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TEXT 22

TEXT 22

Devanagari

Devanagari

वासांसि जीर्णानि यथा विहाय
नवानि गृह्णाति नरोऽपराणि ।
तथा शरीराणि विहाय जीर्णा-
न्यन्यानि संयाति नवानि देही ॥ २२ ॥

Text

Tekst

vāsāṁsi jīrṇāni yathā vihāya
navāni gṛhṇāti naro ’parāṇi
tathā śarīrāṇi vihāya jīrṇāny
anyāni saṁyāti navāni dehī
vāsāṁsi jīrṇāni yathā vihāya
navāni gṛhṇāti naro ’parāṇi
tathā śarīrāṇi vihāya jīrṇāny
anyāni saṁyāti navāni dehī

Synonyms

Synonyms

vāsāṁsi — garments; jīrṇāni — old and worn out; yathā — just as; vihāya — giving up; navāni — new garments; gṛhṇāti — does accept; naraḥ — a man; aparāṇi — others; tathā — in the same way; śarīrāṇi — bodies; vihāya — giving up; jirṇāni — old and useless; anyāni — different; saṁyāti — verily accepts; navāni — new sets; dehī — the embodied.

vāsāṁsi — rõivad; jīrṇāni — vanad ja kulunud; yathā — täpselt nagu; vihāya — loovutades; navāni — uued rõivad; gṛhṇāti — võtab omaks; naraḥ — inimene; aparāṇi — teised; tathā — samamoodi; śarīrāṇi — kehad; vihāya — loovutades; jīrṇāni — vanad ja kasutud; anyāni — erinevad; saṁyāti — võtab tõesti omaks; navāni — uued; dehī — kehastunu.

Translation

Translation

As a person puts on new garments, giving up old ones, the soul similarly accepts new material bodies, giving up the old and useless ones.

Samamoodi nagu inimene paneb selga uued rõivad, loobudes vanadest, võtab hing omaks uued materiaalsed kehad, loobudes vanadest ning kasututest.

Purport

Purport

Change of body by the atomic individual soul is an accepted fact. Even the modern scientists who do not believe in the existence of the soul, but at the same time cannot explain the source of energy from the heart, have to accept continuous changes of body which appear from childhood to boyhood and from boyhood to youth and again from youth to old age. From old age, the change is transferred to another body. This has already been explained in a previous verse (2.13).

Aatomisuuruse individuaalse hinge kehavahetus on tunnustatud fakt. Isegi kaasaegsed teadlased, kes ei usu hinge olemasolu, kuid ei suuda samal ajal selgitada ka põhjust, miks on elusolendi energia allikaks süda, peavad tunnistama keha pidevat muutumist lapsest noorukiks, noorukist täiskasvanuks ning täiskasvanust vanuriks. Vanadusele järgnev muutus on uude kehasse asetumine. Seda selgitati juba ühes eelnenud värssidest (2.13).

Transference of the atomic individual soul to another body is made possible by the grace of the Supersoul. The Supersoul fulfills the desire of the atomic soul as one friend fulfills the desire of another. The Vedas, like the Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad, as well as the Śvetāśvatara Upaniṣad, compare the soul and the Supersoul to two friendly birds sitting on the same tree. One of the birds (the individual atomic soul) is eating the fruit of the tree, and the other bird (Kṛṣṇa) is simply watching His friend. Of these two birds – although they are the same in quality – one is captivated by the fruits of the material tree, while the other is simply witnessing the activities of His friend. Kṛṣṇa is the witnessing bird, and Arjuna is the eating bird. Although they are friends, one is still the master and the other is the servant. Forgetfulness of this relationship by the atomic soul is the cause of one’s changing his position from one tree to another, or from one body to another. The jīva soul is struggling very hard on the tree of the material body, but as soon as he agrees to accept the other bird as the supreme spiritual master – as Arjuna agreed to do by voluntary surrender unto Kṛṣṇa for instruction – the subordinate bird immediately becomes free from all lamentations. Both the Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad (3.1.2) and Śvetāśvatara Upaniṣad (4.7) confirm this:

Aatomisuuruse individuaalse hinge asetumine uude kehasse saab võimalikuks Ülihinge armu läbi. Ülihing täidab iga aatomisuuruse hinge soovi samamoodi nagu sõber täidab sõbra soovi. „Vedad", näiteks „Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad" ning ka „Śvetāśvatara Upaniṣad", võrdlevad hinge ja Ülihinge kahe sõbraliku linnuga, kes istuvad samal puul. Üks neist (individuaalne hing) sööb selle puu vilju ning teine lind (Kṛṣṇa) lihtsalt jälgib Oma sõbra tegevust. Üks neist lindudest – ehkki nad omavad samu omadusi – on materiaalsuse puu viljade lummuses, samas kui teine on lihtsalt tema tegevuste tunnistajaks. Kṛṣṇa on pealtvaatav lind ning Arjuna lind, kes sööb selle puu vilju. Ehkki nad on sõbrad, on ikkagi üks neist isand ning teine teener. Sellise alluvussuhte unustamine individuaalse hinge poolt ongi põhjuseks, miks ta peab pidevalt puud vahetama ehk teisisõnu ühest kehast teise rändama. Jīva peab sel materiaalse keha puul rasket heitlust, kuid niipea kui ta nõustub aktsepteerima teist lindu kui kõrgeimat vaimset õpetajat, nii nagu Arjuna nõustus vabatahtlikult alistuma Kṛṣṇale, vabaneb teenri rolli omav lind otsekohe kõikidest muredest. Seda kinnitatakse nii „Muṇḍaka Upaniṣadis" (3.1.2) kui „Śvetāśvatara Upaniṣadis" (4.7):

samāne vṛkṣe puruṣo nimagno
’nīśayā śocati muhyamānaḥ
juṣṭaṁ yadā paśyaty anyam īśam
asya mahimānam iti vīta-śokaḥ
samāne vṛkṣe puruṣo nimagno
’nīśayā śocati muhyamānaḥ
juṣṭaṁ yadā paśyaty anyam īśam
asya mahimānam iti vīta-śokaḥ

“Although the two birds are in the same tree, the eating bird is fully engrossed with anxiety and moroseness as the enjoyer of the fruits of the tree. But if in some way or other he turns his face to his friend the Lord and knows His glories – at once the suffering bird becomes free from all anxieties.” Arjuna has now turned his face towards his eternal friend, Kṛṣṇa, and is understanding the Bhagavad-gītā from Him. And thus, hearing from Kṛṣṇa, he can understand the supreme glories of the Lord and be free from lamentation.

„Ehkki need kaks lindu istuvad samal puul, on sööv lind selle puu vilju nautides väga murelik ja tusane, ent kui ta peaks mingil põhjusel pöörama palge oma sõbra poole, kes on Jumal, ja nägema Tema hiilgust, vabaneb ta kohe kõikidest muredest." Arjuna on pööranud näo oma igavese sõbra Kṛṣṇa poole ning omandab nüüd vahetult „Bhagavad-gītā" teadust. Sel moel, kuuldes seda Kṛṣṇalt, mõistab ta Jumala võimsust ja hiilgust ning vabaneb kõikidest muredest.

Arjuna is advised herewith by the Lord not to lament for the bodily change of his old grandfather and his teacher. He should rather be happy to kill their bodies in the righteous fight so that they may be cleansed at once of all reactions from various bodily activities. One who lays down his life on the sacrificial altar, or in the proper battlefield, is at once cleansed of bodily reactions and promoted to a higher status of life. So there was no cause for Arjuna’s lamentation.

Jumal annab siin Arjunale nõu mitte kurvastada oma eaka vanaisa ja õpetaja kehavahetuse üle. Ta peaks olema hoopis rõõmus, hukates neid õiglases võitluses, teades, et seeläbi vabanevad nad oma mitmesuguste kehaliste tegude järelmõjudest. See, kes toob oma elu ohvrialtarile või lahinguväljale, kus võideldakse õigluse eest, vabaneb kohe oma kehaliste tegude järelmõjudest ning saavutab elu kõrgema tasandi. Seega polnud Arjunal kurvastamiseks vähimatki põhjust.