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TEXTS 1-3

TEXTS 1-3

Devanagari

Devanagari

श्रीभगवानुवाच
अभयं सत्त्वसंश‍ुद्धिर्ज्ञानयोगव्यवस्थिति: ।
दानं दमश्च यज्ञश्च स्वाध्यायस्तप आर्जवम् ॥ १ ॥
अहिंसा सत्यमक्रोधस्त्याग: शान्तिरपैश‍ुनम् ।
दया भूतेष्वलोलुप्‍त्वं मार्दवं ह्रीरचापलम् ॥ २ ॥
तेज: क्षमा धृति: शौचमद्रोहो नातिमानिता ।
भवन्ति सम्पदं दैवीमभिजातस्य भारत ॥ ३ ॥

Text

Tekst

śrī-bhagavān uvāca
abhayaṁ sattva-saṁśuddhir
jñāna-yoga-vyavasthitiḥ
dānaṁ damaś ca yajñaś ca
svādhyāyas tapa ārjavam
śrī-bhagavān uvāca
abhayaṁ sattva-saṁśuddhir
jñāna-yoga-vyavasthitiḥ
dānaṁ damaś ca yajñaś ca
svādhyāyas tapa ārjavam
ahiṁsā satyam akrodhas
tyāgaḥ śāntir apaiśunam
dayā bhūteṣv aloluptvaṁ
mārdavaṁ hrīr acāpalam
ahiṁsā satyam akrodhas
tyāgaḥ śāntir apaiśunam
dayā bhūteṣv aloluptvaṁ
mārdavaṁ hrīr acāpalam
tejaḥ kṣamā dhṛtiḥ śaucam
adroho nāti-mānitā
bhavanti sampadaṁ daivīm
abhijātasya bhārata
tejaḥ kṣamā dhṛtiḥ śaucam
adroho nāti-mānitā
bhavanti sampadaṁ daivīm
abhijātasya bhārata

Synonyms

Synonyms

śrī-bhagavān uvāca — the Supreme Personality of Godhead said; abhayam — fearlessness; sattva-saṁśuddhiḥ — purification of one’s existence; jñāna — in knowledge; yoga — of linking up; vyavasthitiḥ — the situation; dānam — charity; damaḥ — controlling the mind; ca — and; yajñaḥ — performance of sacrifice; ca — and; svādhyāyaḥ — study of Vedic literature; tapaḥ — austerity; ārjavam — simplicity; ahiṁsā — nonviolence; satyam — truthfulness; akrodhaḥ — freedom from anger; tyāgaḥ — renunciation; śāntiḥ — tranquillity; apaiśunam — aversion to fault-finding; dayā — mercy; bhūteṣu — towards all living entities; aloluptvam — freedom from greed; mārdavam — gentleness; hrīḥ — modesty; acāpalam — determination; tejaḥ — vigor; kṣamā — forgiveness; dhṛtiḥ — fortitude; śaucam — cleanliness; adrohaḥ — freedom from envy; na — not; ati-mānitā — expectation of honor; bhavanti — are; sampadam — the qualities; daivīm — the transcendental nature; abhijātasya — of one who is born of; bhārata — O son of Bharata.

śrī-bhagavān uvāca — Guddommens Højeste Personlighed sagde; abhayam — frygtløshed; sattva-saṁśuddhiḥ — renselse af ens tilværelse; jñāna — gennem viden; yoga — af at forbinde sig; vyavasthitiḥ — situationen; dānam — velgørenhed; damaḥ — beherskelse af sindet; ca — og; yajñaḥ — udførelse af ofring; ca — og; svādhyāyaḥ — studie af vediske skrifter; tapaḥ — askese; ārjavam — ligefremhed; ahiṁsā — ikke- vold; satyam — sandfærdighed; akrodhaḥ — frihed fra vrede; tyāgaḥ — forsagelse; śāntiḥ — fredfyldthed; apaiśunam — modvilje mod fejlfinderi; dayā — barmhjertighed; bhūteṣu — mod alle levende væsener; aloluptvam — frihed fra grådighed; mārdavam — nænsomhed; hrīḥ — beskedenhed; acāpalam — beslutsomhed; tejaḥ — livskraft; kṣamā — tilgivelse; dhṛtiḥ — mod; śaucam — renlighed; adrohaḥ — frihed fra misundelse; na — ingen; ati-mānitā — forventning om ære; bhavanti — er; sampadam — egenskaberne; daivīm — den transcendentale natur; abhijātasya — hos den, der er født af; bhārata — O Bharatas efterkommer.

Translation

Translation

The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: Fearlessness; purification of one’s existence; cultivation of spiritual knowledge; charity; self-control; performance of sacrifice; study of the Vedas; austerity; simplicity; nonviolence; truthfulness; freedom from anger; renunciation; tranquillity; aversion to faultfinding; compassion for all living entities; freedom from covetousness; gentleness; modesty; steady determination; vigor; forgiveness; fortitude; cleanliness; and freedom from envy and from the passion for honor – these transcendental qualities, O son of Bharata, belong to godly men endowed with divine nature.

Guddommens Højeste Personlighed sagde: Frygtløshed, renselse af ens eksistens, udvikling af åndelig viden, velgørenhed, selvbeherskelse, udførelse af offerhandlinger, studie af Vedaerne, askese, ligefremhed, ikke-vold, sandfærdighed, frihed fra vrede, forsagelse, fredfyldthed, modvilje mod fejlfinderi, medfølelse med alle levende væsener, frihed for havesyge, mildhed, beskedenhed, fast beslutsomhed, livskraft, tilgivelse, mod, renlighed og frihed fra misundelse og det lidenskabelige begær efter ære – disse transcendentale egenskaber tilhører fromme mennesker, der er udstyret med en guddommelig natur, O Bharatas efterkommer.

Purport

Purport

In the beginning of the Fifteenth Chapter, the banyan tree of this material world was explained. The extra roots coming out of it were compared to the activities of the living entities, some auspicious, some inauspicious. In the Ninth Chapter, also, the devas, or godly, and the asuras, the ungodly, or demons, were explained. Now, according to Vedic rites, activities in the mode of goodness are considered auspicious for progress on the path of liberation, and such activities are known as daivī prakṛti, transcendental by nature. Those who are situated in the transcendental nature make progress on the path of liberation. For those who are acting in the modes of passion and ignorance, on the other hand, there is no possibility of liberation. Either they will have to remain in this material world as human beings, or they will descend among the species of animals or even lower life forms. In this Sixteenth Chapter the Lord explains both the transcendental nature and its attendant qualities and the demoniac nature and its qualities. He also explains the advantages and disadvantages of these qualities.

FORKLARING: I begyndelsen af kapitel 15 blev denne materielle verdens banyantræ beskrevet. De ekstra rødder, der udgår fra det, blev sammenlignet med de levende væseners handlinger, hvor nogle er gode og andre dårlige. I kapitel 9 (vers 11–14) blev devaerne, de gudsfrygtige, og asuraerne, de ugudelige eller dæmonerne, beskrevet. Ifølge vedisk tradition bliver handlinger i godhedens kvalitet betragtet som gavnlige for fremskridt på befrielsens vej, og sådanne handlinger kaldes daivī prakṛti, af natur transcendentale. De, der er situeret i den transcendentale natur, gør fremskridt på befrielsens vej. Derimod er der ingen mulighed for befrielse for dem, der handler i lidenskaben og uvidenhedens kvaliteter. De må enten forblive i denne materielle verden som mennesker, eller de falder ned til dyreriget eller endnu lavere livsformer. Her i kapitel 16 forklarer Herren nu både den transcendentale natur og dens ledsagende egenskaber og den dæmoniske natur og dens egenskaber. Han beskriver også fordelene og bagsiderne ved disse egenskaber.

The word abhijātasya in reference to one born of transcendental qualities or godly tendencies is very significant. To beget a child in a godly atmosphere is known in the Vedic scriptures as Garbhādhāna-saṁskāra. If the parents want a child in the godly qualities they should follow the ten principles recommended for the social life of the human being. In Bhagavad-gītā we have studied also before that sex life for begetting a good child is Kṛṣṇa Himself. Sex life is not condemned, provided the process is used in Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Those who are in Kṛṣṇa consciousness at least should not beget children like cats and dogs but should beget them so that they may become Kṛṣṇa conscious after birth. That should be the advantage of children born of a father and mother absorbed in Kṛṣṇa consciousness.

Ordet abhijātasya i forbindelse med den, der er født med transcendentale egenskaber eller guddommelige tilbøjeligheder, er meget vigtigt. At undfange et barn i en Gudsbevidst atmosfære kalder de vediske skrifter for garbhādhāna-saṁskāra. Hvis forældrene gerne vil have et barn med de guddommelige egenskaber, skal de følge de ti principper, der anbefales for menneskets sociale liv. I Bhagavad-gītā har vi også allerede set, at kønsligt samkvem for at få et godt barn er Kṛṣṇa selv. Kønsliv fordømmes ikke, så længe det anvendes i Kṛṣṇa-bevidsthed. De, der er Kṛṣṇa-bevidste, bør i det mindste ikke få børn som hunde og katte, men få dem, så de efter deres fødsel kan blive Kṛṣṇa-bevidste. Det bør være fordelen for børn, hvis far og mor er absorberet i Kṛṣṇa-bevidsthed.

The social institution known as varṇāśrama-dharma – the institution dividing society into four divisions of social life and four occupational divisions or castes – is not meant to divide human society according to birth. Such divisions are in terms of educational qualifications. They are to keep the society in a state of peace and prosperity. The qualities mentioned herein are explained as transcendental qualities meant for making a person progress in spiritual understanding so that he can get liberated from the material world.

Formålet med samfundsinstitutionen varṇāśrama-dharma, der inddeler menneskesamfundet i fire sociale ordener og fire beskæftigelsesmæssige inddelinger eller kaster, er ikke, at samfundet skal opdeles efter fødsel. Disse inddelinger er baseret på uddannelsesmæssige kvalifikationer og har til formål at bevare samfundet i en tilstand af fred og velstand. De her omtalte egenskaber bliver beskrevet som transcendentale egenskaber, hvis formål er at hjælpe en person til at gøre fremskridt i åndelig forståelse, så han kan blive befriet fra den materielle verden.

In the varṇāśrama institution the sannyāsī, or the person in the renounced order of life, is considered to be the head or the spiritual master of all the social statuses and orders. A brāhmaṇa is considered to be the spiritual master of the three other sections of a society, namely, the kṣatriyas, the vaiśyas and the śūdras, but a sannyāsī, who is on the top of the institution, is considered to be the spiritual master of the brāhmaṇas also. For a sannyāsī, the first qualification should be fearlessness. Because a sannyāsī has to be alone without any support or guarantee of support, he has simply to depend on the mercy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. If one thinks, “After I leave my connections, who will protect me?” he should not accept the renounced order of life. One must be fully convinced that Kṛṣṇa or the Supreme Personality of Godhead in His localized aspect as Paramātmā is always within, that He is seeing everything, and He always knows what one intends to do. One must thus have firm conviction that Kṛṣṇa as Paramātmā will take care of a soul surrendered to Him. “I shall never be alone,” one should think. “Even if I live in the darkest regions of a forest I shall be accompanied by Kṛṣṇa, and He will give me all protection.” That conviction is called abhayam, fearlessness. This state of mind is necessary for a person in the renounced order of life.

I varṇāśrama-institutionen betragtes sannyāsīen, personen i forsagelsens orden, som overhoved eller åndelig mester for alle de sociale statusser og ordener. En brāhmaṇa anses for at være åndelig mester for de tre andre samfundsordener – kṣatriyaerne, vaiśyaerne og śūdraerne – men en sannyāsī, som befinder sig i toppen af institutionen, regnes også for brāhmaṇaernes åndelige mester. For en sannyāsī er den første kvalifikation at være frygtløs. Eftersom en sannyāsī skal leve alene uden nogen form for støtte eller garanti for støtte, er han nødt til udelukkende at afhænge af Guddommens Højeste Personligheds barmhjertighed. Hvis man tænker: “Hvem skal passe på mig, når jeg forlader mine venner og slægtninge?”, bør man ikke acceptere forsagelsens orden. Man skal være helt overbevist om, at Kṛṣṇa eller Guddommens Højeste Personlighed i Sit lokaliserede aspekt som Paramātmā altid er til stede inden i én, og at Han ser alt og til enhver tid ved, hvad man har i sinde at gøre. Således skal man være helt overbevist om, at Kṛṣṇa som Paramātmā tager Sig af en sjæl, der har overgivet sig til Ham. “Jeg er aldrig alene,” bør man tænke. “Selv hvis jeg bor ude i den allermørkeste skov, er Kṛṣṇa hos mig, og Han giver mig al beskyttelse.” En sådan overbevisning kaldes abhayam eller frygtløshed. Denne sindstilstand er nødvendig for en person i forsagelsens orden.

Then he has to purify his existence. There are so many rules and regulations to be followed in the renounced order of life. Most important of all, a sannyāsī is strictly forbidden to have any intimate relationship with a woman. He is even forbidden to talk with a woman in a secluded place. Lord Caitanya was an ideal sannyāsī, and when He was at Purī His feminine devotees could not even come near to offer their respects. They were advised to bow down from a distant place. This is not a sign of hatred for women as a class, but it is a stricture imposed on the sannyāsī not to have close connections with women. One has to follow the rules and regulations of a particular status of life in order to purify his existence. For a sannyāsī, intimate relations with women and possession of wealth for sense gratification are strictly forbidden. The ideal sannyāsī was Lord Caitanya Himself, and we can learn from His life that He was very strict in regards to women. Although He is considered to be the most liberal incarnation of Godhead, accepting the most fallen conditioned souls, He strictly followed the rules and regulations of the sannyāsa order of life in connection with association with women. One of His personal associates, namely Choṭa Haridāsa, was associated with Lord Caitanya along with His other confidential personal associates, but somehow or other this Choṭa Haridāsa looked lustily on a young woman, and Lord Caitanya was so strict that He at once rejected him from the society of His personal associates. Lord Caitanya said, “For a sannyāsī or anyone who is aspiring to get out of the clutches of material nature and trying to elevate himself to the spiritual nature and go back home, back to Godhead, for him, looking toward material possessions and women for sense gratification – not even enjoying them, but just looking toward them with such a propensity – is so condemned that he had better commit suicide before experiencing such illicit desires.” So these are the processes for purification.

Dernæst skal han rense sin eksistens. Der findes et væld af regler og forskrifter, man skal følge i forsagelsens orden. Allervigtigst er det, at det er strengt forbudt for en sannyāsī at have nogen form for fortroligt forhold til en kvinde. Det er ham tilmed forbudt at tale alene med en kvinde på et isoleret sted. Herren Caitanya var den ideelle sannyāsī, og da Han boede i Jagannātha Purī, var det forment Hans kvindelige tilhængere at komme tæt på Ham, selv for at vise deres respekt. De måtte bukke sig ned på afstand. Dette er ikke udtryk for had til kvindeklassen generelt, men en regel pålagt sannyāsīer om ikke at have nære forhold til kvinder. For at rense sin tilværelse bliver man nødt til at følge de særlige regler og forskrifter, der gælder for ens pågældende livsstatus. For en sannyāsī er det strengt forbudt at have nære forhold til kvinder eller besidde velstand til sansenydelse. Herren Caitanya var den ideelle sannyāsī, og fra hans liv kan vi lære, at Han var meget striks i forhold til kvinder. Skønt Han bliver anset for at være Guddommens mest storsindede inkarnation, der accepterede de mest faldne sjæle, fulgte Han strengt reglerne og forskrifterne for sannyāsa-ordenen i relation til omgang med kvinder. En af Hans personlige ledsagere, Choṭa Haridāsa, levede sammen med Herren Caitanya og Hans andre fortrolige personlige ledsagere, men på en eller anden måde så denne Choṭa Haridāsa lystent på en ung kvinde, og Herren Caitanya var så striks, at Han omgående udstødte ham fra Sin personlige omgangskreds. Herren Caitanya bemærkede: “Det er forkasteligt for en sannyāsī eller alle andre, der stræber efter at slippe fri af kløerne på den materielle natur og forsøger at ophøje sig til den åndelige natur for at vende hjem, tilbage til Guddommen, at lyste efter materiel besiddelse eller kvinder for at tilfredsstille sanserne. Selv uden at nyde dem, men hvis man bare ser på dem med den mentalitet, er det så forkasteligt, at før man overhovedet har den slags utilladelige begær, burde man begå selvmord.” Så dette er renselsesprocesserne for en sannyāsī.

The next item is jñāna-yoga-vyavasthiti: being engaged in the cultivation of knowledge. Sannyāsī life is meant for distributing knowledge to the householders and others who have forgotten their real life of spiritual advancement. A sannyāsī is supposed to beg from door to door for his livelihood, but this does not mean that he is a beggar. Humility is also one of the qualifications of a transcendentally situated person, and out of sheer humility the sannyāsī goes from door to door, not exactly for the purpose of begging, but to see the householders and awaken them to Kṛṣṇa consciousness. This is the duty of a sannyāsī. If he is actually advanced and so ordered by his spiritual master, he should preach Kṛṣṇa consciousness with logic and understanding, and if one is not so advanced he should not accept the renounced order of life. But even if one has accepted the renounced order of life without sufficient knowledge, he should engage himself fully in hearing from a bona fide spiritual master to cultivate knowledge. A sannyāsī, or one in the renounced order of life, must be situated in fearlessness, sattva-saṁśuddhi (purity) and jñāna-yoga (knowledge).

Det næste punkt er jñāna-yoga-vyavasthitiḥ: at være engageret i udvikling af viden. En sannyāsī skal bruge sit liv på at sprede viden til husholdere og andre, der har glemt, at meningen med livet er åndeligt fremskridt. En sannyāsī tigger fra dør til dør for at forsørge sig selv, men det betyder ikke, at han er en tigger. Ydmyghed er også et af kendetegnene på en transcendentalt situeret person, og af ren og skær ydmyghed går en sannyāsī fra dør til dør, ikke netop for at tigge, men for at møde husholderne og vække dem til Kṛṣṇa-bevidsthed. Dette er sannyāsīens pligt. Hvis han rent faktisk er avanceret og har fået ordre til det af sin åndelige mester, skal han prædike Kṛṣṇa-bevidsthed med logik og forståelse, og hvis han ikke er således avanceret, bør han ikke acceptere forsagelsens orden. Men selv hvis han har accepteret forsagelsens orden uden tilstrækkelig viden, skal han ikke desto mindre hengive sig helt til at høre fra en ægte åndelig mester for at få viden. En sannyāsī, en person i forsagelsens orden, skal være forankret i frygtløshed, sattva-saṁśuddhiḥ (renhed) og jñāna-yoga (viden).

The next item is charity. Charity is meant for the householders. The householders should earn a livelihood by an honorable means and spend fifty percent of their income to propagate Kṛṣṇa consciousness all over the world. Thus a householder should give in charity to institutional societies that are engaged in that way. Charity should be given to the right receiver. There are different kinds of charity, as will be explained later on – charity in the modes of goodness, passion and ignorance. Charity in the mode of goodness is recommended by the scriptures, but charity in the modes of passion and ignorance is not recommended, because it is simply a waste of money. Charity should be given only to propagate Kṛṣṇa consciousness all over the world. That is charity in the mode of goodness.

Dernæst er der velgørenhed. Velgørenhed er for husholderne. Husholderne bør tjene til livets ophold på ærlig vis og anvende halvdelen af deres indkomst til at udbrede Kṛṣṇa-bevidsthed over hele verden. En husholder skal således give i velgørenhed til organisationer, der har dette formål. Velgørenhed skal gives til den rigtige modtager. Der er forskellige former for velgørenhed, hvilket bliver forklaret senere i forbindelse med velgørenhed i godheden, lidenskaben og uvidenhedens kvaliteter. Velgørenhed i godhedens kvalitet anbefales i skrifterne, men velgørenhed i lidenskaben og uvidenhedens kvaliteter anbefales ikke, for det er blot spild af penge. Velgørenhed bør kun gives til udbredelsen af Kṛṣṇa-bevidsthed over hele verden. Det er velgørenhed i godhedens kvalitet.

Then as far as dama (self-control) is concerned, it is not only meant for other orders of religious society, but is especially meant for the householder. Although he has a wife, a householder should not use his senses for sex life unnecessarily. There are restrictions for the householders even in sex life, which should only be engaged in for the propagation of children. If he does not require children, he should not enjoy sex life with his wife. Modern society enjoys sex life with contraceptive methods or more abominable methods to avoid the responsibility of children. This is not in the transcendental quality, but is demoniac. If anyone, even if he is a householder, wants to make progress in spiritual life, he must control his sex life and should not beget a child without the purpose of serving Kṛṣṇa. If he is able to beget children who will be in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, one can produce hundreds of children, but without this capacity one should not indulge only for sense pleasure.

Når det kommer til damaḥ eller selvbeherskelse, gælder det ikke kun for de andre ordener i det religiøse samfund, men er især rettet mod husholderne. Selv om en husholder har en hustru, må han ikke unødvendigt bruge sine sanser på sexliv. Der er begrænsninger selv for husholdere med hensyn til seksuelt samkvem, som man kun bør have for at få børn. Hvis man ikke vil have børn, bør man ikke nyde kønslig omgang med sin kone. Det moderne samfund nyder seksuel omgang med præventive midler eller endnu mere afskyelige metoder for at undgå ansvaret for børn. Dette er ikke transcendentalt, men dæmonisk. Hvis man gerne vil gøre fremskridt i åndeligt liv, bliver man nødt til at beherske sit sexliv, selv hvis man er husholder, og ikke få børn, hvis det ikke er for at tjene Kṛṣṇa. Hvis man kan få børn, der er Kṛṣṇa-bevidste, er det i orden at få hundredvis af børn, men uden denne evne bør man ikke indlade sig på sex blot for at tilfredsstille sine sanser.

Sacrifice is another item to be performed by the householders, because sacrifices require a large amount of money. Those in other orders of life, namely brahmacarya, vānaprastha and sannyāsa, have no money; they live by begging. So performance of different types of sacrifice is meant for the householders. They should perform agni-hotra sacrifices as enjoined in the Vedic literature, but such sacrifices at the present moment are very expensive, and it is not possible for any householder to perform them. The best sacrifice recommended in this age is called saṅkīrtana-yajña. This saṅkīrtana-yajña, the chanting of Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Hare Hare/ Hare Rāma, Hare Rāma, Rāma Rāma, Hare Hare, is the best and most inexpensive sacrifice; everyone can adopt it and derive benefit. So these three items, namely charity, sense control and performance of sacrifice, are meant for the householder.

Offerhandlinger er en anden ting, som husholderne skal udføre, for offerhandlinger kræver store summer penge. De andre ordener, nemlig brahmacarya, vānaprastha og sannyāsa, har ingen penge. De ernærer sig ved at tigge. Så udførelse af forskellige slags offerhandlinger er for husholderne. De skal udføre agni-hotra-ofringer som påbudt i de vediske skrifter, men på nuværende tidspunkt er sådanne offerhandlinger meget bekostelige, så ikke alle husholdere kan udføre dem. Det anbefales derfor, at i denne tidsalder er det bedste offer det, der kaldes for saṅkīrtana-yajña. Dette saṅkīrtana-yajña, sangen af Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Hare Hare/ Hare Rāma, Hare Rāma, Rāma Rāma, Hare Hare, er det bedste og billigste offer. Alle kan gøre det og drage fordel deraf. Så disse tre punkter, nemlig velgørenhed, sansebeherskelse og udførelse af offerhandlinger, gælder for husholderen.

Then svādhyāya, Vedic study, is meant for brahmacarya, or student life. Brahmacārīs should have no connection with women; they should live a life of celibacy and engage the mind in the study of Vedic literature for cultivation of spiritual knowledge. This is called svādhyāya.

Næste punkt, svādhyāyaḥ, vediske studier, gælder for brahmacarya, elevlivet. Brahmacārīer må ingen kontakt have med kvinder. De skal leve i cølibat og holde sindet beskæftiget med at studere den vediske litteratur for at udvikle åndelig viden. Dette kaldes svādhyāyaḥ.

Tapas, or austerity, is especially meant for the retired life. One should not remain a householder throughout his whole life; he must always remember that there are four divisions of life – brahmacarya, gṛhastha, vānaprastha and sannyāsa. So after gṛhastha, householder life, one should retire. If one lives for a hundred years, he should spend twenty-five years in student life, twenty-five in householder life, twenty-five in retired life and twenty-five in the renounced order of life. These are the regulations of the Vedic religious discipline. A man retired from household life must practice austerities of the body, mind and tongue. That is tapasya. The entire varṇāśrama-dharma society is meant for tapasya. Without tapasya, or austerity, no human being can get liberation. The theory that there is no need of austerity in life, that one can go on speculating and everything will be nice, is recommended neither in the Vedic literature nor in Bhagavad-gītā. Such theories are manufactured by show-bottle spiritualists who are trying to gather more followers. If there are restrictions, rules and regulations, people will not become attracted. Therefore those who want followers in the name of religion, just to have a show only, don’t restrict the lives of their students, nor their own lives. But that method is not approved by the Vedas.

Tapas eller askese er især bestemt for det tilbagetrukne liv. Man bør ikke leve som husholder hele livet. Man skal hele tiden huske på, at livet har fire stadier – brahmacarya, gṛhastha, vānaprastha og sannyāsa. Så efter gṛhastha, livet som husholder, skal man trække sig tilbage. Hvis man lever i 100 år, bør man leve 25 år som elev, 25 år i familielivet, 25 år i tilbagetrukket liv og 25 år i forsagelsens orden. Dette er reglerne for den vediske religiøse disciplin. En mand, der har trukket sig tilbage fra familielivet, skal praktisere askese for kroppen, sindet og tungen. Det er tapasya. Hele varṇāśrama-dharma-samfundet handler om tapasya. Uden tapasya eller askese kan intet menneske opnå befrielse. Teorien om, at man ikke behøver askese i livet, at man kan fortsætte med at spekulere, og alt vil være i orden, anbefales hverken i den vediske litteratur eller i Bhagavad-gītā. Sådanne teorier kommer fra pseudospiritualister, der forsøger at hverve tilhængere. Folk er ikke tiltrukket, hvis der er restriktioner, regler og forskrifter. Derfor pålægger de, der i navn af religion forsøger at få tilhængere, ingen indskrænkninger i hverken deres elevers eller deres egne liv. Men den metode anerkendes ikke af Vedaerne.

As far as the brahminical quality of simplicity is concerned, not only should a particular order of life follow this principle, but every member, be he in the brahmacārī āśrama, gṛhastha āśrama, vānaprastha āśrama or sannyāsa āśrama. One should be very simple and straightforward.

Når det kommer til den brahminske egenskab enkelhed eller ligefremhed, skal ikke kun en bestemt orden følge dette princip, men alle medlemmer af samfundsordenen skal overholde den, uanset om man er i brahmacārī-āśramaen, gṛhastha-āśramaen, vānaprastha-āśramaen eller sannyāsa-āśramaen. Man skal være meget enkel og ligefrem.

Ahiṁsā means not arresting the progressive life of any living entity. One should not think that since the spirit spark is never killed even after the killing of the body there is no harm in killing animals for sense gratification. People are now addicted to eating animals, in spite of having an ample supply of grains, fruits and milk. There is no necessity for animal killing. This injunction is for everyone. When there is no alternative, one may kill an animal, but it should be offered in sacrifice. At any rate, when there is an ample food supply for humanity, persons who are desiring to make advancement in spiritual realization should not commit violence to animals. Real ahiṁsā means not checking anyone’s progressive life. The animals are also making progress in their evolutionary life by transmigrating from one category of animal life to another. If a particular animal is killed, then his progress is checked. If an animal is staying in a particular body for so many days or so many years and is untimely killed, then he has to come back again in that form of life to complete the remaining days in order to be promoted to another species of life. So their progress should not be checked simply to satisfy one’s palate. This is called ahiṁsā.

Ahiṁsā vil sige ikke at standse noget levende væsens fremskridt i livet. Man må ikke tro, at bare fordi den levende gnist ikke kan slås ihjel, selv når kroppen slås ihjel, sker der intet ved at slagte dyr for sansenydelsens skyld. Folk er nu forfaldne til at spise dyr på trods af, at de har rigeligt med korn, frugt og mælk. Det er slet ikke nødvendigt at slå dyr ihjel. Dette forbud gælder for alle. Når der intet alternativ er, er det tilladt at dræbe et dyr, men da bør det ofres i en offerhandling. Hvorom alt er, bør de, der gerne vil gøre fremskridt i åndelig erkendelse, ikke begå vold mod dyr, når der er rigeligt med mad til menneskeheden. Virkelig ahiṁsā vil sige, at man ikke forhindrer nogens fremskridt i livet. Dyrene gør også fremskridt i deres udvikling i livet ved at vandre fra én form for dyreliv til en anden. Et dyr, der dræbes, bliver hindret i sit fremskridt. Hvis et dyr skal opholde sig i en vis krop i et bestemt antal dage eller år og bliver dræbt i utide, er det tvunget til at komme tilbage til den samme livsform igen for at udleve den resterende tid, før det kan blive forfremmet til en anden livsart. Så dyrene må ikke bremses i deres fremskridt udelukkende for at tilfredsstille vores smagsløg. Dette kaldes ahiṁsā.

Satyam. This word means that one should not distort the truth for some personal interest. In Vedic literature there are some difficult passages, but the meaning or the purpose should be learned from a bona fide spiritual master. That is the process for understanding the Vedas. Śruti means that one should hear from the authority. One should not construe some interpretation for his personal interest. There are so many commentaries on Bhagavad-gītā that misinterpret the original text. The real import of the word should be presented, and that should be learned from a bona fide spiritual master.

Satyam. Dette ord betyder, at man ikke må fordreje sandheden for sin personlige interesses skyld. I den vediske litteratur er der nogle vanskelige passager, men deres betydning eller formål skal læres fra en ægte åndelig mester. Det er måden, Vedaerne skal forstås på. Śruti betyder, at man skal høre fra en autoritet. Man bør ikke komme med fortolkninger for at tilgodese sine egne interesser. Så mange kommentarer til Bhagavad-gītā fejlfortolker originalteksten. Ordets virkelige betydning skal gives, og den bør man lære fra en ægte åndelig mester.

Akrodha means to check anger. Even if there is provocation one should be tolerant, for once one becomes angry his whole body becomes polluted. Anger is a product of the mode of passion and lust, so one who is transcendentally situated should check himself from anger. Apaiśunam means that one should not find fault with others or correct them unnecessarily. Of course to call a thief a thief is not faultfinding, but to call an honest person a thief is very much offensive for one who is making advancement in spiritual life. Hrī means that one should be very modest and must not perform some act which is abominable. Acāpalam, determination, means that one should not be agitated or frustrated in some attempt. There may be failure in some attempt, but one should not be sorry for that; he should make progress with patience and determination.

Akrodhaḥ betyder at beherske vrede. Selv hvis man bliver provokeret, bør man være tolerant, for når man først bliver vred, forurener det hele ens krop. Vrede er et produkt af lidenskaben og begærets kvalitet, så den, der er transcendentalt situeret, skal afholde sig fra vrede. Apaiśunam betyder, at man ikke må finde fejl hos andre eller unødvendigt irettesætte dem. At kalde en tyv for tyv er selvfølgelig ikke fejlfinderi, men at beskylde en ærlig person for at være en tyv er en alvorlig forseelse for den, der gør fremskridt i åndeligt liv. Hrīḥ betyder, at man skal være meget beskeden og undlade at gøre noget, der er forkasteligt. Acāpalam, beslutsomhed, betyder, at man ikke skal hidse sig op eller miste modet under sine bestræbelser. Måske forpurres ens planer, men det må man ikke lade sig slå ud af. Man skal fortsætte med at gøre fremskridt med tålmodighed og beslutsomhed.

The word tejas used here is meant for the kṣatriyas. The kṣatriyas should always be very strong to be able to give protection to the weak. They should not pose themselves as nonviolent. If violence is required, they must exhibit it. But a person who is able to curb down his enemy may under certain conditions show forgiveness. He may excuse minor offenses.

Ordet tejas (livskraft) gælder for kṣatriyaerne. Kṣatriyaerne skal altid være stærke for at kunne beskytte de svage. De må ikke fremstille sig selv som ikke-voldelige. Hvis der er brug for vold, skal de kunne udvise den. Men en person, der kan holde sin fjende nede, har i visse situationer lov til at vise tilgivelse. Han kan undskylde mindre forseelser.

Śaucam means cleanliness, not only in mind and body but in one’s dealings also. It is especially meant for the mercantile people, who should not deal in the black market. Nāti-mānitā, not expecting honor, applies to the śūdras, the worker class, which are considered, according to Vedic injunctions, to be the lowest of the four classes. They should not be puffed up with unnecessary prestige or honor and should remain in their own status. It is the duty of the śūdras to offer respect to the higher class for the upkeep of the social order.

Śaucam betyder renhed, ikke kun i sind og krop, men specielt i ens adfærd. Det gælder især for handelsstanden, der ikke bør gøre forretning på det sorte marked. Nāti-mānitā, ikke at forvente ære, gælder for śūdraerne, arbejderklassen, der ifølge de vediske forskrifter anses for at være den laveste af de fire samfundsklasser. De må ikke være opblæste over unødvendig ære og prestige, og de skal forblive i deres egen position. Det er śūdraernes pligt at respektere de højere klasser for at bevare samfundsordenen.

All these twenty-six qualifications mentioned are transcendental qualities. They should be cultivated according to the different statuses of social and occupational order. The purport is that even though material conditions are miserable, if these qualities are developed by practice, by all classes of men, then gradually it is possible to rise to the highest platform of transcendental realization.

Alle disse her omtalte 26 kvalifikationer er transcendentale egenskaber. Det er meningen, at de skal kultiveres i relation til de forskellige samfundsmæssige og beskæftigelsesmæssige ordener. Den dybere tanke er, at selv om materielle omstændigheder er lidelsesfyldte, er det muligt gradvist at komme til det højeste niveau af transcendental erkendelse, hvis alle klasser af mennesker udvikler disse egenskaber gennem praksis.