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TEXT 24

TEXT 24

Devanagari

Devanagari

अव्यक्तं व्यक्तिमापन्नं मन्यन्ते मामबुद्धय: ।
परं भावमजानन्तो ममाव्ययमनुत्तमम् ॥ २४ ॥

Text

Tekst

avyaktaṁ vyaktim āpannaṁ
manyante mām abuddhayaḥ
paraṁ bhāvam ajānanto
mamāvyayam anuttamam
avyaktaṁ vyaktim āpannaṁ
manyante mām abuddhayaḥ
paraṁ bhāvam ajānanto
mamāvyayam anuttamam

Synonyms

Synonyms

avyaktam — nonmanifested; vyaktim — personality; āpannam — achieved; manyante — think; mām — Me; abuddhayaḥ — less intelligent persons; param — supreme; bhāvam — existence; ajānantaḥ — without knowing; mama — My; avyayam — imperishable; anuttamam — the finest.

avyaktam — umanifesteret; vyaktim — personlighed; āpannam — har antaget; manyante — de tror; mām — Mig; abuddhayaḥ — mindre intelligente personer; param — højeste; bhāvam — eksistens; ajānantaḥ — idet de ikke kender; mama — Min; avyayam — uforgængelige; anuttamam — den fineste.

Translation

Translation

Unintelligent men, who do not know Me perfectly, think that I, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa, was impersonal before and have now assumed this personality. Due to their small knowledge, they do not know My higher nature, which is imperishable and supreme.

Uintelligente mennesker, der ikke forstår Mig fuldstændigt, tror, at Jeg, Guddommens Højeste Personlighed, Kṛṣṇa, før var upersonlig og nu har antaget denne personlighed. På grund af deres ringe viden kender de ikke Min højere natur, der er uforgængelig og suveræn.

Purport

Purport

Those who are worshipers of demigods have been described as less intelligent persons, and here the impersonalists are similarly described. Lord Kṛṣṇa in His personal form is here speaking before Arjuna, and still, due to ignorance, impersonalists argue that the Supreme Lord ultimately has no form. Yāmunācārya, a great devotee of the Lord in the disciplic succession of Rāmānujācārya, has written a very appropriate verse in this connection. He says,

FORKLARING: De, der er tilbedere af halvguder, er blevet beskrevet som mindre intelligente, og her beskrives upersonalisterne på samme måde. Herren Kṛṣṇa taler her til Arjuna i Sin personlige form, og alligevel hævder upersonalisterne i deres uvidenhed, at den Højeste Herre yderst set ingen form har. Yāmunācārya, en stor hengiven af Herren i discipelrækken fra Rāmānujācārya, har skrevet et rammende vers i den forbindelse (Stotra-ratnam 12):

tvāṁ śīla-rūpa-caritaiḥ parama-prakṛṣṭaiḥ
sattvena sāttvikatayā prabalaiś ca śāstraiḥ
prakhyāta-daiva-paramārtha-vidāṁ mataiś ca
naivāsura-prakṛtayaḥ prabhavanti boddhum
tvāṁ śīla-rūpa-caritaiḥ parama-prakṛṣṭaiḥ
sattvena sāttvikatayā prabalaiś ca śāstraiḥ
prakhyāta-daiva-paramārtha-vidāṁ mataiś ca
naivāsura-prakṛtayaḥ prabhavanti boddhum

“My dear Lord, devotees like Vyāsadeva and Nārada know You to be the Personality of Godhead. By understanding different Vedic literatures, one can come to know Your characteristics, Your form and Your activities, and one can thus understand that You are the Supreme Personality of Godhead. But those who are in the modes of passion and ignorance, the demons, the nondevotees, cannot understand You. They are unable to understand You. However expert such nondevotees may be in discussing Vedānta and the Upaniṣads and other Vedic literatures, it is not possible for them to understand the Personality of Godhead.” (Stotra-ratna 12)

“Min kære Herre, hengivne som Vyāsadeva og Nārada kender Dig som Guddommens Personlighed. Ved at forstå forskellige vediske skrifter kan man komme til indsigt om Dine egenskaber, Din form og Dine aktiviteter, og man kan således forstå, at Du er Guddommens Højeste Personlighed. Men de, der befinder sig i lidenskaben og uvidenhedens kvaliteter, dæmonerne og de ikke-hengivne, kan ikke forstå Dig. De kan umuligt forstå Dig. Uanset hvor dygtige sådanne ikke-hengivne er til at diskutere Vedānta, Upaniṣaderne og anden vedisk litteratur, er det ikke muligt for dem at forstå Guddommens Personlighed.”

In the Brahma-saṁhitā it is stated that the Personality of Godhead cannot be understood simply by study of the Vedānta literature. Only by the mercy of the Supreme Lord can the Personality of the Supreme be known. Therefore in this verse it is clearly stated that not only are the worshipers of the demigods less intelligent, but those nondevotees who are engaged in Vedānta and speculation on Vedic literature without any tinge of true Kṛṣṇa consciousness are also less intelligent, and for them it is not possible to understand God’s personal nature. Persons who are under the impression that the Absolute Truth is impersonal are described as abuddhayaḥ, which means those who do not know the ultimate feature of the Absolute Truth. In the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam it is stated that supreme realization begins from the impersonal Brahman and then rises to the localized Supersoul – but the ultimate word in the Absolute Truth is the Personality of Godhead. Modern impersonalists are still less intelligent, for they do not even follow their great predecessor Śaṅkarācārya, who has specifically stated that Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Impersonalists, therefore, not knowing the Supreme Truth, think Kṛṣṇa to be only the son of Devakī and Vasudeva, or a prince, or a powerful living entity. This is also condemned in the Bhagavad-gītā (9.11). Avajānanti māṁ mūḍhā mānuṣīṁ tanum āśritam: “Only the fools regard Me as an ordinary person.”

Ifølge Brahma-saṁhitā kan Guddommens Personlighed ikke forstås ved kun at studere Vedānta-litteraturen. Alene ved den Højeste Herres nåde kan man forstå den Højestes personlighed. Det fastslås derfor klart i dette vers, at ikke kun halvgudetilbederne er mindre intelligente, men de ikke-hengivne, der arbejder med Vedānta og spekulationer over den vediske litteratur uden anstrøg af ægte Kṛṣṇa-bevidsthed, er også mindre intelligente, og for dem er det umuligt at forstå Guds personlige natur. Personer, der er af den opfattelse, at den Absolutte Sandhed er upersonlig, beskrives her som abuddhayaḥ, der hentyder til dem, der intet kendskab har til det højeste aspekt af den Absolutte Sandhed. Der står i Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (1.2.11), at den højeste erkendelse begynder med den upersonlige Brahman og siden udvikler sig op til den lokaliserede Oversjæl, men det sidste ord i den Absolutte Sandhed er Guddommens Personlighed. Moderne upersonalister er endnu mindre intelligente, for de følger ikke engang deres egen forgænger, Śaṅkarācārya, der specifikt erklærede, at Kṛṣṇa er Guddommens Højeste Personlighed. Fordi upersonalister ikke kender den Højeste Sandhed, tror de som følge deraf, at Kṛṣṇa kun er søn af Devakī og Vasudeva eller en prins eller et eller andet kraftfuldt levende væsen. Denne indstilling fordømmes også i Bhagavad-gītā (9.11) med ordene avajānanti māṁ mūḍhā, mānuṣīṁ tanum āśritam: “Kun tåber anser Mig for at være et almindeligt menneske.”

The fact is that no one can understand Kṛṣṇa without rendering devotional service and without developing Kṛṣṇa consciousness. The Bhāgavatam (10.14.29) confirms this:

Faktum er, at uden hengiven tjeneste, og uden at man udvikler Kṛṣṇa- bevidsthed, kan ingen forstå Kṛṣṇa. I Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.14.29) bekræftes dette som følger:

athāpi te deva padāmbuja-dvaya-
prasāda-leśānugṛhīta eva hi
jānāti tattvaṁ bhagavan-mahimno
na cānya eko ’pi ciraṁ vicinvan
athāpi te deva padāmbuja-dvaya-
prasāda-leśānugṛhīta eva hi
jānāti tattvaṁ bhagavan-mahimno
na cānya eko ’pi ciraṁ vicinvan

“My Lord, if one is favored by even a slight trace of the mercy of Your lotus feet, he can understand the greatness of Your personality. But those who speculate to understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead are unable to know You, even though they continue to study the Vedas for many years.” One cannot understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa, or His form, quality or name simply by mental speculation or by discussing Vedic literature. One must understand Him by devotional service. When one is fully engaged in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, beginning by chanting the mahā-mantra – Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Hare Hare/ Hare Rāma, Hare Rāma, Rāma Rāma, Hare Hare – then only can one understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Nondevotee impersonalists think that Kṛṣṇa has a body made of this material nature and that all His activities, His form and everything are māyā. These impersonalists are known as Māyāvādīs. They do not know the ultimate truth.

“Min Herre, hvis man bliver begunstiget af bare et anstrøg af nåden fra Dine lotusfødder, kan man forstå Din personligheds storhed. Men de, der spekulerer for at forstå Guddommens Højeste Personlighed, vil ikke kunne begribe Dig, om de så fortsætter deres studier af Vedaerne i mange år.” Man kan ikke forstå Guddommens Højeste Personlighed, Kṛṣṇa, eller Hans form, kvalitet eller navn udelukkende igennem intellektuel spekulation eller diskussion af vedisk litteratur. Man skal forstå Ham gennem hengiven tjeneste. Kun når man er helt engageret i Kṛṣṇa- bevidsthed, der begynder med fremsigelsen af mahā-mantraet – Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Hare Hare/ Hare Rāma, Hare Rāma, Rāma Rāma, Hare Hare – kan man forstå Guddommens Højeste Personlighed. Ikke-hengivne upersonalister tror, at Kṛṣṇa har en krop, der er lavet af denne materielle natur, og at alle Hans aktiviteter, Hans form og alting er māyā. Disse upersonalister kaldes māyāvādīer. De kender ikke den højeste sandhed.

The twentieth verse clearly states, kāmais tais tair hṛta-jñānāḥ prapadyante ’nya-devatāḥ: “Those who are blinded by lusty desires surrender unto the different demigods.” It is accepted that besides the Supreme Personality of Godhead, there are demigods who have their different planets, and the Lord also has a planet. As stated in the twenty-third verse, devān deva-yajo yānti mad-bhaktā yānti mām api: the worshipers of the demigods go to the different planets of the demigods, and those who are devotees of Lord Kṛṣṇa go to the Kṛṣṇaloka planet. Although this is clearly stated, the foolish impersonalists still maintain that the Lord is formless and that these forms are impositions. From the study of the Gītā does it appear that the demigods and their abodes are impersonal? Clearly, neither the demigods nor Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, are impersonal. They are all persons; Lord Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and He has His own planet, and the demigods have theirs.

Der står specifikt i dette kapitels vers 20, kāmais tais tair hṛta-jñānāḥ, prapadyante ’nya-devatāḥ: “De, der er forblændet af lystne ønsker, overgiver sig til forskellige halvguder.” Det er blevet fastslået, at ud over Guddommens Højeste Personlighed findes der halvguder, der har deres forskellige planeter, og Herren har også en planet. Som der står i vers 23, devān deva-yajo yānti, mad-bhaktā yānti mām api: Halvgudetilbederne kommer til halvgudernes forskellige planeter, og Herren Kṛṣṇas hengivne kommer til Kṛṣṇaloka-planeten. Til trods for disse klare udtalelser hævder tåbelige upersonalister ikke desto mindre, at Herren er formløs, og at disse former er en illusion. Får man ved at studere Bhagavad-gītā indtryk af, at halvguderne og deres boliger er upersonlige? Det er klart, at hverken halvguderne eller Kṛṣṇa, Guddommens Højeste Personlighed, er upersonlige. De er alle personer. Herren Kṛṣṇa er Guddommens Højeste Personlighed, Han har Sin egen planet, og halvguderne har deres.

Therefore the monistic contention that ultimate truth is formless and that form is imposed does not hold true. It is clearly stated here that it is not imposed. From the Bhagavad-gītā we can clearly understand that the forms of the demigods and the form of the Supreme Lord are simultaneously existing and that Lord Kṛṣṇa is sac-cid-ānanda, eternal blissful knowledge. The Vedic literature confirms that the Supreme Absolute Truth is knowledge and blissful pleasure, vijñānam ānandam brahma (Bṛhad-āraṇyaka Upaniṣad 3.9.28), and that He is the reservoir of unlimited auspicious qualities, ananta-kalyāna-guṇātmako ’sau (Viṣṇu Purāṇa 6.5.84). And in the Gītā the Lord says that although He is aja (unborn), He still appears. These are the facts that we should understand from the Bhagavad-gītā. We cannot understand how the Supreme Personality of Godhead can be impersonal; the imposition theory of the impersonalist monist is false as far as the statements of the Gītā are concerned. It is clear herein that the Supreme Absolute Truth, Lord Kṛṣṇa, has both form and personality.

Den monistiske påstand om, at den endelige sandhed er formløs, og at form er illusorisk, er derfor ikke sand. Her fastslås det udtrykkeligt, at form ikke er en illusion. Fra Bhagavad-gītā får vi en klar forståelse af, at halvgudernes former og den Højeste Herres form eksisterer samtidigt, og at Herren Kṛṣṇa er sac-cid-ānanda, evig lyksalig viden. I Vedaerne bekræftes det også, at den Højeste Absolutte Sandhed er viden og lyksalig glæde (vijñānam ānandaṁ brahma, Bṛhad-āraṇyaka Upaniṣad 3.9.28), og at Han er et reservoir af endeløse lykkebringende kvaliteter (ananta- kalyāṇa-guṇātmako ’sau, Viṣṇu Purāṇa 6.5.84). Og i Bhagavad-gītā (4.6) udtaler Herren, at skønt Han er aja (ufødt), åbenbarer Han sig alligevel. Det er disse kendsgerninger, vi skal nå frem til i vores forståelse af Bhagavad-gītā. Det overgår vores forstand, hvordan Guddommens Højeste Personlighed skulle kunne være upersonlig. Hvad Bhagavad- gītās udtalelser angår, er de upersonlige monisters illusionsteori forkert. Her fremgår det tydeligt, at den Højeste Absolutte Sandhed, Herren Kṛṣṇa, har form såvel som personlighed.