attached to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. When that attachment is intensified, it becomes love of Godhead.

Purport

The Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (1.2.2) gives the following information about sādhana-bhakti:

kṛti-sādhyā bhavet sādhya-bhāvā sā sādhanābhidhā
nitya-siddhasya bhāvasya
prākaṭyaṁ hṛdi sādhyatā

The process of devotional service — beginning with chanting and hearing — is called sādhana-bhakti. This includes the regulative principles that are intended to awaken one to devotional service. Devotional service is always dormant in everyone’s heart, and by the offenseless chanting of the holy names of the Lord, one’s original dormant Kṛṣṇa consciousness is awakened. This awakening to Kṛṣṇa consciousness is the beginning of sādhana-bhakti. This can be divided into many different parts, including faith, association with devotees, initiation by the spiritual master, engagement in devotional service under the instructions of a spiritual master, steadiness in devotional service and the awakening of a taste for devotional service. In this way, one can become attached to Kṛṣṇa and His service, and when this attachment is intensified, it results in ecstatic love for Kṛṣṇa. The word rati is explained in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (1.3.41) as follows:

vyaktaṁ masṛṇatevāntar-lakṣyate rati-lakṣaṇam
mumukṣu-prabhṛtīnāṁ ced
bhaved eṣā ratir na hi

“When a tenderness of the heart is manifested, there is rati, or attachment. But those who are interested in being liberated from material bondage will not manifest this tenderness.” This attachment is not like material attachment. When one is free of material contamination, attachment for Kṛṣṇa’s service awakens and is called rati. In the material world there is attachment for material enjoyment, but this is not rati. Transcendental rati can be awakened only on the spiritual platform. Ecstatic love for Kṛṣṇa (prema) is described in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (1.41) as follows:

samyaṅ masṛṇita-svāntomamatvātiśayāṅkitaḥ
bhāvaḥ sa eva sāndrātmā
budhaiḥ premā nigadyate

“When the heart is completely softened and devoid of all material desires and when one’s emotional feelings become very strong, one becomes very much attached to Kṛṣṇa. Such purified emotion is known as pure love.”

Text

prema vṛddhi-krame nāma — sneha, māna, praṇaya
rāga, anurāga, bhāva, mahābhāva haya

Synonyms

prema — ecstatic love for God; vṛddhi-krame — in terms of progressive increase; nāma — named; sneha — affection; māna — abhorrence; praṇaya — love; rāga — attachment; anurāga — further attachment; bhāva — ecstasy; mahā-bhāva — great ecstasy; haya — are.

Translation

“The basic aspects of prema, when gradually increasing to different states, are affection, abhorrence, love, attachment, further attachment, ecstasy and great ecstasy.

Purport

In the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu, (3.2.84) sneha (affection) is described as follows:

sāndraś citta-dravaṁ kurvanpremā sneha itīryate
kṣaṇikasyāpi neha syād
viśleṣasya sahiṣṇutā

“That aspect of prema in which the melting of the heart for the lover is concentrated is called sneha, or affection. The symptom of such affection is that the lover cannot for a moment remain without the association of the beloved.” A description of māna can be found in Madhya-līlā (chapter two, verse 66). Similarly, a description of praṇaya is also there. As far as rāga is concerned, the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (3.2.87) says:

snehaḥ sa rāgo yena syātsukhaṁ duḥkham api sphuṭam
tat-sambandha-lave ’py atra
prītiḥ prāṇa-vyayair api

“That stage at which affection for the beloved converts unhappiness into happiness is called rāga, or attachment. When one has such attachment for Kṛṣṇa, he can give up his own life to satisfy his beloved Kṛṣṇa.” Anurāga, bhāva and mahābhāva are described in the Sixth chapter of the Madhya-līlā, verse 13. The purport to that verse explains adhirūḍha-mahābhāva.

Text

yaiche bīja, ikṣu, rasa, guḍa, khaṇḍa-sāra
śarkarā, sitā, michari, uttama-michari āra

Synonyms

yaiche — just like; bīja — the seed; ikṣu — the sugarcane plant; rasa — the juice; guḍa — molasses; khaṇḍa-sāra — dry molasses; śarkarā — sugar; sitā — candy; michari — rock candy; uttama-michari — lozenges; āra — and.

Translation

“The gradual development of prema may be compared to different states of sugar. First there is the seed of the sugarcane, then sugarcane and then the juice extracted from the cane. When this juice is boiled, it forms liquid molasses, then solid molasses, then sugar, candy, rock candy and finally lozenges.

Text

ei saba kṛṣṇa-bhakti-rasera sthāyibhāva
sthāyibhāve mile yadi vibhāva, anubhāva

Synonyms

ei saba — all these; kṛṣṇa-bhakti — of devotional service to Kṛṣṇa; rasera — of the mellows; sthāyi-bhāva — continuous existence of ecstasy; sthāyi-bhāve — in this continuous existence of ecstasy; mile — one meets; yadi — if; vibhāva — special ecstasy; anubhāva — subecstasy.

Translation

“All these stages combined are called sthāyibhāva, or continuous love of Godhead in devotional service. In addition to these stages, there are vibhāva and anubhāva.

Purport

Attachment for Kṛṣṇa never wanes; it increases more and more as one attains different stages. All the stages together are called sthāyibhāva, or continuous existence of ecstasy. The nine forms of devotional service are śravaṇaṁ kīrtanaṁ viṣṇoḥ smaraṇaṁ pāda-sevanam arcanaṁ vandanaṁ dāsyaṁ sakhyam ātma-nivedanam. When continuous love of Godhead is mixed with the processes of devotional service, it is called vibhāva, anubhāva, sāttvika and vyabhicārī. The devotee thus enjoys a variety of transcendental bliss. In his Amṛta-pravāha-bhāṣya, Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura states that anubhāva can be divided into thirteen categories: (1) dancing, (2) rolling on the ground, (3) singing, (4) yelling, (5) jumping, (6) making loud noises, (7) yawning, (8) heavy breathing, (9) not caring for public opinion, (10) discharging saliva, (11) roaring laughter, (12) unsteadiness and (13) hiccuping. These are the symptoms of anubhāva. Thus the transcendental mellows are experienced in different stages. Similarly, there are many other forms of expression that have been analytically studied by the Gosvāmīs. In the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu, Rūpa Gosvāmī gives each and every symptom a particular name.

Text

sāttvika-vyabhicāri-bhāvera milane
kṛṣṇa-bhakti-rasa haya amṛta āsvādane

Synonyms

sāttvika-vyabhicāri-bhāvera — of sāttvika and vyabhicārī with sthāyibhāva; milane — by mixing; kṛṣṇa-bhakti-rasa — the transcendental mellows of devotional service to the Lord; haya — become; amṛta — nectarean; āsvādane — in tasting.

Translation

“When the higher standard of ecstatic love is mixed with the symptoms of sāttvika and vyabhicārī, the devotee relishes the transcendental bliss of loving Kṛṣṇa in a variety of nectarean tastes.

Text

yaiche dadhi, sitā, ghṛta, marīca, karpūra
milane, ‘rasālā’ haya amṛta madhura

Synonyms

yaiche — just as; dadhi — yogurt; sitā — sugar candy; ghṛta — clarified butter; marīca — black pepper; karpūra — camphor; milane — in mixing together; rasālā — very tasteful; haya — becomes; amṛta — nectarean; madhura — and sweet.

Translation

“These tastes are like a combination of yogurt, sugar candy, ghee [clarified butter], black pepper and camphor and are as palatable as sweet nectar.

Text

bhakta-bhede rati-bheda pañca parakāra
śānta-rati, dāsya-rati, sakhya-rati āra
vātsalya-rati, madhura-rati, — ei pañca vibheda
rati-bhede kṛṣṇa-bhakti-rase pañca bheda

Synonyms

bhakta-bhede — according to varieties of devotees; rati-bheda — the different attachments; pañca parakāra — five categories; śānta-rati — neutral appreciation; dāsya-rati — attachment in a service attitude; sakhya-rati — attachment by friendly appreciation; āra — also; vātsalya-rati — attachment by parental affection; madhura-rati — attachment by conjugal love; ei — these; pañca — five; vibheda — divisions; rati-bhede — by attachment on different platforms; kṛṣṇa-bhakti-rase — in mellows derived from devotional service to Kṛṣṇa; pañca — five; bheda — varieties.

Translation

“According to the devotee, attachment falls within the five categories of śānta-rati, dāsya-rati, sakhya-rati, vātsalya-rati and madhura-rati. These five categories arise from devotees’ different attachments to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The transcendental mellows derived from devotional service are also of five varieties.

Purport

Śānta-rati is described in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (2.5.16-18) as follows:

mānase nirvikalpatvaṁ śama ity abhidhīyate

“When one is completely free from all doubts and material attachments, he attains the neutral position, called śānta.

vihāya viṣayonmukhyaṁnijānanda-sthitir yataḥ
ātmanaḥ kathyate so ’tra
vabhāvaḥ śama ity asau
prāyaḥ śama-pradhānānāṁmamatā-gandha-varjitā
paramātmatayā kṛṣṇe
jātā śāntī ratir matā

The śānta-rati realization of Kṛṣṇa is in the neutral stage between the conception of impersonalism and personalism. This means that one is not very strongly attached to the personal feature of the Lord. An appreciation of the greatness of the Lord is called śānta-rati. This is attachment not to the personal feature but to the impersonal feature. Generally, one in this stage is attached to the Paramātmā feature of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

īśvaraḥ sarva-bhūtānāṁhṛd-deśe ’rjuna tiṣṭhati
bhrāmayan sarva-bhūtāni
yantrārūḍhāni māyayā

“The Supreme Lord is situated in everyone’s heart, O Arjuna, and is directing the wanderings of all living entities, who are seated as on a machine made of the material energy.” (Bg. 18.61) On the strength of this statement from the Bhagavad-gītā, we can understand that in śānta-rasa a devotee sees the Lord’s representation everywhere.

Dāsya-rati is explained in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (2.5.27) thus:

svasmād bhavanti ye nyūnāste ’nugrāhyā harer matāḥ
ārādhyatvātmikā teṣāṁ
ratiḥ prītir itīritā
tatrāsakti-kṛd anyatra
prīti-saṁhāriṇī hy asau

When the Supreme Lord in His localized aspect is appreciated and a great devotee understands his subordinate position, not only does he surrender to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but, due to his subordinate position, he wishes to render some service and thus become favored by the Supreme Personality of Godhead. A devotee in śānta-rati is not very much willing to render service to the Lord, but a devotee in dāsya-rati voluntarily wants to render service. Due to this attitude, the devotee in dāsya-rati realizes the Supreme Personality of Godhead more fully than a devotee in śānta-rati. He considers the Lord to be a worshipable object, and this means that his attachment for the Lord increases. Thus dāsya-rati is characterized as bhaktiḥ pareśānubhavo viraktir anyatra ca. (Bhāg. 11.2.42) In other words, on the dāsya-rati platform a devotee is attached to rendering service to the Lord, and he is detached from material activities. Śānta-rati is neither material nor spiritual, but dāsya-rati is actually on the spiritual platform. There is no attachment for material things on the spiritual platform (viraktir anyatra ca). A devotee in dāsya-rati has no attachment for anything but Kṛṣṇa’s service.

Sakhya-rati is described in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (2.5.30) as follows:

ye syus tulyā mukundasyate sakhāyaḥ satāṁ matāḥ
sāmyād viśrambha-rūpaiṣāṁ
ratiḥ sakhyam ihocyate

According to the opinion of advanced devotees and learned scholars, a devotee in sakhya-rati feels equal to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This is a relationship in friendship. Due to having a friendly relationship with the Lord, not only is one free from material attachment, but one believes in equal dealings with the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This is called sakhya-rati. The sakhya-rati devotee is so advanced that he treats the Lord on an equal level and even exchanges joking words with Him. Although one is never equal to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the sakhya-rati devotee feels equal to the Lord, and he does not feel guilty because of this. Usually it is offensive to consider oneself equal to the Lord. The Māyāvādīs, for example, consider themselves equal to the Lord, but such feelings entail bereavement because they are material. Sakhya-rati, however, is a feeling experienced in the mind by a pure devotee, and he is eternally related with the Supreme Personality of Godhead in that feeling.

Vātsalya-rati is described as follows in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (2.5.33):

guravo ye harer asyate pūjyā iti viśrutāḥ
anugraha-mayī teṣāṁ
ratir vātsalyam ucyate
idaṁ lālana-bhavyāśīś
cibuka-sparśanādi-kṛt

When a living entity is situated on the platform of vātsalya-rati, he thinks of the Supreme Personality of Godhead in His childhood feature. In this feature, the Lord has to be protected by the devotee, and at this time the devotee takes the position of being worshiped by the Supreme Personality of Godhead. These feelings of parental love are called vātsalya-rati. When the devotee is situated on this platform, he wants to maintain the Lord like a son, and he desires all good fortune for the Lord. He offers blessings to the Lord by touching His feet and head.

Madhura-rati, or attachment in conjugal love, is described as follows:

mitho harer mṛgākṣyāś casambhogasyādi-kāraṇam
madhurāpara-paryāyā
priyatākhyoditā ratiḥ
asyāṁ kaṭākṣa-bhrū-kṣepa-
priya-vāṇī-smitādayaḥ

Madhura-rati, the conjugal relationship experienced between the Supreme Personality of Godhead and the young damsels of Vrajabhūmi, continuously exists in eight kinds of remembrances. This intimate relationship brought about by conjugal love produces movements of the eyebrows, glancing, sweet words and exchanges of joking words.

Text

śānta, dāsya, sakhya, vātsalya, madhura-rasa nāma
kṛṣṇa-bhakti-rasa-madhye e pañca pradhāna

Synonyms

śānta — neutrality; dāsya — servitude; sakhya — friendship; vātsalya — parental affection; madhura-rasa — conjugal love; nāma — different names; kṛṣṇa-bhakti — of devotional service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead; rasa — the mellows; madhye — among; e — these; pañca — five; pradhāna — chief.

Translation

“The chief transcendental mellows experienced with the Supreme Personality of Godhead are five — śānta, dāsya, sakhya, vātsalya and madhura.

Purport

Śānta-bhakti-rasa is described in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (3.1.4-6) as follows:

vakṣyamāṇair vibhāvādyaiḥśamināṁ svādyatāṁ gataḥ
sthāyī śānti-ratir dhīraiḥśānta-bhakti-rasaḥ smṛtaḥ
prāyaḥ sva-sukha-jātīyaṁsukhaṁ syād atra yoginām
kintv ātma-saukhyam aghanaṁghanaṁ tv īśa-mayaṁ sukham
tatrāpīśa-svarūpānu-bhavasyaivoru-hetutā
dāsādi-van-mano-jñātva-līlāder na tathā matā

When śānta-rati (neutral attraction) exists continuously and is mixed with ecstatic emotion, and when the devotee relishes that neutral position, it is called śānta-bhakti-rasa. Śānta-bhakti-rasa devotees generally relish the impersonal feature of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Since their taste of transcendental bliss is incomplete, it is called aghana, or not concentrated. A comparison is made between ordinary milk and concentrated milk. When the same devotee goes beyond the impersonal and tastes the service of the Supreme Personality of Godhead in His original form as sac-cid-ānanda-vigraha (His transcendental, blissful body, complete in knowledge and eternity), the taste is called concentrated (ghana) transcendental bliss. Sometimes the devotees in śānta-rasa relish transcendental bliss after meeting the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but this is not comparable to the transcendental bliss relished by the devotees situated in dāsya-rasa, the transcendental mellow in which one renders service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

Dāsya-rasa, or dāsya-bhakti-rasa, is described in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (3.2.3-4) as follows:

ātmocitair vibhāvādyaiḥprītir āsvādanīyatām
nītā cetasi bhaktānāṁ
prīti-bhakti-raso mataḥ
anugrāhy asya dāsatvāllālyatvād apy ayaṁ dvidhā
bhidyate sambhrama-prīto
gaurava-prīta ity api

When according to his desires the living entity develops love for the Supreme Personality of Godhead, this beginning stage of love is called dāsya-bhakti-rasa. Dāsya-bhakti-rasa is divided into two categories, called sambhrama-dāsya and gaurava-dāsya. In sambhrama-dāsya, the devotee renders respectful service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but in the more advanced gaurava-dāsya, the devotee feels he is receiving protection from the Lord.

Sakhya-bhakti-rasa is described as follows in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta sindhu (3.3.1):

sthāyi-bhāvo vibhāvādyaiḥsakhyam ātmocitair iha
nītaś citte satāṁ puṣṭiṁ
rasaḥ preyān udīryate

“According to one’s original consciousness, ecstatic emotions may be exhibited as continuously existing in fraternity. When this stage of Kṛṣṇa consciousness is mature, it is called preyo-rasa or sakhya-bhakti-rasa.

Vātsalya-bhakti-rasa is described in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (3.4.1) as follows:

vibhāvādyais tu vātsalyaṁsthāyī puṣṭim upāgataḥ
eṣa vatsala-nāmātra
prokto bhakti-raso budhaiḥ

“When eternally existing love of Godhead transforms into parental love and is mixed with corresponding emotions, that stage of spiritual existence is described by learned devotees as vātsalya-bhakti-rasa.

Madhura-bhakti-rasa is described in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (3.5.1) as follows:

ātmocitair vibhāvādyaiḥpuṣṭiṁ nītā satāṁ hṛdi
madhurākhyo bhaved bhakti-
raso ’sau madhurā ratiḥ

“If in accordance with one’s own natural development in Kṛṣṇa consciousness one’s attraction leans toward conjugal love within the heart, that is called attachment in conjugal love, or madhura-rasa.

Text

hāsyo ’dbhutas tathā vīraḥ
karuṇo raudra ity api
bhayānakaḥ sa-bībhatsa
iti gauṇaś ca saptadhā

Synonyms

hāsyaḥ — laughter; adbhutaḥ — wonder; tathā — then; vīraḥ — chivalry; karuṇaḥ — compassion; raudraḥ — anger; iti — thus; api — also; bhayānakaḥ — fear; saḥ — along with; bībhatsaḥ — disaster; iti — thus; gauṇaḥ — indirect; ca — also; saptadhā — seven kinds.

Translation

“ ‘Besides the five direct mellows, there are seven indirect mellows, known as laughter, wonder, chivalry, compassion, anger, disaster and fear.’

Purport

This verse is found in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (2.5.116).

Text

hāsya, adbhuta, vīra, karuṇa, raudra, bībhatsa, bhaya
pañca-vidha-bhakte gauṇa sapta-rasa haya

Synonyms

hāsya — laughter; adbhuta — wonder; vīra — chivalry; karuṇa — pathetic feeling; raudra — anger; bībhatsa — disaster; bhaya — fearfulness; pañca-vidha-bhakte — in five kinds of devotees; gauṇa — indirect; sapta-rasa — seven kinds of mellows; haya — there are.

Translation

“In addition to the five direct mellows, there are seven indirect mellows, known as laughter, wonder, chivalry, compassion, anger, disaster and fear.

Purport

Similarly, hāsya, adbhuta, vīra, karuṇa, raudra, bhaya and bībhatsa — the seven indirect mellows — are explained in the Bhaktirasāmṛta-sindhu. The hāsya-bhakti-rasa, laughing devotion, is explained as follows (B.r.s. 4.1.6):

vakṣyamāṇair vibhāvādyaiḥpuṣṭiṁ hāsa-ratir gatā
hāsya-bhakti-raso nāma
budhair eṣa nigadyate

“When through devotional service a laughing attachment to Kṛṣṇa is developed, it is called hāsya-bhakti-rasa by learned scholars.”

Similarly, adbhuta-rasa is described in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (4.2.1):

ātmocitair vibhāvādyaiḥsvādyatvaṁ bhakta-cetasi
sā vismaya-ratir nītād-
bhuta-bhakti-raso bhavet

“When one’s general attachment is fixed in wonder, it is called adbhuta-bhakti-rasa.

Vīra-bhakti-rasa is described as follows (B.r.s. 4.3.1):

saivotsāha-ratiḥ sthāyīvibhāvādyair nijocitaḥ
ānīyamānā svādyatvaṁ
vīra-bhakti-raso bhavet
yuddha-dāna-dayā-dharmaiś
caturdhā-vīra ucyate

“When attachment to Kṛṣṇa mixes with the bellicose tendency, the charitable tendency or the merciful tendency in the heart of the devotee, such devotion is called vīra-bhakti-rasa.

Karuṇa-bhakti-rasa is described as follows (B.r.s. 4.4.1):

ātmocitair vibhāvādyairnītā puṣṭiṁ satāṁ hṛdi
bhavec choka-ratir bhakti-
raso hi karuṇābhidhaḥ

“When one’s devotional attitude and attachment for Kṛṣṇa is mixed with lamentation, it is called karuṇa-bhakti-rasa.

Similarly, raudra-bhakti-rasa is described as follows (B.r.s. 4.5.1):

nītā krodha-ratiḥ puṣṭiṁvibhāvādyair nijocitaiḥ
hṛdi bhakta-janasyāsau
raudra-bhakti-raso bhavet

“When devotion is mixed with anger in the heart of the devotee, the taste is called raudra-bhakti-rasa.

Bhayānaka-bhakti-rasa is described as follows (B.r.s. 4.6.1):

vakṣyamāṇair vibhāvādyaiḥpuṣṭiṁ bhaya-ratir gatā
bhayānakābhidho bhakti-
raso dhīrair udīryate

“When devotion is mixed with fear, it is called bhayānaka-bhakti-rasa.

Bībhatsa-bhakti-rasa is described as follows (B.r.s. 4.7.1):

puṣṭiṁ nija-vibhāvādyairjugupsā-ratir āgatā
asau bhakti-raso dhīrair
bībhatsākhya itīryate

“When one’s attachment for Kṛṣṇa develops in an abominable way, and the devotee enjoys it, that is called bībhatsa-bhakti-rasa.

In conclusion, when a pure devotee is situated in any of the five principal mellows (śānta, dāsya, sakhya, vātsalya or madhura) and that mellow is mixed with one or more of the seven indirect bhakti-rasas (hāsya, adbhuta, vīra, karuṇa, raudra, bhayānaka or bībhatsa), the indirect mellows become prominent.

Text

pañca-rasa ‘sthāyī’ vyāpī rahe bhakta-mane
sapta gauṇa ‘āgantuka’ pāiye kāraṇe

Synonyms

pañca-rasa — five direct transcendental mellows; sthāyī — permanently existing; vyāpī — expanded; rahe — remain situated; bhakta-mane — in the heart of a devotee; sapta gauṇa — seven indirect mellows; āgantuka — accidental; pāiye — appearing; kāraṇe — under certain conditions.

Translation

“The five direct transcendental mellows of devotional service are permanently situated in the heart of the devotee, whereas the seven indirect emotions appear suddenly under certain conditions and appear more powerful.

Text

śānta-bhakta — nava-yogendra, sanakādi āra
dāsya-bhāva-bhakta — sarvatra sevaka apāra

Synonyms

śānta-bhakta — the neutral devotees; nava — nine; yogendra — saintly persons; sanaka-ādi āra — and the four Kumāras, headed by Sanaka; dāsya-bhāva-bhakta — devotees in dāsya-rasa; sarvatra sevaka apāra — similar innumerable servants everywhere.

Translation

“Examples of śānta-bhaktas are the nine Yogendras and the four Kumāras. Examples of devotees in dāsya-bhakti are innumerable, for such devotees exist everywhere.

Purport

The nine Yogendras are Kavi, Havi, Antarīkṣa, Prabuddha, Pippalāyana, Āvirhotra, Draviḍa (Drumila), Camasa and Karabhājana. The four Kumāras are Sanaka, Sanandana, Sanat-kumāra and Sanātana. The servant devotees in Gokula are Raktaka, Citraka, Patraka and so on. In Dvārakā there are servants like Dāruka, and in the Lord’s pastimes in the material world there are servants like Hanumān.

Text

sakhya-bhakta — śrīdāmādi, pure bhīmārjuna
vātsalya-bhakta — mātā pitā, yata guru-jana

Synonyms

sakhya-bhakta — devotees in fraternity; śrīdāmā-ādi — Śrīdāmā and others; pure — in Dvārakā; bhīma-arjuna — Bhīma and Arjuna; vātsalya-bhakta — devotees in parental love; mātā pitā — the mother and father; yata guru-jana — all other similar superior persons.

Translation

“In Vṛndāvana, examples of devotees in fraternity are Śrīdāmā and Sudāmā; in Dvārakā the Lord’s friends are Bhīma and Arjuna; in Vṛndāvana the devotees in parental love are mother Yaśodā and father Nanda Mahārāja, and in Dvārakā the Lord’s parents are Vasudeva and Devakī. There are also other superior persons who are devotees in parental love.

Text

madhura-rase bhakta-mukhya — vraje gopī-gaṇa
mahiṣī-gaṇa, lakṣmī-gaṇa, asaṅkhya gaṇana

Synonyms

madhura-rase — in the mellow of conjugal love; bhakta-mukhya — the chief devotees; vraje — in Vṛndāvana; gopī-gaṇa — the gopīs; mahiṣī-gaṇa — the queens in Dvārakā; lakṣmī-gaṇa — the goddesses of fortune in Vaikuṇṭha; asaṅkhya gaṇana — of innumerable reckoning.

Translation

“The chief devotees in conjugal love are the gopīs in Vṛndāvana, the queens in Dvārakā and the goddesses of fortune in Vaikuṇṭha. These devotees are innumerable.

Text

punaḥ kṛṣṇa-rati haya duita prakāra
aiśvarya-jñāna-miśrā, kevalā-bheda āra

Synonyms

punaḥ — again; kṛṣṇa-rati — attachment for Kṛṣṇa; haya — becomes; duita — twofold; prakāra — varieties; aiśvarya-jñāna-miśrā — knowledge of Kṛṣṇa mixed with a reverential attitude; kevalā — pure attachment; bheda — division; āra — other.

Translation

“Attachment for Kṛṣṇa is divided into two categories. One is attachment with awe and reverence, and the other is pure attachment without reverence.

Text

gokule ‘kevalā’ rati — aiśvarya-jñāna-hīna
purī-dvaye, vaikuṇṭhādye — aiśvarya-pravīṇa

Synonyms

gokule — in Gokula Vṛndāvana; kevalā rati — flawless attachment; aiśvarya-jñāna-hīna — without reverential considerations; purī-dvaye — in two purīs, namely Mathurā-purī and Dvārakā-purī; vaikuṇṭha-ādye — in the Vaikuṇṭha planets; aiśvarya-pravīṇa — prominence of awe and reverence.

Translation

“Pure attachment without reverence is found in Gokula Vṛndāvana. Attachment in which awe and reverence are prominent is found in the two cities Mathurā and Dvārakā and in Vaikuṇṭha.

Text

aiśvarya-jñāna-prādhānye saṅkucita prīti
dekhiyā nā māne aiśvarya — kevalāra rīti

Synonyms

aiśvarya-jñāna-prādhānye — in the predominance of awe and veneration; saṅkucita — crippled; prīti — love; dekhiyā — seeing; māne — does not care; aiśvarya — opulence; kevalāra rīti — that is the symptom of pure devotional service.

Translation

“When opulence is very prominent, love of Godhead is somewhat crippled. According to kevalā devotion, however, even though the devotee sees the unlimited potency of Kṛṣṇa, he considers himself equal to Him.

Text

śānta-dāsya-rase aiśvarya kāhāṅ uddīpana
vātsalya-sakhya-madhure ta’ kare saṅkocana

Synonyms

śānta-dāsya-rase — in the transcendental mellows of neutrality and servitude; aiśvarya — opulence; kāhāṅ — somewhere; uddīpana — manifested; vātsalya-sakhya-madhure — in parenthood, fraternal love and conjugal love; ta’ — certainly; kare — does; saṅkocana — minimizing.

Translation

“On the transcendental platform of neutrality and service, sometimes the opulence of the Lord is prominent. But in the transcendental mellows of fraternal, parental and conjugal love, the opulence is minimized.

Text

vasudeva-devakīra kṛṣṇa caraṇa vandila
aiśvarya-jñāne duṅhāra mane bhaya haila

Synonyms

vasudeva-devakīra — of Vasudeva and Devakī; kṛṣṇa — Lord Kṛṣṇa; caraṇa — to the lotus feet; vandila — offered prayers; aiśvarya-jñāne — because of knowledge of the opulence; duṅhāra — of both of them; mane — in the minds; bhaya haila — there was fear.

Translation

“When Kṛṣṇa offered prayers at the lotus feet of His mother and father, Vasudeva and Devakī, they both felt awe, reverence and fear due to knowledge of His opulences.

Text

devakī vasudevaś ca
vijñāya jagad-īśvarau
kṛta-saṁvandanau putrau
sasvajāte na śaṅkitau

Synonyms

devakī — Devakī; vasudevaḥ — Vasudeva; ca — and; vijñāya — understanding; jagat-īśvarau — the two Lords of the universe; kṛta-saṁvandanau — having paid obeisances; putrau — the two sons Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma; sasvajāte — embraced; na — not; śaṅkitau — being frightened.

Translation

“ ‘When Devakī and Vasudeva understood that their two sons Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma, who had paid obeisances to them, were the Supreme Personality of Godhead, they became fearful and did not embrace Them.’

Purport

This verse quoted from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.44.51) describes what happened just after the killing of Kaṁsa by Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma. Vasudeva and Devakī saw their son kill the powerful demon Kaṁsa, and after this they were immediately released from their shackles. Balarāma and Kṛṣṇa then offered respects to Devakī and Vasudeva. Both the father and the mother wanted to embrace their sons, but they understood that Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma were the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and they therefore hesitated to embrace Them. Their parental love for Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma was therefore hampered and decreased by awe and reverence.

Text

kṛṣṇera viśva-rūpa dekhi’ arjunera haila bhaya
sakhya-bhāve dhārṣṭya kṣamāpaya kariyā vinaya

Synonyms

kṛṣṇera — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; viśva-rūpa — the universal form; dekhi’ — seeing; arjunera — of Arjuna; haila bhaya — there was fear; sakhya-bhāve — as a friend; dhārṣṭya — impudence; kṣamāpaya — begs pardon for; kariyā — showing; vinaya — submission.

Translation

“When Kṛṣṇa manifested His universal form, Arjuna became reverent and fearful, and he begged forgiveness for his past impudence toward Kṛṣṇa as a friend.

Text

sakheti matvā prasabhaṁ yad uktaṁ
he kṛṣṇa he yādava he sakheti
ajānatā mahimānaṁ tavedaṁ
mayā pramādāt praṇayena vāpi
yac cāvahāsārtham asat-kṛto ’si
vihāra-śayyāsana-bhojaneṣu
eko ’tha vāpy acyuta tat-samakṣaṁ
tat kṣāmaye tvām aham aprameyam

Synonyms

sakhā — friend; iti — thus; matvā — thinking; prasabham — forcibly; yat — that which; uktam — was said; he kṛṣṇa — O Kṛṣṇa; he yādava — O descendant of Yadu; he sakhā — O my dear friend; iti — thus; ajānatā — without knowing; mahimānam — greatness; tava — Your; idam — this; mayā — by me; pramādāt — out of ignorance; praṇayena — out of affection; — or; api — certainly; yat — whatever; ca — and; avahāsa-artham — for the matter of joking; asat-kṛtaḥ — insulted; asi — You are; vihāra — while enjoying; śayyā-āsana — sitting or lying on the bed; bhojaneṣu — while eating together; ekaḥ — alone; atha — or; api — certainly; acyuta — O my dear Kṛṣṇa; tat-samakṣam — in the presence of others; tat — all those; kṣāmaye — ask pardon; tvām — unto You; aham — I; aprameyam — who are unlimited.

Translation

“ ‘Thinking of You as my friend, I have rashly addressed You “O Kṛṣṇa,” “O Yādava,” “O my friend,” not knowing Your glories. Please forgive whatever I may have done in madness or in love. I have dishonored You many times, jesting as we relaxed, lay on the same bed, or sat or ate together, sometimes alone and sometimes in front of many friends. O infallible one, please excuse me for all those offenses.’

Purport

This is a quotation from the Bhagavad-gītā (11.41-42). In this verse, Arjuna is addressing Kṛṣṇa, who was exhibiting His universal form on the Battlefield of Kurukṣetra.

Text

kṛṣṇa yadi rukmiṇīre kailā parihāsa
‘kṛṣṇa chāḍibena’ — jāni’ rukmiṇīra haila trāsa

Synonyms

kṛṣṇa — Lord Kṛṣṇa; yadi — although; rukmiṇīre — unto Rukmiṇī, the first queen; kailā — did; parihāsa — joking; kṛṣṇa — Lord Kṛṣṇa; chāḍibena — will give me up; jāni’ — thinking; rukmiṇīra — of Rukmiṇī; haila — there was; trāsa — shock.

Translation

“Although Kṛṣṇa was joking with Queen Rukmiṇī, she was thinking that He was going to give up her company, and she was therefore shocked.

Text

tasyāḥ su-duḥkha-bhaya-śoka-vinaṣṭa-buddher
hastāc chlathad-valayato vyajanaṁ papāta
dehaś ca viklava-dhiyaḥ sahasaiva muhyan
rambheva vāta-vihatā pravikīrya keśān

Synonyms

tasyāḥ — of her; su-duḥkha-bhaya — due to great distress and fear; śoka — and lamentation; vinaṣṭa — lost; buddheḥ — whose intelligence; hastāt — from the hand; ślathat — being loose; valayataḥ — bangles; vyajanam — the fan; papāta — fell down; dehaḥ — body; ca — also; viklava — paralyzed by fear; dhiyaḥ — whose understanding; sahasā eva — suddenly; muhyan — fainting; rambhā iva — like a banana tree; vāta-vihatā — dashed by a high wind; pravikīrya — scattering; keśān — the hair.

Translation

“ ‘While Kṛṣṇa was joking with Rukmiṇī in Dvārakā, she was full of distress, fear and lamentation. She had also lost her intelligence. She dropped her hand bangles and the fan she was using to fan the Lord. Her hair became disarrayed, and she fainted and fell suddenly, appearing like a banana tree knocked down by high winds.’

Purport

This verse from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.60.24) refers to Kṛṣṇa’s speaking to Rukmiṇī in His bedroom. Just to test her sincerity, He began to joke with her, presenting Himself as poor, incapable and unfit to be her lover. Not understanding that He was joking, Rukmiṇī took Him seriously and thought that He wanted to leave her company. This misunderstanding made her very unhappy, and her whole body was affected. Her fan and bangles fell to the floor, and she also fell down like a banana tree knocked down by high winds.

Text

‘kevalā’ra śuddha-prema ‘aiśvarya’ nā jāne
aiśvarya dekhileo nija-sambandha se māne

Synonyms

kevalāra — of unmixed attraction for Kṛṣṇa; śuddha-prema — unalloyed love; aiśvarya — opulence; jāne — does not know; aiśvarya — opulence; dekhileo — in spite of experiencing; nija-sambandha — one’s own relationship with Kṛṣṇa; se māne — he takes very seriously.

Translation

“In the stage of kevalā [unalloyed devotion] a devotee does not consider the unlimited opulence of Kṛṣṇa, even though he experiences it. He takes seriously only his own relationship with Kṛṣṇa.

Purport

When a devotee reaches the stage of pure, unalloyed devotion, especially in friendship with Kṛṣṇa, he forgets the Lord’s opulences, although he sees them, and he considers himself equal to Kṛṣṇa. There is no question of actually comparing oneself to Kṛṣṇa, but because the devotee is so advanced in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, he is able to behave with Kṛṣṇa as he would with an ordinary man.

Text

trayyā copaniṣadbhiś ca
sāṅkhya-yogaiś ca sātvataiḥ
upagīyamāna-māhātmyaṁ
hariṁ sāmanyatātmajam

Synonyms

trayyā — by followers of three Vedas who perform great sacrifices, such as those performed for the demigod Indra; ca — also; upaniṣadbhiḥ — by the followers of the Upaniṣads, the most exalted portion of Vedic knowledge (as Brahman); ca — also; sāṅkhya — by the philosophers who analytically study the universe (as the Puruṣa); yogaiḥ — by mystic yogīs (as the Paramātmā situated everywhere); ca — and; sātvataiḥ — by devotees who follow the method of worship mentioned in the Pañcarātra and other Vedic literatures (as Bhagavān); upagīyamāna — being sung; māhātmyam — whose glories; harim — unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead; — she (mother Yaśodā); amanyata — considered; ātma-jam — as her own son, born of her body.

Translation

“ ‘When mother Yaśodā saw all the universes within Kṛṣṇa’s mouth, she was astonished for the time being. The Lord is worshiped like Indra and other demigods by the followers of the three Vedas, who offer Him sacrifices. He is worshiped as impersonal Brahman by saintly persons who understand His greatness through studying the Upaniṣads, as the Puruṣa by great philosophers who analytically study the universe, as the allpervading Supersoul by great yogīs, and as the Supreme Personality of Godhead by devotees. Nevertheless, mother Yaśodā considered the Lord her own son.’

Purport

This verse is quoted from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.8.45). Those who are spiritually advanced forget Kṛṣṇa’s opulence by the mercy of yogamāyā. For instance, mother Yaśodā considered Kṛṣṇa an ordinary child.

Text

taṁ matvātmajam avyaktaṁ
martya-liṅgam adhokṣajam
gopikolūkhale dāmnā
babandha prākṛtaṁ yathā

Synonyms

tam — Him (Kṛṣṇa); matvā — considering; ātmajam — own son; avyaktam — unmanifested; martya-liṅgam — manifested as if perishable; adhokṣajam — beyond the perception of the senses; gopikā — mother Yaśodā; ulūkhale — to the mortar; dāmnā — with rope; babandha — bound; prākṛtam — an ordinary child; yathā — like.

Translation

“ ‘Although Kṛṣṇa is beyond sense perception and is unmanifest to human beings, He takes up the guise of a human being with a material body. Thus mother Yaśodā thought Him to be her son, and she bound Lord Kṛṣṇa with rope to a wooden mortar, as if He were an ordinary child.’

Purport

This verse from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.9.14) is in reference to Lord Kṛṣṇa’s exhibiting Himself like an ordinary child before mother Yaśodā. He was playing like a naughty boy, stealing butter and breaking butter pots. Mother Yaśodā became disturbed and wanted to bind the Lord to a mortar used for pounding spices. In other words, she considered the Supreme Personality of Godhead an ordinary child.

Text

uvāha kṛṣṇo bhagavān
śrīdāmānaṁ parājitaḥ
vṛṣabhaṁ bhadrasenas tu
pralambo rohiṇī-sutam

Synonyms

uvāha — carried; kṛṣṇaḥ — Lord Kṛṣṇa; bhagavān — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; śrīdāmānam — Śrīdāmā; parājitaḥ — being defeated; vṛṣabham — Vṛṣabha; bhadrasenaḥ — Bhadrasena; tu — and; pralambaḥ — Pralamba; rohiṇī-sutam — Balarāma.

Translation

“ ‘When Kṛṣṇa was defeated by Śrīdāmā, He had to carry him on His shoulders. Similarly, Bhadrasena carried Vṛṣabha, and Pralamba carried Balarāma, the son of Rohiṇī.’

Purport

This verse is from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.18.24). When all the cowherd boys were playing in the forest of Vṛndāvana, the demon Pralambāsura appeared in order to kidnap Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma. The asura appeared disguised in the form of a cowherd boy, but Kṛṣṇa could understand his trick. Kṛṣṇa therefore divided all the cowherd boys into two parties. One party belonged to Balarāma, and the other party belonged to Kṛṣṇa Himself. Ultimately Kṛṣṇa was defeated in this play, and according to the wager, the defeated party had to carry the victorious party on their shoulders. Kṛṣṇa had to carry Śrīdāmā on His shoulders, and Bhadrasena had to carry Vṛṣabha. The demon Pralambāsura had to carry Balarāma, and when Balarāma mounted his shoulders, the demon ran far away. Finally the demon began to expand his body to a gigantic size, and Balarāma understood that he intended to kill Him. Balarāma immediately struck the demon’s head with His strong fist, and the demon fell down dead as if he were a snake whose head had been smashed.

Text

sā ca mene tadātmānaṁ
variṣṭhāṁ sarva-yoṣitām
hitvā gopīḥ kāma-yānā
mām asau bhajate priyaḥ
tato gatvā vanoddeśaṁ
dṛptā keśavam abravīt
na pāraye ’haṁ calituṁ
naya māṁ yatra te manaḥ
evam uktaḥ priyām āha
skandham āruhyatām iti
tataś cāntardadhe kṛṣṇaḥ
sā vadhūr anvatapyata

Synonyms

— Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; ca — also; mene — considered; tadā — at that time; ātmānam — Herself; variṣṭhām — the most glorious; sarva-yoṣitām — among all the gopīs; hitvā — giving up; gopīḥ — all the other gopīs; kāma-yānāḥ — who were desiring the company of Kṛṣṇa; mām — Me; asau — that Śrī Kṛṣṇa; bhajate — worships; priyaḥ — the most dear; tataḥ — thereafter; gatvā — going; vana-uddeśam — to the deep forest; dṛptā — being very proud; keśavam — unto Kṛṣṇa; abravīt — said; na pāraye — am unable; aham — I; calitum — to walk; naya — just carry; mām — Me; yatra — wherever; te — Your; manaḥ — mind; evam uktaḥ — thus being ordered by Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; priyām — to this most dear gopī; āha — said; skandham — My shoulders; āruhyatām — please get on; iti — thus; tataḥ — thereafter; ca — also; antardadhe — disappeared; kṛṣṇaḥ — Lord Kṛṣṇa; — Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; vadhūḥ — the gopī; anvatapyata — began to lament.

Translation

“ ‘My dearmost Kṛṣṇa, You are worshiping Me and giving up the company of all the other gopīs, who wanted to enjoy themselves with You.” Thinking like this, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī considered Herself Kṛṣṇa’s most beloved gopī. She had become proud and had left the rāsa-līlā with Kṛṣṇa. In the deep forest She said, “My dear Kṛṣṇa, I cannot walk any more. You can take Me wherever You like.” When Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī petitioned Kṛṣṇa in this way, Kṛṣṇa said, “Just get up on My shoulders.” As soon as Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī began to do so, He disappeared. Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī then began to grieve over Her request and Kṛṣṇa’s disappearance.’

Purport

These three verses are quoted from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.30.36-38).

Text

pati-sutānvaya-bhrātṛ-bāndhavān
ativilaṅghya te ’nty acyutāgatāḥ
gati-vidas tavodgīta-mohitāḥ
kitava yoṣitaḥ kas tyajen niśi

Synonyms

pati — husbands; suta — sons; anvaya — family; bhrātṛ — brothers; bāndhavān — friends; ativilaṅghya — without caring for; te — Your; anti — dear shelter; acyuta — O infallible one; āgatāḥ — have come; gati-vidaḥ — who know everything of our activities; tava — of You; udgīta — by the singing flute; mohitāḥ — being attracted; kitava — O great cheater; yoṣitaḥ — beautiful women; kaḥ — who; tyajet — would give up; niśi — in the dead of night.

Translation

“ ‘Dear Kṛṣṇa, we gopīs have neglected the order of our husbands, sons, family, brothers and friends and have left their company to come to You. You know everything about our desires. We have come only because we are attracted by the supreme music of Your flute. But You are a great cheater, for who else would give up the company of young girls like us in the dead of night?’

Purport

This verse, quoted from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.31.16), describes how the gopīs went to the forest for Kṛṣṇa’s enjoyment in the dead of night. The gopīs approached Kṛṣṇa to enjoy themselves with Him in the rāsa dance. Kṛṣṇa knew this very well, but He was superficially trying to avoid them. He is therefore addressed by the gopīs as kitava, a great cheater, because He first attracted them to come dance with Him, and yet when they actually came, neglecting the orders of their friends and relatives, He tried to avoid them by giving them so-called good instructions. These cunning instructions were too much for the gopīs to tolerate; they therefore had a right to address Kṛṣṇa as kitava, a great cheater. They were all young girls, and they had come to Him to be enjoyed. How could He avoid them? The gopīs therefore expressed great disappointment in this verse. They came voluntarily, but Kṛṣṇa was so cunning that He wanted to avoid their company. The gopīs’ lamentation was certainly very appropriate, and in this way Kṛṣṇa tested their sincerity.

Text

śānta-rase — ‘svarūpa-buddhye kṛṣṇaika-niṣṭhatā’
“śamo man-niṣṭhatā buddheḥ” iti śrī-mukha-gāthā

Synonyms

śānta-rase — in the stage of śānta-rasa, or neutrality; svarūpa-buddhye — by self-realization; kṛṣṇa-eka-niṣṭhatā — full devotion to the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa; śamaḥ — equilibrium; mat — to Me; niṣṭhatā — the quality of attachment; buddheḥ — of the mind; iti — thus; śrī-mukha — from the mouth of the Supreme Lord; gāthā — a verse.

Translation

“When one is fully attached to Kṛṣṇa’s lotus feet, one attains the śamatā stage. The word ‘śamatā’ is derived from the word ‘śama’; therefore śānta-rasa, the position of neutrality, means being fully attached to the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa. This is the verdict from the mouth of the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself. This state is called self-realization.

Purport

The corresponding verse from the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (3.1.47) follows.

Text

śamo man-niṣṭhatā buddher
iti śrī-bhagavad-vacaḥ
tan-niṣṭhā durghaṭā buddher
etāṁ śānta-ratiṁ vinā

Synonyms

śamaḥ — equality or neutrality; mat-niṣṭhatā — being fixed in My lotus feet; buddheḥ — of the intelligence; iti — thus; śrī-bhagavat-vacaḥ — words of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; tat-niṣṭhā — attachment or attraction for Him; durghaṭā — very difficult to achieve; buddheḥ — of intelligence; etām — thus; śānta-ratim — attachment on the platform of śānta-rasa; vinā — without.

Translation

“ ‘These are the words of the Supreme Personality of Godhead: “When one’s intelligence is fully attached to My lotus feet but one does not render practical service, one has attained the stage called śānta-rati, or śama.” Without śānta-rati, attachment to Kṛṣṇa is very difficult to achieve.’

Text

śamo man-niṣṭhatā buddher
dama indriya-saṁyamaḥ
titikṣā duḥkha-sammarṣo
jihvopastha-jayo dhṛtiḥ

Synonyms

śamaḥ — neutrality; mat-niṣṭhatā — attachment for Me; buddheḥ — of intelligence; damaḥ — self-control; indriya-saṁyamaḥ — controlling the activities of the senses; titikṣā — tolerance; duḥkha — of unhappiness; sammarṣaḥ — endurance; jihvā — tongue; upastha — and the urge of the genitals; jayaḥ — conquering; dhṛtiḥ — control.

Translation

“ ‘The word “śama” or “śānta-rasa” indicates that one is attached to the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa. “Dama” means controlling the senses and not being deviated from the Lord’s service. endurance of unhappiness is “titikṣā,” and “dhṛti” means controlling the tongue and the genitals.’

Purport

This verse is from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (11.19.36). The conditioned soul under the clutches of māyā, the material energy, is very much agitated by the urges of the tongue and the genitals. Control of the urges of the tongue, the belly and the genitals (which are situated in a straight line) is called dhṛti. Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura says, tāra madhye jihvā ati, lobhamaya sudurmati. Among the senses, the tongue is the most formidable enemy of the conditioned soul. Urged by the tongue, one commits many sinful activities. Although Kṛṣṇa has given human beings nice food, people still commit sins by killing poor animals for the satisfaction of the tongue. Not being able to control the tongue, the conditioned soul eats more than he needs. Of course, everyone must eat to keep the body fit for the Lord’s service, but when one cannot control the senses, he falls victim to the dictations of the tongue and the belly. Naturally, genital agitation follows, and one seeks illicit sex. However, if one is fixed at the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa, he can control the tongue. Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura further states, kṛṣṇa baḍa dayāmaya, karibāre jihvā jaya, sva-prasāda-anna dilā bhāi: in order to conquer the tongue, Kṛṣṇa has been very merciful and has given us nice food that has been offered to Him. When a person is attached to Kṛṣṇa’s lotus feet, he does not eat anything not offered to Kṛṣṇa. Sei annāmṛta khāo, rādhā-kṛṣṇa-guṇa gāo, preme ḍāka caitanya-nitāi. Since a devotee eats only prasādam, he conquers the dictations of the tongue, belly and genitals. One can control the dictates of the senses when situated in the position of śānta-rasa. Then one’s advancement in Kṛṣṇa consciousness is assured.

Text

kṛṣṇa vinā tṛṣṇā-tyāga — tāra kārya māni
ataeva ‘śānta’ kṛṣṇa-bhakta eka jāni

Synonyms

kṛṣṇa vinā — without Kṛṣṇa; tṛṣṇā-tyāga — giving up all desires; tāra — of śānta-rasa; kārya — the business; māni — I accept; ataeva — therefore; śānta — the position of equilibrium; kṛṣṇa-bhakta — a devotee of Kṛṣṇa; eka — only; jāni — I know.

Translation

“Giving up all desires not connected with Kṛṣṇa is the business of one who is in śānta-rasa. Only a devotee of Kṛṣṇa can be situated on that platform. He is thus called a śānta-rasa-bhakta.

Purport

In this position, one is freed from all material enjoyment. When one is not agitated or disturbed, he can immediately realize his relationship with Kṛṣṇa. A śānta-rasa devotee is therefore always fixed in realization. This instruction was given by the Lord Himself to Uddhava. The beginning of pure devotional service is called anyābhilāṣitā-śūnya. When one is situated on the platform of neutrality, he is freed from the material platform and fully situated in spiritual life. The word dama, used in verse 213, means indriya-saṁyama — curbing one’s senses. The word dama can also mean curbing one’s enemies. A king has to take steps to curb the criminal activities of his citizens. Great rājarṣis, devotee kings, used to control undesirable elements in their states, and this also may be called dama. However, dama here refers to the conditioned soul who must control his senses. Real dama means controlling the undesirable activities of the senses.

Text

svarga, mokṣa kṛṣṇa-bhakta ‘naraka’ kari’ māne
kṛṣṇa-niṣṭhā, tṛṣṇā-tyāga — śāntera ‘dui’ guṇe

Synonyms

svarga — the heavenly kingdom; mokṣa — liberation from material bondage; kṛṣṇa-bhakta — a devotee of Lord Kṛṣṇa; naraka karimāne — considers as good as hell; kṛṣṇa-niṣṭhā — being fixed at the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa; tṛṣṇā-tyāga — giving up all material desires; śāntera — of one on the neutrality platform; dui guṇe — two transcendental qualities.

Translation

“When a devotee is situated on the platform of śānta-rasa, he desires neither elevation to the heavenly planets nor liberation. These are the results of karma and jñāna, and the devotee considers them no better than hell. A person situated on the śānta-rasa platform manifests the two transcendental qualities of detachment from all material desires and full attachment to Kṛṣṇa.

Text

nārāyaṇa-parāḥ sarve
na kutaścana bibhyati
svargāpavarga-narakeṣv
api tulyārtha-darśinaḥ

Synonyms

nārāyaṇa-parāḥ — persons who are attached to the Supreme Personality of Godhead; sarve — all; na — not; kutaścana — from any quarter; bibhyati — are afraid; svarga — in heavenly planets; apavarga — in liberation; narakeṣu — or in hell; api — although; tulya-artha — results as equal; darśinaḥ — who see.

Translation

“ ‘A person who is devoted to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Nārāyaṇa, is not afraid of anything. Elevation to the heavenly kingdom, condemnation to hell and liberation from material bondage all appear the same to a devotee.’

Purport

This verse is quoted from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (6.17.28). Elevation to the heavenly planets, liberation from material bondage, and condemnation to hell are all equal to the devotee. The devotee’s only desire is to be attached to the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa and to engage in His transcendental loving service.

Text

ei dui guṇa vyāpe saba bhakta-jane
ākāśera ‘śabda’-guṇa yena bhūta-gaṇe

Synonyms

ei dui — these two; guṇa — transcendental qualities; vyāpe — expand; saba bhakta-jane — in the lives of all devotees; ākāśera — of the sky; śabda-guṇa — the quality of sound; yena — like; bhūta-gaṇe — other material elements.

Translation

“These two qualities of the śānta stage spread through the lives of all devotees. They are like the quality of sound in the sky. Sound vibration is found in all material elements.

Purport

The two qualities of śānta-rasa mentioned in verse 215 are present in all kinds of devotees, whether they are in dāsya-rasa, sakhya-rasa, vātsalya-rasa or madhura-rasa. The example of sound is given herein. Sound not only exists in the sky, or ether, but it is also present in air, fire, water and earth. This is a scientific explanation of devotional service. Just as sound is present in all material elements, the qualities found in śānta-rasa are present in all devotees, whether they are on the platform of dāsya-rasa, sakhya-rasa, vātsalya-rasa or madhura-rasa.

Text

śāntera svabhāva — kṛṣṇe mamatā-gandha-hīna
‘paraṁ-brahma’-‘paramātmā’-jñāna pravīṇa

Synonyms

śāntera svabhāva — the characteristic of śānta-rasa; kṛṣṇe — in Kṛṣṇa; mamatā-gandha-hīna — not even the smallest quantity of intimacy; param-brahma — impersonal Brahman; paramātmā — the localized situation of the Lord; jñāna — knowledge; pravīṇa — prominence.

Translation

“It is the nature of śānta-rasa that not even the smallest intimacy exists. Rather, knowledge of impersonal Brahman and localized Paramātmā is prominent.

Purport

Because of an impersonal impression of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, a devotee in the śānta-rasa relationship worships the impersonal Brahman or localized aspect of the Absolute Truth (Paramātmā). He does not develop a personal relationship with the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Śrī Kṛṣṇa.

Text

kevala ‘svarūpa-jñāna’ haya śānta-rase
‘pūrṇaiśvarya-prabhu-jñāna’ adhika haya dāsye

Synonyms

kevala — only; svarūpa-jñāna — knowledge of the constitutional position of one’s self; haya — there is; śānta-rase — in the mellow of neutrality; pūrṇa-aiśvarya-prabhu-jñāna — knowledge of the full opulences of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; adhika — greater; haya — becomes; dāsye — in the transcendental mellow of servitude.

Translation

“On the platform of śānta-rasa, one realizes only his constitutional position. But when one is raised to the platform of dāsya-rasa, he better understands the full opulence of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

Text

īśvara-jñāna, sambhrama-gaurava pracura
‘sevā’ kari’ kṛṣṇe sukha dena nirantara

Synonyms

īśvara-jñāna — knowledge of the supreme controller; sambhrama-gaurava — awe and veneration; pracura — abundant; sevā — service; kari’ — performing; kṛṣṇe — unto Lord Kṛṣṇa; sukha — happiness; dena — gives; nirantara — constantly.

Translation

“On the dāsya-rasa platform, knowledge of the Supreme Personality of Godhead is revealed with awe and veneration. By rendering service unto Lord Kṛṣṇa, the devotee in dāsya-rasa gives constant happiness to the Lord.

Text

śāntera guṇa dāsye āche, adhika — ‘sevana’
ataeva dāsya-rasera ei ‘dui’ guṇa

Synonyms

śāntera — of the platform of śānta-rasa; guṇa — the qualities; dāsye — on the platform of servitude; āche — are; adhika — additional; sevana — serving; ataeva — therefore; dāsya-rasera — of the platform of dāsya-rasa; ei dui guṇa — these two qualities (namely śānta and dāsya).

Translation

“The qualities of śānta-rasa are also present in dāsya-rasa, but service is added. Thus the dāsya-rasa platform contains the qualities of both śānta-rasa and dāsya-rasa.

Text

śāntera guṇa, dāsyera sevana — sakhye dui haya
dāsyera ‘sambhrama-gaurava’-sevā, sakhye ‘viśvāsa’-maya

Synonyms

śāntera guṇa — qualities of śānta-rasa; dāsyera sevana — the service of the dāsya-rasa; sakhye — on the platform of fraternity; dui — the qualities of two rasas; haya — there are; dāsyera — of the dāsya platform; sambhrama-gaurava — with awe and veneration; sevā — service; sakhye — on the platform of fraternity; viśvāsa-maya — mixed with confidence.

Translation

“The qualities of śānta-rasa and the service of dāsya-rasa are both present on the platform of sakhya-rasa. On the platform of fraternity, the qualities of dāsya-rasa are mixed with the confidence of fraternity instead of awe and veneration.

Text

kāndhe caḍe, kāndhe caḍāya, kare krīḍā-raṇa
kṛṣṇe seve, kṛṣṇe karāya āpana-sevana

Synonyms

kāndhe — on the shoulders; caḍe — gets up; kāndhe caḍāya — sometimes takes on his own shoulders; kare — performs; krīḍā-raṇa — mock fighting; kṛṣṇe seve — serves Kṛṣṇa; kṛṣṇe — from Kṛṣṇa; karāya — causes; āpana-sevana — his own service.

Translation

“On the sakhya-rasa platform, the devotee sometimes offers the Lord service and sometimes makes Kṛṣṇa serve him in exchange. In their mock fighting, the cowherd boys would sometimes climb on Kṛṣṇa’s shoulders, and sometimes they would make Kṛṣṇa climb on their shoulders.

Text

viśrambha-pradhāna sakhya — gaurava-sambhrama-hīna
ataeva sakhya-rasera ‘tina’ guṇa — cihna

Synonyms

viśrambha-pradhāna sakhya — on the platform of fraternity, in which confidentiality is prominent; gaurava-sambhrama — awe and veneration; hīna — without; ataeva — therefore; sakhya-rasera — of the platform of fraternity; tina guṇa — the qualities of three rasas, namely śānta, dāsya and sakhya; cihna — the symptom.

Translation

“Awe and veneration are absent on the platform of fraternity, since this rasa is predominated by confidential service. Therefore sakhya-rasa is characterized by the qualities of three rasas.

Text

‘mamatā’ adhika, kṛṣṇe ātma-sama jñāna
ataeva sakhya-rasera vaśa bhagavān

Synonyms

mamatā — intimacy; adhika — increase; kṛṣṇe — with Kṛṣṇa; ātma-sama jñāna — the notion of equality; ataeva — therefore; sakhya-rasera — by the mellow of fraternity; vaśa — controlled; bhagavān — the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

Translation

“On the platform of sakhya-rasa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead Kṛṣṇa is controlled by the devotees who are intimate with Him and think themselves equal to Him.

Text

vātsalye śāntera guṇa, dāsyera sevana
sei sei sevanera ihāṅ nāma — ‘pālana’

Synonyms

vātsalye — on the platform of parental love; śāntera guṇa — the qualities of śānta-rasa; dāsyera sevana — the service of dāsya-rasa; sei sei sevanera — the service of śānta-rasa, dāsya-rasa and sakhya-rasa; ihāṅ — on this platform; nāma — named; pālana — maintenance.

Translation

“On the platform of parental love, the qualities of śānta-rasa, dāsya-rasa and sakhya-rasa are transformed into a form of service called maintenance.

Text

sakhyera guṇa — ‘asaṅkoca’, ‘agaurava’ sāra
mamatādhikye tāḍana-bhartsana-vyavahāra

Synonyms

sakhyera guṇa — the quality of fraternity; asaṅkoca — without any formality; agaurava — without any veneration; sāra — the essence; mamatā-adhikye — on account of greater intimacy; tāḍana — of chastisement; bhartsana — of rebuking; vyavahāra — behavior.

Translation

“The essence of fraternal love is intimacy devoid of the formality and veneration found in dāsya-rasa. Due to a greater sense of intimacy, the devotee functioning in parental love chastises and rebukes the Lord in an ordinary way.

Text

āpanāre ‘pālaka’ jñāna, kṛṣṇe ‘pālya’-jñāna
‘cāri’ guṇe vātsalya rasa — amṛta-samāna

Synonyms

āpanāre — unto himself; pālaka jñāna — the notion of a caretaker; kṛṣṇe — in Lord Kṛṣṇa; pālya — as object of protection; jñāna — notion; cāri — four; guṇe — in qualities; vātsalya rasa — the mellow of parental love; amṛta-samāna — like nectar.

Translation

“On the platform of parental love, the devotee considers himself the Lord’s maintainer. Thus the Lord is the object of maintenance, like a son, and therefore this mellow is full of the qualities of four rasas — śānta-rasa, dāsya-rasa, fraternity and parental love. This is more transcendental nectar.

Purport

In his Amṛta-pravāha-bhāṣya, Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura gives us a short summary of this complicated description of the different rasas. He states that by becoming firmly fixed in the Lord’s service, one is devoid of all material desires. These are the two transcendental qualities on the śānta-rasa platform. Just as sound vibration is found in all the material elements, these two qualities of śānta-rasa are spread throughout all the other transcendental mellows, which are known as dāsya-rasa, sakhya-rasa, vātsalya-rasa and madhura-rasa. Although in śānta-rasa there is attachment for Kṛṣṇa in awe and veneration — since the two valuable transcendental qualities of this rasa are attachment for Kṛṣṇa and detachment from material desires — nonetheless the sense of intimacy is lacking. The reason for this is that in śānta-rasa attachment for impersonal Brahman and localized Paramātmā is prominent. In other words, the sense of intimacy by which one thinks of Kṛṣṇa as one’s only shelter and friend is absent in śānta-rasa because one accepts Kṛṣṇa as the impersonal Parambrahma or localized Paramātmā. This understanding is based on the speculative knowledge of the jñānī. However, when this knowledge is further developed, one is convinced that the Paramātmā, the Supreme Lord, is the master and that the living entity is His eternal servant. One then attains the platform of dāsya-rasa. In dāsya-rasa the Lord is accepted with awe and veneration. Thus the active service that is absent in śānta-rasa becomes prominent in dāsya-rasa. In other words, in dāsya-rasa the qualities of śānta-rasa are present, and service also becomes predominantly visible. Similarly, when this same rasa is developed into fraternity (sakhya-rasa), a friendly intimacy is added. There is no awe or veneration in sakhya-rasa. Therefore sakhya-rasa is invested with the qualities of three rasasśānta, dāsya and sakhya. Similarly, on the platform of parental love, the qualities of śānta-rasa, dāsya-rasa and sakhya-rasa are fully developed in another form — the sense of maintaining the Lord. Therefore on the platform of parental love there exists a combination of the qualities of four transcendental mellows — śānta, dāsya, sakhya and parenthood. The mellow of parenthood puts the devotee in the position of a maintainer. Indeed, without formality the devotee takes the position of maintainer and regards the Lord as the object of maintenance. Thus on the platform of parental love the qualities of four transcendental mellows of love of Kṛṣṇa are present.

Text

se amṛtānande bhakta saha ḍubena āpane
‘kṛṣṇa — bhakta-vaśa’ guṇa kahe aiśvarya-jñāni-gaṇe

Synonyms

se — that Lord Kṛṣṇa; amṛta-ānande — in spiritual happiness; bhakta — the devotee; saha — with; ḍubena — plunges; āpane — Himself; kṛṣṇa — Kṛṣṇa; bhakta-vaśa — of being subjugated by the devotee; guṇa — the quality; kahe — say; aiśvarya-jñāni-gaṇe — learned scholars knowing the opulence of Kṛṣṇa.

Translation

“The exchange of spiritual happiness between Kṛṣṇa and His devotee in which Kṛṣṇa is controlled by His devotee is compared to an ocean of nectar into which the devotee and Kṛṣṇa plunge. This is the verdict of learned scholars who appreciate Kṛṣṇa’s opulence.

Text

itīdṛk-sva-līlābhir ānanda-kuṇḍe
sva-ghoṣaṁ nimajjantam ākhyāpayantam
tadīyeśita-jñeṣu bhaktair jitatvaṁ
punaḥ prematas taṁ śatāvṛtti vande

Synonyms

iti — thus; īdṛk-sva-līlābhiḥ — by this Dāmodara in His transcendental pastimes; ānanda-kuṇḍe — in the ocean of transcendental bliss; sva-ghoṣam — His personal associates; nimajjantam — plunging; ākhyāpayantam — declaring; tadīya — of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; īśita-jñeṣu — among learned scholars expert in the knowledge of the opulences; bhaktaiḥ — by the devotees; jitatvam — the subjugation; punaḥ — again; premataḥ — with love; tam — unto Him; śata-āvṛtti — hundreds of times; vande — I offer my respectful obeisances.

Translation

“ ‘Again let me offer my respectful obeisances unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead. O my Lord, I offer my obeisances hundreds and thousands of times with all affection because by Your personal pastimes You plunge the gopīs into an ocean of nectar. Appreciating Your opulence, devotees generally declare that You are always subjugated by their feelings.’

Purport

This verse is from the Dāmodarāṣṭaka, in the Padma Purāṇa.

Text

madhura-rase — kṛṣṇa-niṣṭhā, sevā atiśaya
sakhyera asaṅkoca, lālana-mamatādhikya haya

Synonyms

madhura-rase — on the platform of conjugal love; kṛṣṇa-niṣṭhā — attachment for Kṛṣṇa; sevā atiśaya — an improved rendering of service; sakhyera — of the platform of fraternity; asaṅkoca — relaxation; lālana — maintenance; mamatā-adhikya — increase of intimacy; haya — there is.

Translation

“On the platform of conjugal love, attachment for Kṛṣṇa, rendering service unto Him, the relaxed feelings of fraternity and the feelings of maintenance all increase in intimacy.

Text

kānta-bhāve nijāṅga diyā karena sevana
ataeva madhura-rasera haya ‘pañca’ guṇa

Synonyms

kānta-bhāve — on the platform of conjugal love; nija-aṅga — own body; diyā — offering; karena — executes; sevana — service; ataeva — therefore; madhura-rasera — of the mellow of conjugal love; haya — there are; pañca guṇa — five kinds of transcendental qualities.

Translation

“On the platform of conjugal love, the devotee offers his body in the service of the Lord. Thus on this platform the transcendental qualities of all five rasas are present.

Purport

Attachment for Kṛṣṇa in śānta-rasa, rendering service to the Lord in dāsya-rasa, rendering relaxed service in fraternity and serving in parental love with feelings of maintenance all combine on the platform of conjugal love when the devotee wants to serve the Lord by offering Him his personal body. Thus the qualities of the other rasas combine to form the nectar of conjugal love. On this platform, all the different feelings of a devotee are amalgamated.

Text

ākāśādi guṇa yena para para bhūte
eka-dui-tina-cāri krame pañca pṛthivīte

Synonyms

ākāśa-ādi — beginning with the sky; guṇa — qualities; yena — as; para para — one after another; bhūte — in the material elements; eka — one; dui — two; tina — three; cāri — four; krame — in this way; pañca — all five qualities; pṛthivīte — in earth.

Translation

“All the material qualities evolve one after another in the material elements, beginning from ether. By gradual evolution, first one quality develops, then two qualities develop, then three and four, until all five qualities are found in earth.

Text

ei-mata madhure saba bhāva-samāhāra
ataeva āsvādādhikye kare camatkāra

Synonyms

ei-mata — in this way; madhure — on the platform of conjugal love; saba — all; bhāva-samāhāra — amalgamation of the feelings; ataeva — therefore; āsvāda-adhikye — from the increase of tasting by the devotees; kare camatkāra — is certainly wonderful.

Translation

“Similarly, on the platform of conjugal love, all the feelings of the devotees are amalgamated. The intensified taste is certainly wonderful.”

Text

ei bhakti-rasera karilāṅa, dig-daraśana
ihāra vistāra mane kariha bhāvana

Synonyms

ei — this; bhakti-rasera — of the feelings of devotional service; karilāṅa — I have described; dik-daraśana — general survey; ihāra — of this; vistāra — expansion; mane — within the mind; kariha — you should do; bhāvana — consideration.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu then concluded, “I have simply given a general survey describing the mellows of devotional service. You can consider how to adjust and expand this.

Text

bhāvite bhāvite kṛṣṇa sphuraye antare
kṛṣṇa-kṛpāya ajña pāya rasa-sindhu-pāre

Synonyms

bhāvite bhāvite — in this way when one is strictly in thought; kṛṣṇa — Lord Kṛṣṇa; sphuraye antare — manifests within; kṛṣṇa-kṛpāya — by the mercy of Kṛṣṇa; ajña — one not expert in knowledge; pāya — reaches; rasa-sindhu-pāre — the far shore of the ocean of transcendental mellows.

Translation

“When one thinks of Kṛṣṇa constantly, love for Him manifests within the heart. Even though one may be ignorant, one can reach the far shore of the ocean of transcendental love by Lord Kṛṣṇa’s mercy.”

Text

eta bali’ prabhu tāṅre kailā āliṅgana
vārāṇasī calibāre prabhura haila mana

Synonyms

eta bali’ — saying this; prabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; tāṅre — unto Rūpa Gosvāmī; kailā — did; āliṅgana — embracing; vārāṇasī — toward Benares; calibāre — to go; prabhura — of Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; haila — was; mana — the mind.

Translation

After saying this, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu embraced Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī. The Lord then decided to go to the city of Benares.

Text

prabhāte uṭhiyā yabe karilā gamana
tabe tāṅra pade rūpa kare nivedana

Synonyms

prabhāte — in the morning; uṭhiyā — getting up; yabe — when; karilā — made; gamana — departure; tabe — at that time; tāṅra — His; pade — at the lotus feet; rūpa — Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī; kare — does; nivedana — submission.

Translation

The next morning, when Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu arose and prepared to leave for Vārāṇasī [Benares], Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī submitted the following statement at the Lord’s lotus feet.

Text

‘ājñā haya, āsi muñi śrī-caraṇa-saṅge
sahite nā pāri muñi viraha-taraṅge’

Synonyms

ājñā haya — if there is permission; āsi — may come; muñi — I; śrī-caraṇa-saṅge — with Your Lordship; sahite — to tolerate; pāri — not able; muñi — I; viraha-taraṅge — the waves of separation.

Translation

“If You give me permission, I shall go with Your Lordship. It is not possible for me to tolerate the waves of separation.”

Text

prabhu kahe, — tomāra kartavya, āmāra vacana
nikaṭe āsiyācha tumi, yāha vṛndāvana

Synonyms

prabhu kahe — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu replied; tomāra kartavya — your duty; āmāra vacana — My order; nikaṭe āsiyācha — have come near; tumi — you; yāha — go; vṛndāvana — to Vṛndāvana.

Translation

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu replied, “Your duty is to carry out My order. You have come near Vṛndāvana. Now you should go there.

Text

vṛndāvana haite tumi gauḍa-deśa diyā
āmāre milibā nīlācalete āsiyā

Synonyms

vṛndāvana haite — from Vṛndāvana; tumi — you; gauḍa-deśa diyā — by way of Bengal; āmāre — Me; milibā — will meet; nīlācalete — at Jagannātha Purī; āsiyā — coming.

Translation

“Later, you can go from Vṛndāvana to Jagannātha Purī through Bengal [Gauḍa-deśa]. There you will meet Me again.”

Text

tāṅre āliṅgiyā prabhu naukāte caḍilā
mūrcchita hañā teṅho tāhāñi paḍilā

Synonyms

tāṅre — him; āliṅgiyā — embracing; prabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; naukāte — in a boat; caḍilā — got aboard; mūrcchita hañā — fainting; teṅho — he (Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī); tāhāñi — on the spot; paḍilā — fell.

Translation

After embracing Rūpa Gosvāmī, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu got into a boat. Rūpa Gosvāmī fainted and fell down on the spot.

Text

dākṣiṇātya-vipra tāṅre ghare lañā gelā
tabe dui bhāi vṛndāvanere calilā

Synonyms

dākṣiṇātya-vipra — the brāhmaṇa from Deccan; tāṅre — him (Rūpa Gosvāmī); ghare lañā — taking to his home; gelā — went; tabe — thereafter; dui bhāi — the two brothers; vṛndāvanere — toward Vṛndāvana; calilā — departed.

Translation

The brāhmaṇa from Deccan took Rūpa Gosvāmī to his home, and thereafter the two brothers departed for Vṛndāvana.

Text

mahāprabhu cali’ cali’ āilā vārāṇasī
candraśekhara mililā grāmera bāhire āsi’

Synonyms

mahāprabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; calicali’ — walking and walking; āilā — arrived; vārāṇasī — at Vārāṇasī; candraśekhara — Candraśekhara; mililā — He met; grāmera — of the village; bāhire — outside; āsi’ — coming.

Translation

After walking and walking, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu finally arrived at Vārāṇasī, where He met Candraśekhara, who was coming out of the city.

Text

rātre teṅho svapna dekhe, — prabhu āilā ghare
prātaḥ-kāle āsi’ rahe grāmera bāhire

Synonyms

rātre — at night; teṅho — he (Candraśekhara); svapna — a dream; dekhe — saw; prabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; āilā — has come; ghare — to his home; prātaḥ-kāle — in the morning; āsi’ — coming; rahe — he remained; grāmera bāhire — outside the city.

Translation

In a dream Candraśekhara had seen that Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu had come to his home; therefore in the morning Candraśekhara went outside the city to receive the Lord.

Text

ācambite prabhu dekhi’ caraṇe paḍilā
ānandita hañā nija-gṛhe lañā gelā

Synonyms

ācambite — suddenly; prabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; dekhi’ — seeing; caraṇe — at His feet; paḍilā — he fell; ānandita hañā — becoming very glad; nija-gṛhe — to his own place; lañā — taking; gelā — went.

Translation

While Candraśekhara was waiting outside the city, he suddenly saw Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu arrive, and he fell down at the Lord’s feet. Being very happy, he took the Lord to his home.

Text

tapana-miśra śuni’ āsi’ prabhure mililā
iṣṭa-goṣṭhī kari’ prabhura nimantraṇa kailā

Synonyms

tapana-miśra — Tapana Miśra; śuni’ — hearing; āsi’ — coming; prabhure mililā — met the Lord; iṣṭa-goṣṭhī kari’ — conversing; prabhura — to Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; nimantraṇa — invitation; kailā — made.

Translation

Tapana Miśra also heard news of the Lord’s arrival in Vārāṇasī, and he went to Candraśekhara’s house to meet Him. After talking, he invited the Lord to take lunch at his place.

Text

nija ghare lañā prabhure bhikṣā karāila
bhaṭṭācārye candraśekhara nimantraṇa kaila

Synonyms

nija ghare — to his own place; lañā — taking; prabhure — to the Lord; bhikṣā karāila — offered lunch; bhaṭṭācārye — unto Balabhadra Bhaṭṭācārya; candraśekhara — Candraśekhara; nimantraṇa — invitation; kaila — made.

Translation

Tapana Miśra took Caitanya Mahāprabhu to his house and gave Him lunch. Candraśekhara invited Balabhadra Bhaṭṭācārya to take lunch at his home.

Text

bhikṣā karāñā miśra kahe prabhu-pāya dhari’
eka bhikṣā māgi, more deha’ kṛpā kari’

Synonyms

bhikṣā karāñā — after offering the lunch; miśra — Tapana Miśra; kahe — said; prabhu — of Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; pāya — the lotus feet; dhari’ — touching; eka bhikṣā — one favor; māgi — I beg; more — unto me; deha’ — kindly deliver; kṛpā kari’ — by Your causeless mercy.

Translation

After offering lunch to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, Tapana Miśra begged a favor from the Lord and requested Him to award him mercy.

Text

yāvat tomāra haya kāśī-pure sthiti
mora ghara vinā bhikṣā nā karibā kati

Synonyms

yāvat — as long as; tomāra — Your; haya — there is; kāśī-pure — at Vārāṇasī; sthiti — stay; mora ghara — my place; vinā — except; bhikṣā — lunch; karibā — kindly do not take; kati — anywhere.

Translation

Tapana Miśra said, “As long as Your Lordship stays in Vārāṇasī, please do not accept an invitation from anyone but me.”

Text

prabhu jānena — dina pāṅca-sāta se rahiba
sannyāsīra saṅge bhikṣā kāhāṅ nā kariba

Synonyms

prabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; jānena — knows; dina — days; pāṅca-sāta — five days or at the most a week; se — that; rahiba — I shall stay; sannyāsīra saṅge — with Māyāvādī sannyāsīs; bhikṣā — lunch; kāhāṅ — at any time; kariba — I shall not take.

Translation

It was known to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu that He would remain there only five or seven days. He would not accept any invitation that involved Māyāvādī sannyāsīs.

Text

eta jāni’ tāṅra bhikṣā kailā aṅgīkāra
vāsā-niṣṭhā kailā candraśekharera ghara

Synonyms

eta jāni’ — on this understanding; tāṅra — his; bhikṣā — lunch; kailā aṅgīkāra — He accepted; vāsā-niṣṭhā — residence; kailā — made; candraśekharera ghara — the house of Candraśekhara.

Translation

With this understanding, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu agreed to accept lunch at the place of Tapana Miśra. The Lord made His residence at the home of Candraśekhara.

Text

mahārāṣṭrīya vipra āsi’ tāṅhāre mililā
prabhu tāṅre sneha kari’ kṛpā prakāśilā

Synonyms

mahārāṣṭrīya vipra — the Maharashtrian brāhmaṇa; āsi’ — coming; tāṅhāre — him; mililā — met; prabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; tāṅre — to him; sneha kari’ — showing His affection; kṛpā prakāśilā — distributed His mercy.

Translation

The Maharashtrian brāhmaṇa came, and the Lord met him. Out of affection, the Lord bestowed His mercy upon him.

Text

mahāprabhu āilā śuni’ śiṣṭa śiṣṭa jana
brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya āsi’ karena daraśana

Synonyms

mahāprabhu āilā — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu has arrived; śuni’ — hearing; śiṣṭa śiṣṭa jana — all respectable persons; brāhmaṇa — belonging to the brāhmaṇa community; kṣatriya — belonging to the kṣatriya community; āsi’ — coming; karena daraśana — see.

Translation

Hearing that Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu had come, all the respectable members of the brāhmaṇa and kṣatriya communities came to see Him.

Text

śrī-rūpa-upare prabhura yata kṛpā haila
atyanta vistāra-kathā saṅkṣepe kahila

Synonyms

śrī-rūpa-upare — upon Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī; prabhura — of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; yata — as much; kṛpā — mercy; haila — there was; atyanta — very much; vistāra-kathā — elaborate topics; saṅkṣepe — in brief; kahila — I have described.

Translation

Much mercy was thus bestowed upon Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī, and I have briefly described all those topics.

Text

śraddhā kari’ ei kathā śune ye jane
prema-bhakti pāya sei caitanya-caraṇe

Synonyms

śraddhā kari’ — with faith; ei kathā — this description; śune — hears; yei jane — any person who; prema-bhakti — love of Godhead; pāya — achieves; sei — that person; caitanya-caraṇe — at the lotus feet of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

Translation

Whoever hears this narration with faith and love certainly develops love of God at the lotus feet of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

Text

śrī-rūpa-raghunātha-pade yāra āśa
caitanya-caritāmṛta kahe kṛṣṇadāsa

Synonyms

śrī-rūpa — Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī; raghunātha — Śrīla Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī; pade — at the lotus feet; yāra — whose; āśa — expectation; caitanya-caritāmṛta — the book named Caitanya-caritāmṛta; kahe — describes; kṛṣṇadāsa — Śrīla Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī.

Translation

Praying at the lotus feet of Śrī Rūpa and Śrī Raghunātha, always desiring their mercy, I, Kṛṣṇadāsa, narrate Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta, following in their footsteps.

Purport

Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports to Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā, nineteenth chapter, describing the Lord’s instructions to Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī at Prayāga in the science of devotional service.